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Biology of Brain Disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453801 Year: Pages: 586 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-380-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology --- Physiology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Brain disorders, including neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions, represent a challenge for public health systems and society at large. The limited knowledge of their biology hampers the development of diagnostic tools and effective therapeutics. A clear understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the onset and progression of brain disorders is required in order to identify new avenues for therapeutic intervention.Overlapping genetic risk factors across different brain disorders suggest common linkages and pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie brain disorders. Methodological and technological advances are leading to new insights that go beyond traditional hypotheses. Taking account of underlying molecular, cellular and systems biology underlying brain function will play an important role in the classification of brain disorders in future.In this Research Topic, the latest advances in our understanding of biological mechanisms across different brain disorders are presented. The areas covered include developments in neurogenetics, epigenetics, plasticity, glial cell biology, neuroimmune interactions and new technologies associated with the study of brain function. Examples of how understanding of biological mechanisms are translating into research strategies that aim to advance diagnoses and treatment of brain disorders are discussed.

Cell and molecular signaling, and transport pathways involved in growth factor control of synaptic development and function

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196432 Year: Pages: 112 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-643-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Brain derived neurotophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) signaling has been extensively studied for its roles in the central nervous system (CNS) ranging from cell survival, axonal and dendritic growth and synapse formation. Intracellular signaling pathways triggered by BDNF activate gene transcription, translation, post-translational functions, trafficking of key synaptic proteins, and synaptic release mechanism. BDNF-TrkB signaling mediates long-lasting activity-modulated synaptic changes on excitatory and inhibitory neurons and plays significant roles in circuit development and modulation. Furthermore, this pathway is critical for learning, memory, sensory processing and other cognitive functions, and is implicated in neurological and psychiatric diseases. In addition to BDNF, more recent studies have identified new “growth” factors that play important roles in the development, maturation and maintenance and modulation of synaptic function. However, details of the cytoplamic signaling systems downstream of these synaptogenic factors are often less understood than conventional neurotophin signaling. This e-Book has collected original studies and review articles that present cellular and molecular mechanisms concerning activity-dependent synapse formation and their implications for behavior and brain disorders. It is our hope that readers will perceive this volume as a showcase for diversity and complexity of synaptogenic growth factors, and will stimulate further studies in this field.

Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders: Convergence of preclinical and clinical evidence

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196791 Year: Pages: 283 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-679-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and etc., represent a serious medical and socioeconomic problems. These diseases are often accompanied by impairments of cognitive function, e.g., abstract thinking, decision-making, attention, and several types of memory. Such deficits significantly disrupt quality of life and daily functioning of patients. Cognitive deficits in neuropsychiatric diseases are associated with alterations of brain morphology and function, and are often resistant to therapeutic interventions. In schizophrenia and related disorders, cognitive deficits are also defined as endophenotypes, i.e. measurable phenotypes linking these disaeses with discrete heritable and reproducible traits. This points to the importance of elucidating these endophenotypes in translational studies. Animal models may not mimic the full spectrum of clinical symptoms, but may act as analogies of particular behaviors or other pathological outcomes. They are useful to search for the etiology of particular psychiatric illnesses and novel therapeutics. Moreover, several behavioral tests to measure cognitive performance in rodents and other species have been implemented. The primary focus of the present topic is to provide up-to-date information on cognitive deficits of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. This Research Topic also delineates future directions for translational studies aimed at developing novel treatments/interventions of cognitive disturbances.

Neuroglia Molecular Mechanisms in Psychiatric Disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456987 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-698-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Neuropsychiatric disorders have long been considered as specific dysfunctions of neuronal functions. Studies of the recent decade, however, have challenged this simplistic view, highlighting the important role played by neuroglial cells in the onset and/or progression of neuropsychiatric diseases. In the central nervous system (CNS) non-excitable neuroglia are represented by cells of ectodermal origin (astrocytes, mainly responsible for CNS homeostasis and oligodendrocytes that provide myelination and support for axons) and mesodermal origin (microglial cells that are scions of foetal macrophages entering the neural tube early in development; these cells provide for CNS defence and contribute to shaping neuronal networks). Pathological changes of neuroglia are complex; these changes are classified into reactive gliosis (astrogliosis, activation of microglia and hypertrophy of oligodendroglial precursors), gliodegeneration with loss of function and glial pathological remodelling. Combination of these processes defines the evolution of neurological diseases in general and neuropsychiatric disorders in particular.In this research topic we addressed the contribution of neuroglia to major neuropsychiatric pathologies including major depression, schizophrenia, and addictive disorders.

