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NATO, Neutrality and National Identity: the case of Austria and Hungary

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ISBN: 9783205770756 Year: Pages: 488 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_437135 Language: English
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 3429
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:48:34
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When the cold war was over, a vehement discussion of the new alternatives in security policy started in almost all former Warsaw-Pact States and in the neutral and nonaligned nations, Austria and Hungary among the latter. These nations' entry into the NATO has been the pivotal question. These discussions were the subject of comparative research that was done in Hungary and Austria. The results are presented in the book "NATO, Neutrality and National Identity - the Case of Ausria and Hungary".The book does not focus on the manifold security problems that the concerned nations' joining of NATO would entail but deals with the discourses and debates on neutrality and NATO. The argumentation strategies that were applied in these discourses and debates touch on important motives of national identity and are thus creating identity. Moreover, the NATO discussion is a discussion on security policy and national identity at the same time. The authors' intention was to clarify the dimension relating to identity in the NATO discussion by analyzing the argumentation strategies that were used by the advocates and opponents of NATO membership and the reception of typical arguments in various public opinions. In many cases the argumentation strategies are based on historicizing ways of thinking which claim that there are historical reasons for choosing either of the alternatives (NATO or neutrality). In Hungary, discussions focus on the question whether Hungary is historically an organic part of Europe or whether its own identity will only materialize if the nation adopts a special course between the western and the eastern world. In Austria, the consequences of a potential renunciation of neutrality, one of the most important elements of modern Austrian identity, has been made a subject of passionate discussion. The book analyzes the issues of creating identity by discussion both from a historical-sociological standpoint and from the angle of discourse analysis. The individual chapters deal with comparative studies of the change and upheaval in the national identities in Hungary and Austria. Although these specific analyses are intended to be case studies, they allow generalizations on all of central Europe. The individual corpora (opinion surveys, political speeches, focus groups, talk-shows, newspapers), having been selected so as to ensure comparability, are subjected to a comparative and interdisciplinary analysis and interpretation. Following the introduction - problems are defined from the standpoint of history and political science - the complex discourses from focus group discussions and the outcomes of opinion surveys are presented and analyzed, and newspapers, TV talk-shows and speeches held on days of remembrance are presented applying the methods of discourse analysis. Against this backdrop a comprehensive picture of the identity discourses develops. In the introduction and concluding remarks the two editors draw theoretical and methodical conclusions for interdisciplinary and comparative studies.

The Sociocultural Context of Psychosocial Interventions

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456482 Year: Pages: 124 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-648-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology --- Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Across diverse academic fields, scholars and practitioners are engaged in developing interventions to promote outcomes like health and quality of life. Indeed, such is the apparent efficacy of such interventions, that there are many policy-led initiatives to implement these at national and international scales. However, few scholars or practitioners have thought in any systematic and critical way about the importance of contextualizing these interventions, i.e., considering how the impact of such interventions may be affected and mediated by specific sociocultural factors (from gender, to ethnicity and socio-economics).The aim of the Research Topic “The Sociocultural Context of Psychosocial Interventions” was to address this lacuna. As such, we tried to help bringing a more ‘contextual’ mindset to the implementation of health and wellbeing interventions. This may help to shift the way such interventions are designed and implemented, both at a granular local level (i.e., influencing individual practitioners) and at a large-scale macro level (e.g., influencing policy makers).Themes within this Research Topic have concerned both macro-sociocultural as well as meso-and micro-layers, and the peculiarities of implementing real world research based on these levels. There has been room for physical and mental health, for family relationships, for educational contexts and even for the effects of crime. Some works have included interesting methodological discussions on the integration of different ecological layers or the modal distribution of our interests.For us it has been very important to work giving a greater diffusion to these issues since, considering psychosocial interventions in the context in which they occur, goes beyond an epistemological or methodological discussion. Rather, these considerations seriously affect the ability of practitioners to really reach the people who need their interventions, listening to their needs and respecting their preferences. For the editors of this book, then, the contextualization of interventions means considering the people who receive them as full citizens immersed in complex societies where factors such as social justice and health or well-being do not float apart in space but affect each other dialectically. We therefore think that the duty of both academics and practitioners is not to forget that it is as important to evaluate the direct effect of our interventions as the influence we have in the society as a whole when we carry them out.We hope you enjoy reading these works and that their dissemination stimulates new lines of research committed to both good practice and social transformation.

