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Synaptic Plasticity

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ISBN: 9789535132332 9789535132349 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.5772/63260 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Surgery
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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Nerve cells form thousands of contact points, the synapses, to communicate information with other neurons and target cells. Synapses are sites for changes in brain function through modification of synaptic transmission termed synaptic plasticity. The study of synaptic plasticity has flourished over the years with the advancement of technical breakthroughs and is a timely scientific endeavor today just like it was several decades ago. This book contributes to our understanding of synaptic plasticity at the molecular, biochemical, and cellular systems and behavioral level and informs the reader about its clinical relevance. The book contains ten chapters in three sections: (1) ""Mechanisms of Synaptic Plasticity,"" (2) ""Neural Plasticity,"" and (3) ""Plasticity and Neurological Diseases."" The book provides detailed and current reviews in these different areas written by experts in their respective fields. The mechanisms of synaptic plasticity and its relation to neurological diseases are featured prominently as a recurring theme throughout most chapters. This book will be most useful for neuroscientists and other scientists alike and will contribute to the training of current and future students who find the plastic nervous system as fascinating as many generations before them.

Neuroplasticity - Insights of Neural Reorganization

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ISBN: 9781789231946 9781789231953 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68156 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Surgery
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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This book provides comprehensive and up-to-date insights into emerging research trends on neuroplasticity with current or future treatments for neurodevelopment and neurodegenerative diseases. The authors discuss structural and functional changes associated with cortical remapping, sensory substitution, synaptic and non-synaptic compensatory plasticity due to brain damage, brain training, chronic pain, meditation, music, exercise and related states. Key features include pathogenesis, and existing and new therapies together with a pharmacological and non-pharmacological approach in clinical treatment and management. The authors are established experts that contributed significantly to a better understanding of the etiology of neuroplasticity. This book is recommended to healthcare providers, clinical scientists, students and patients.

The Hippocampus - Plasticity and Functions

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ISBN: 9781789233568 9781789233575 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.68877 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Surgery
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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The hippocampus is an important brain region, a true central hub for memory of various kinds and other processes. Neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, drug addiction, and schizophrenia are characterized by hippocampal alterations. The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is a site exhibiting adult neurogenesis. This book covers the topic of the hippocampus from various perspectives. It discusses adult neurogenesis, effect of enriched environments on hippocampal plasticity, and long-term potentiation-associated gene expression. The book also addresses multiscale representations of complex environments and strategies in the hippocampus-dependent spatial tasks. Finally, insight into the hippocampus as a link between negative affect and relapse to psychostimulants is provided. The book collects evidence of various hippocampal functions in healthy and disordered brain.

How Can Development and Plasticity Contribute to Understanding Evolution of the Human Brain?

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198894 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-889-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Humans usually attribute themselves the prerogative of being the pinnacle of evolution. They have large brains with many billion neurons and glial cells, trillions of synapses and besides all, a plastic hardware that may change either subtly or strongly in response to the external environment and internal, mental commands. With this hypercomplex apparatus, they are capable of very sophisticated inward computations and outward behaviors that include self-recognition, metacognition, different forms of language expression and reception, prediction of future events, planning and performing long streams of motor acts, subtle emotional feelings, and many other surprising, almost unbelievable properties. The main challenge for research is: how do we explain this gigantic achievement of evolution? Is it a direct consequence of having acquired a brain larger than our primate ancestors, with huge numbers of computational units? Would it be determined by a particular way these units came to relate to each other, building up logic circuits of powerful capacities? What along development has “made the difference” for the construction of such a complex brain machine? How much of this complexity is innate, how much is sculpted by influence of the external world, by social interaction with our human fellows, and by the history of our own mental trajectory along life? Many specific questions can be asked (albeit not necessarily answered so far) to this purpose: (1) which genomic characteristics make us unique among primates? (2) which of developmental events during and beyond embryogenesis define our brain – prolonged neurogenesis? permanent circuit (re)formation? dynamic synaptogenesis? regressive sculpting of the hardware? all of them? (3) is there anything special about plasticity of the human brain that allows us to build the exquisite individual variability characteristic of our brains? Neuroscience is in need of a synthesis. Perhaps associating concepts derived from developmental neurobiology with evolutionary morphology and physiology, together with those that photograph the human brain in action under influence of the external world, would turn on a light at the end of the tunnel, and we would be able to understand what humans do have that is special – if anything – to explain our success in the Earth.