New Perspectives in Neurosteroids action: a Special Player Allopregnanolone

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195558 Year: Pages: 86 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-555-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Early in the 80’s date the first observations on the existence of hormonal steroids that may be synthesized and act in the nervous system. In order to refer to these endogenous steroids, proved important to control both central and peripheral nervous system, it was proposed the term “neurosteroids” (NSs). Over the years, their importance in regulating the physiological functions of neuronal and glial cells increased progressively. These steroids can be involved in several pathophysiological conditions such as depression, anxiety, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), schizophrenia and Alzheimer disease. Among the different classes of NSs, the progestagens revealed particularly important. The progesterone metabolite 5a-pregnan-3a-ol-20-one, also named tetrahydroprogesterone or allopregnanolone (ALLO) was one of the first most important steroid that was originally shown to act as neurosteroid. ALLO is synthesized through the action of the 5aR-3a-HSD, which converts P into DHP and subsequently, via a bidirectional reaction, into ALLO. NSs exert complex effects in the nervous system through ‘classic’, genomic, and ‘non-classic’, non-genomic actions. ALLO displays a rapid ‘non-genomic’ effect, which mainly involves the potent modulation of the GABA type A (GABA-A) receptor function. Recently a membrane receptor has been identified as target for ALLO effects, i.e. the membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) that are able to activate a signalling cascade through G protein dependent mechanisms. By these ways, ALLO is able to modulate several cell functions, acting as neurogenic molecule on neural progenitor cells, as well as by activating proliferation and differentiation of glial cells in the central and peripheral nervous system. In this topic, we review the most recent acquisitions in the field of neurosteroids, focusing our attention on ALLO because its effects on the physiology of neurons and glial cells of the central and peripheral nervous system are intriguing and could potentially lead to the development of new strategies for neuroprotection and/or regeneration of injured nervous tissues and for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.

Serotonin and Memory

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198023 Year: Pages: 129 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-802-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The study of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) systems has benefited from the identification, classification and cloning of multiple 5-HT receptors (5-HT1 to 5-HT7). Increasing evidence suggests that 5-HT pathways, reuptake site/transporter complex and 5-HT receptors represent a strategic distribution for learning and memory. A key question still remaining is whether 5-HT markers (e.g., receptors) are directly or indirectly contributing to the physiological and pharmacological basis of memory and its pathogenesis or, rather, if they represent protective or adaptable mechanisms. Certainly, Alzheimer´s disease (AD) is a very complex neuropsychiatric disorder, where memory becomes progressively dysfunctional resulting in amnesia and dementia, whereas forgetting is a physiological phenomenon occurring all the time as adaptive mechanism. As dysfunctional memory occurs in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, stroke, post-traumatic stress disorder. Hence, the aim of this call is collect recent and important findings related to information about serotonin and memory or 5-HT and learning or 5-HT and memory or serotonin and learning.

New Research in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Major Depression

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ISBN: 9783039210909 / 9783039210916 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-091-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:07
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Major depression and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) are now recognized among the most frequent psychiatric disorders, affecting 16–17% and 2–3% of the general population, respectively. They are commonly characterized by: i) a high level of psychiatric and somatic comorbidities; ii) a recurrence or chronic profile; and iii) a negative impact on daily functions, thereby leading to a profound impairment of quality of life. Despite significant advances in pharmacological and psychological therapies over the last decades, unsuccessful responses to standard treatment strategies are classically observed in approximately 20–30% of cases. Therefore, there is a significant need for improving the pathophysiological knowledge through a better identification of environmental, clinical, psychological, genetic, anatomical, and biological determinants, specifically implied in the development, the phenotypic expression, and the relapsing course and/or contributing to the therapeutic failure in major depression and OCD. We are convinced that this research approach is particularly relevant providing critical support for the promotion of innovative treatment alternatives potentially useful for the management of resistant forms of major depression and OCD.

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