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Brain Cholinergic Mechanisms

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197149 Year: Pages: 127 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-714-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Abstract

Much of our understanding of brain physiology has focused on what one might call, first order processes. These essentially include the primary synaptic mechanisms underlying excitation (mainly glutamate) and inhibition (mainly GABA). Our attention has focused on how the balance of excitation and inhibition regulates the timing, patterns, and extent of information flow across various circuits. A lot less is understood regarding second order processes that sculpt and modify these primary interactions. One such modulatory transmitter in the brain is acetylcholine (ACh). The importance of ACh in modulating various behaviors related to learning, memory, and attention has been recognized over the last four decades as has its involvement in various neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. However, our understanding of the mechanistic bases for these actions is at its infancy, at best and much remains to be understood. The array of receptor subtypes for nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, their different locations, and complex signal transduction mechanisms remain a puzzle. Transmitter (ACh) release sites and their relationship to receptor loci are poorly understood. Overall, we lack a unifying framework for conceptualizing how disparate actions of the transmitter on receptors lead to circuit modulation and, eventually, influences on cognition. By its very nature, reports on cholinergic signaling are quite scattered, presented in journals across sub-disciplines and in the context of the systems they modulate. Hence, there is need for consolidation of these studies under a single cover that would allow one to compare and contrast the effects of this transmitter across systems and contexts. This special issue represents one such compilation. The issue addresses cholinergic modulation of defined circuits that lead to specific behaviors and consists of a judicious mixture of review articles and primary papers. The articles focus on three aspects of the system: 1) Cellular targets of cholinergic signaling. 2) Receptor mechanisms. 3) Endogenous transmitter distribution and action. While no common mechanism emerges that can explain cholinergic actions on brain functions, on can postulate that the transmitter system is dynamic, modulating the balance of excitation and inhibition in various circuits. This modulation sets up timed network oscillations and it is tempting to speculate that these oscillations form a template for better encoding of afferent inputs. One can broadly envision the role of the cholinergic system as facilitating processes that allow for more efficient acquisition of learning and engraving of memories. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying tonic and stimulus-dependent release of ACh and how it alters firing templates of neuronal networks would be the first step towards elucidating its role in learning and memory. This special topics edition provides clues to some of the actions of ACh. It is hoped that the articles allow the reader to extract common themes and potential mechanisms of cholinergic regulation that will lead to elucidation of general principles governing the actions of this important neuromodulator.

Auditory Efferent System: New Insights from Cortex to Cochlea

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199358 Year: Pages: 119 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-935-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The main function of the sensory systems is the transducing of external stimuli into bioelectrical signals, which are conducted through afferent pathways from sensory epithelia to the brain. However, it is known that descending projections are ubiquitous in the different sensory modalities, and in the case of auditory efferents connect the cerebral cortex with sensory receptor cells. Several functions have been attributed to the efferent system, including protection to acoustic trauma, unmasking of auditory stimuli in background noise, balance of interaural sensitivity and some cognitive functions like modulation of cochlear sensitivity during selective attention to auditory or visual stimuli. In addition there is evidence of a possible involvement of the efferent system in the etiology or treatment of some clinical pathologies like tinnitus. In this e-book, entitled “Auditory Efferent System: New Insights from Cortex to Cochlea”, we aimed to give an overview of the advances concerning the descending projections from the auditory cortex to subcortical nuclei and the olivocochlear system. In addition, different theoretical proposals of efferent functions are presented. We think that this e-book is an important contribution to the understanding of the efferent system in mammals, merging auditory-cortex literature with studies performed in the olivocochlear system.

Neuroproteomics

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ISBN: 9783039281060 9783039281077 Year: Pages: 318 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-107-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The Neuroproteomics Special Issue overviews the unique challenges that must be addressed to carry out meaningful MS/proteomics analyses on neural tissues and the technologies that are available to meet these challenges. The articles on Alzheimer’s disease, addiction, and schizophrenia illustrate how MS/proteomics technologies can be used to improve our ability to diagnose and understand the molecular basis for neurological diseases. Several articles will be of interest to investigators beyond the field of neurological disorders. The review on the discovery of biofluid biomarkers of neurodegenerative dementias will be of interest to investigators searching for other disease biomarkers. Similarly, the review on the role of neuroproteomics in elucidating mechanisms of drug addiction provides an overview of the utility of MS/proteomics approaches for addressing critical questions in addiction neuroscience that should be applicable to investigators involved in virtually any area of biomedical research. Likewise, the article on developing targeted MS approaches for quantifying postsynaptic density proteins will be useful for any investigator who wishes to design targeted assays for virtually any protein. Finally, the peroxidase-mediated proximity labeling technology, described in the article on mapping the proteome of the synaptic cleft, will be of interest to investigators interested in mapping other spatially restricted proteomes.

Keywords

proteomics --- basal ganglia --- synapses --- synapse specificity --- neuronal circuits --- axons --- dendrites --- neurodegeneration --- synapse --- postsynaptic --- proteome --- mass spectrometry --- protein interaction networks --- connectome --- neurodegeneration --- Alzheimer’s disease --- cerebrospinal fluid --- plasma --- serum --- proteomics --- biomarkers --- LC-MS/MS --- cocaine --- addiction --- cytokine --- neuroimmune --- ventral tegmental area --- peptidylglycine ?-amidating monooxygenase --- cilia --- mating --- signal peptide --- prohormone convertase --- carboxypeptidase --- matrix metalloproteinase --- subtilisin --- pherophorin --- morphine --- opioid receptors --- conformational antibody --- analgesia --- GPCR signaling --- phosphorylation --- AMPA receptor complex --- transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein --- synaptic plasticity --- adolescence --- corticosterone --- proteomics --- yohimbine --- progressive ratio --- reinstatement --- ethanol --- nicotinic receptor --- CaMKII --- PKA --- quantitative phosphoproteomics --- mouse --- phosphorylation --- nicotine --- proteomics --- proteome --- mass spectrometry --- Alzheimer’s disease --- protein aggregation --- laser capture microdissection --- splicing --- U1 snRNP --- synapse --- synaptic cleft --- trans-synaptic adhesion --- proximity labeling --- SynCAM --- Cadm --- Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase zeta --- R-PTP-zeta --- Ptprz1 --- neuroproteome --- drug abuse --- neuropeptidomics --- phosphorylation --- interactome --- cell type --- neuroscience --- proteomics --- mass spectrometry --- neuron --- proximity labeling --- affinity chromatography --- neuroproteomics --- biotinylation --- amphetamine --- spinophilin --- protein phosphatase-1 --- dopamine --- striatum --- mass spectroscopy --- bioinformatics --- FGF14 --- voltage gated channels --- schizophrenia --- autism --- Alzheimer’s Disease --- sex-specific differences --- synaptic plasticity --- cognitive impairment --- excitatory/inhibitory tone --- n/a --- postsynaptic density --- PSD --- parallel reaction monitoring --- PRM --- targeted proteomics --- data-independent acquisition --- DIA --- quantitative mass spectrometry --- n/a

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