Neuroplasticity and Neurorehabilitation

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193929 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-392-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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In the history of neuroscience it had long been a virtually axiomatic belief that the mature mammalian nervous system was hardwired and fixed. This view goes back to the work of Louis Broca in the 1850s and has been perhaps most famously articulated by Ramon y Cajal. The immature nervous system was thought to have considerable plasticity, but after maturity the CNS was not considered to be capable of repairing itself after damage. In the last two decades, however, persuasive evidence has been accumulating at an increasing rate that the plasticity of the nervous system persists throughout the lifespan. Beginning 14 years ago, an efficacious form of neurorehabilitation termed Constraint-Induced Movement therapy or CI therapy was shown to produce marked neuroplastic changes in the brain. It has been proposed that CI therapy harnesses neuroplasticity in the service of restoring motor and language function lost as a result of such injuries to the central nervous system as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and cerebral palsy. The proposed journal issue will include articles by the main investigators involved in the development of this body of research. There will also be articles on the role of neurogenesis in the recovery of function after CNS damage encouraged by the stimulation of endogenous stem cell production, exogenous stem cell implantation, and pharmacological means. There will also be two articles describing the work carried out to date on the use of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (TDCS) to increase the excitability of the brain in order to enhance the recovery of function after stroke.

Educational Neuroscience, Constructivist Learning, and the Mediation of Learning and Creativity in the 21st Century

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195190 Year: Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-519-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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The advent of educational neuroscience, a transdisciplinary exercise emerging from cognitive neuroscience and educational psychology, is the examination of physiological processes that undermine, support, and enhance the capacities to learn and create. The physiological underpinnings of learning and creativity each impact human ability and performance and mediate the processes of becoming educated, expert, and valued. Evidence of learning provides support to an ongoing canon, process, system, field or domain, while evidence of creativity results in an elaboration or departure from an ongoing canon, process, system, field, or domain. Educational neuroscience extends a challenge to scholars from multiple contexts to engage in the characterization and exploration of human ability and performance in these realms. The role of context, both environmental and interoceptive, is an integral part of efforts in educational neuroscience and in theories of constructivist learning to contribute ecologically valid insight to the pragmatic processes of learning and creativity. Examination at this level of specificity is vital to our ability to educate and support human potential in the 21st century. This Research Topic examines the neural basis of cognitive states and processes that influence knowledge and skill acquisition tied to the demonstration of human ability and performance across individual differences and in multiple contexts including STEM learning and the arts.

Cognitive and Brain Plasticity Induced by Physical Exercise, Cognitive Training, Video Games and Combined Interventions

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455072 Year: Pages: 646 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-507-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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The premise of neuroplasticity on enhancing cognitive functioning among healthy as well as cognitively impaired individuals across the lifespan, and the potential of harnessing these processes to prevent cognitive decline attract substantial scientific and public interest. Indeed, the systematic evidence base for cognitive training, video games, physical exercise and other forms of brain stimulation such as entrain brain activity is growing rapidly. This Research Topic (RT) focused on recent research conducted in the field of cognitive and brain plasticity induced by physical activity, different types of cognitive training, including computerized interventions, learning therapy, video games, and combined intervention approaches as well as other forms of brain stimulation that target brain activity, including electroencephalography and neurofeedback. It contains 49 contributions to the topic, including Original Research articles (37), Clinical Trials (2), Reviews (5), Mini Reviews (2), Hypothesis and Theory (1), and Corrections (2).

Selected Papers from CUBANNI 2017—“The Fourth International Workshop of Neuroimmunology”

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038974871 / 9783038974888 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-488-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Neurology --- Arts in general
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-04 12:03:12
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Starting from the most interesting papers presented at CUBANNI 2017, the First International Meeting of the Cuban Network of Neuroimmunology, this eBook covers the most up-to-date findings on neuroimmunology research. The topics of the selected papers range from clinical to pre-clinical models, as well as in vitro basic research. Scientific areas covered are autism spectrum disorders, epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, and seizures, with emphasis on epigenetics and experimental models. Neuroinflammation, neuroplasticity, and neurodegenerative processes, biomarker discovery, and the molecular pathways involved are proposed. Additionally as one of the most current and relevant topics published, Tamara da Silva Vaccaro et al proved relevant results on “Alterations in the MicroRNA and their effects on Epigenetic Regulation and Potential Biomarkers in ASD” and Lázaro Gómez et al also published interesting results on Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Therapeutic Strategies to Spinal Cord Injury

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ISBN: 9783038974062 9783038974079 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-407-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-12 10:33:09
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.This Special Issue gathers eight research articles covering a broad range of strategies on how to combat spinal cord injuries, from searching for therapeutic target molecules, tackling inflammatory reactions, utilizing cell therapy or cell-based products, combined strategies for axonal plasticity assessment, and prevention of post-surgical epidural adhesions. Moreover, four reviews cover recent findings about the role of stress-activated protein kinases in SCI; progress in stem cell therapies; the mechanisms and benefits of activity-based physical rehabilitation therapies with adjuvant testosterone; and, finally, translational regenerative therapies for chronic spinal cord injury.

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