The Politics of Micro-Decisions: Edward Snowden, Net Neutrality, and the Architectures of the Internet

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Book Series: Digital Cultures ISBN: 9783957960405 9783957960412 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.14619/005 Language: English
Publisher: meson press
Subject: Media and communication
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-15 14:40:54
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Be it in the case of opening a website, sending an email, or high-frequency trading, bits and bytes of information have to cross numerous nodes at which micro-decisions are made. These decisions concern the most efficient path through the network, the processing speed, or the priority of incoming data packets. Despite their multifaceted nature, micro-decisions are a dimension of control and surveillance in the twenty-first century that has received little critical attention. They represent the smallest unit and the technical precondition of a contemporary network politics – and of our potential opposition to it. The current debates regarding net neutrality and Edward Snowden’s revelation of NSA surveillance are only the tip of the iceberg. What is at stake is nothing less than the future of the Internet as we know it.

Network neutrality: From policy to law to regulation

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ISBN: 9781526105479 Year: Pages: 304 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_622853 Language: English
Publisher: Manchester University Press
Subject: Computer Science --- Media and communication --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-27 11:01:23
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"This study explains the concept of network neutrality and its history as an extension of the rights and duties of common carriers, as well as its policy history as examined in US and European regulatory proceedings from 1999. The book compares national and regional legislation and regulation of net neutrality from an interdisciplinary and international perspective. It also examines the future of net neutrality battles in Europe, the United States and in developing countries such as India and Brazil, and explores the case studies of Specialized Services and Content Delivery Networks for video over the Internet, and zero rating or sponsored data plans. Finally, Network neutrality offers co-regulatory solutions based on FRAND and non-exclusivity. This is a must-read for researchers and advocates in net neutrality debate, and those interested in the context of communications regulation, law and economic regulation, human rights discourse and policy, and the impact of science and engineering on policy and governance."

Religions and Psychotherapies

ISBN: 9783906980775 9783906980782 Year: Pages: 236 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-01-12 11:41:57
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The birth of modern psychotherapies—along with the birth of psychology as a science on one side and with psychoanalysis, other depth-psychological treatments and behavioral therapies in addition to medical treatments of psychological disorders on the other side—in the 19th and 20th centuries was accompanied by positivistic and mechanistic paradigms underlying empirical research and claims of scientific dignity [1]. Affirmations which could not be tested or observed empirically had to be excluded from science—including any kind of metaphysics and religious belief, notwithstanding pioneering studies by William James [2], Granville Stanley Hall, James Henry Leuba and Edwin Diller Starbuck [3] for psychology in general and for psychology of religion(s) in particular. In particular, the critique of religions by Sigmund Freud has continuously exerted a strong impact in the fields of psychiatry and psychotherapies; in addition, regarding psychodynamics and symptoms of psychic disorders, religious phenomena in the lives of patients may be just as affected as other cognitive and emotional aspects and behaviors [4]. Consequently, religious experience and religious behavior of patients in psychiatry and psychotherapies have rarely been object of research and teaching apart from predominantly symptomatic and pathogenic perspectives. [...]

The Netherlands Indies and the Great War, 1914-1918

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Book Series: Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde ISBN: 9789067183086 9789004260474 Year: Volume: 254 Pages: xiii + 674 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_389234 Language: English
Publisher: Brill
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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World War I had just broken out, but colonial authorities in the Netherlands Indies heaved a sigh of relief: The colonial export sector had not collapsed and war offered new economic prospects; representatives from the Islamic nationalist movement had prayed for God to bless the Netherlands but had not seized upon the occasion to incite unrest. Furthermore, the colonial government, impressed by such shows of loyalty, embarked upon a campaign to create a ‘native militia’, an army of Javanese to assist in repulsing a possible Japanese invasion. - 

- Yet there were other problem: pilgrims stranded in Mecca, the pro-German disposition of most Indonesian Muslims because of the involvement of Turkey in the war, and above all the status of the Netherlands Indies as a smuggling station used by Indian revolutionaries and German agents to subvert British rule in Asia.

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- By 1917 the optimism of the first war years had disappeared. Trade restrictions, the war at sea, and a worldwide lack of tonnage caused export opportunities to dwindle. Communist propaganda had radicalized the nationalist movement. In 1918 it seemed that the colony might cave in. Exports had ceased. Famine was a very real danger. There was increasing unrest within the colonial population and the army and navy. Colonial authorities turned to the nationalist movement for help, offering them drastic political concessions, forgotten as soon as the war ended. The political and economic independence gained by the Netherlands Indies, a result of problems in communications with the mother country, was also lost with the end of the war.

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- Kees van Dijk examines how in 1917 the atmosphere of optimism in the Netherlands Indies changed to one of unrest and dissatisfaction, and how after World War I the situation stabilized to resemble pre-war political and economic circumstances.

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- Kees van Dijk (1946) has worked as a researcher at KITLV/Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies from 1968 to 2007 and has been professor of the history of Islam in Indonesia at Leiden University since 1985. Among his publications are Rebellion under the banner of Islam; The Darul Islam in Indonesia (Leiden, KITLV Press 1981) and A country in despair; Indonesia between 1997 and 2000 (Leiden, KITLV Press 2001).

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