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Neuronal Polarity: Establishment and Maintenance

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455171 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-517-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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The term polarity in a biological context is used to describe an asymmetry in morphology and distribution of molecules. In neurons, their complex shape with typically one axon and several dendrites reflects this asymmetry. Although neurons assume many different shapes and sizes they always maintain these two domains, which are essential for neuronal function. In the most simple view, neurons use their axon to transmit signals over long distances due to its capacity to extend to enormous lengths. Dendrites, on the other hand, are shorter and receive and integrate signals from different locations. The selection of the site where the axon and dendrites initially emerge during embryonic development is a tightly regulated event, eventually important for the correct formation of neuronal circuits, and disturbances of these processes can have pathological consequences due to circuit malformation. An important question is which mechanisms neurons utilize to specify the sites where axonal and dendrite outgrowth occurs and how their identities are maintained during and after development. The formation of these functionally diverse domains is the result of polarized differences of membrane and protein delivery, mitochondria transport, actin dynamics and microtubule stability. However how and in which temporal order all those events which coordinate the selection and maintenance of axons and dendrites is still under investigation. This selection of articles shall highlight new findings, which help to unravel all molecular and cellular events important for neuronal polarity establishment and maintenance.

Mechanisms of Neuronal Migration during Corticogenesis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198863 Year: Pages: 183 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-886-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The cerebral cortex plays central roles in many higher-order functions such as cognition, language, consciousness, and the control of voluntary behavior. These processes are performed by the densely interconnected networks of excitatory pyramidal neurons and inhibitory interneurons, and the balanced development of these two types of neuron is quite important. During cortical development, pyramidal neurons and interneurons show quite different migratory behaviors: radial migration and tangential migration, respectively. Pyramidal neurons are generated in the ventricular zone of the dorsal telencephalon, and migrate radially along radial glial fibers toward the pial surface, forming a six-layered cortical structure in an “ inside-out” manner. On the other hand, cortical interneurons are generated in the medial and caudal ganglionic eminence in the ventral telencephalon, and follow long tangential migratory paths into the cortex. Defects in these migration processes result in abnormalities in the cortical layer structure and neuronal networks, which may cause various neurological and psychiatric conditions such as epilepsy and schizophrenia. Accordingly, besides basic scientific interest, elucidation of the mechanism of neuronal migration is essential for understanding the pathogenesis of these diseases. This Research Topic includes a series of articles ranging from the basic mechanism of neocortical development to the malformation and evolution of the neocortex. We do hope that the present ebook will further stimulate the interest in the fascinating investigations of neuronal migration and corticogenesis.

In vivo Cell Biology of Cerebral Cortical Development and Its Related Neurological Disorders: Cellular Insights into Neurogenesis and Neuronal Migration

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199624 Year: Pages: 268 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-962-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The brain consists of a complex but precisely organized neural network, which provides the structural basis of higher order functions. Such a complex structure originates from a simple pseudostratified neuroepithelium. During the developing mammalian cerebral cortex, a cohort of neural progenitors, located near the ventricle, differentiates into neurons and exhibits multi-step modes of migration toward the pial surface. Tight regulation of neurogenesis and neuronal migration is essential for the determination of the neuron number in adult brains and the proper positioning of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in a specific layer, respectively. In addition, defects in neurogenesis and neuronal migration can cause several neurological disorders, such as microcephaly, periventricular heterotopia and lissencephaly. Recent advances in genetic approaches to study the developing cerebral cortex, as well as the use of a number of novel techniques, particularly in vivo electroporation and time-lapse analyses using explant slice cultures, have significantly increased our understanding of cortical development. These novel techniques have allowed for cell biological analyses of cerebral cortical development in vivo or ex vivo, showing that many cellular events, including endocytosis, cell adhesion, microtubule and actin cytoskeletal regulation, neurotransmitter release, stress response, the consequence of cellular crowding (physical force), dynamics of transcription factors, midbody release and polarity transition are required for neurogenesis and/or neuronal migration. The aim of this research topic is to highlight molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying cerebral cortical development and its related neurological disorders from the cell biological point of views, such as cell division, cell-cycle regulation, cytoskeletal organization, cell adhesion and membrane trafficking. The topic has been organized into three chapters: 1) neurogenesis and cell fate determination, 2) neuronal migration and 3) cortical development-related neurological disorders. We hope that the results and discussions contributed by all authors in this research topic will be broadly useful for further advances in basic research, as well as improvements in the etiology and care of patients suffering from neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Reelin-Related Neurological Disorders and Animal Models

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451111 Year: Pages: 179 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-111-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The Reeler mutation was so named because of the alterations in gait that characterize homozygous mice. Several decades after the description of the Reeler phenotype, the mutated protein was discovered and named Reelin (Reln). Reln controls a number of fundamental steps in embryonic and postnatal brain development. A prominent embryonic function is the control of radial neuronal migration. As a consequence, homozygous Reeler mutants show disrupted cell layering in cortical brain structures. Reln also promotes postnatal neuronal maturation. Heterozygous mutants exhibit defects in dendrite extension and synapse formation, correlating with behavioral and cognitive deficits that are detectable at adult ages. The Reln-encoding gene is highly conserved between mice and humans. In humans, homozygous RELN mutations cause lissencephaly with cerebellar hypoplasia, a severe neuronal migration disorder that is reminiscent of the Reeler phenotype. In addition, RELN deficiency or dysfunction is also correlated with psychiatric and cognitive disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism, as well as some forms of epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease. Despite the wealth of anatomical studies of the Reeler mouse brain, and the molecular dissection of Reln signaling mechanisms, the consequences of Reln deficiency on the development and function of the human brain are not yet completely understood. This Research Topic include reviews that summarize our current knowledge of the molecular aspects of Reln function, original articles that advance our understanding of its expression and function in different brain regions, and reviews that critically assess the potential role of Reln in human psychiatric and cognitive disorders.

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