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The Impact of Microorganisms on Consumption of Atmospheric Trace Gases

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453269 Year: Pages: 201 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-326-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Abstract

Gases with a mixing ratio of less than one percent in the lower atmosphere (i.e. the troposphere) are considered as trace gases. Numerous of these trace gases originate from biological processes in marine and terrestrial ecosystems. These gases are of relevance for the climate as they contribute to global warming or to the troposphere’s chemical reactive system that builds the ozone layer or they impact on the stability of aerosols, greenhouse, and pollutant gases. These reactive trace gases include methane, a multitude of volatile organic compounds of biogenic origin (bVOCs) and inorganic gases such as nitrogen oxides or ozone. The regulatory function of microorganisms for trace gas cycling has been intensively studied for the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide and methane, but is less well understood for microorganisms that metabolize molecular hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or bVOCs. The studies compiled in this Research Topic reflect this very well. While a number of articles focus on nitrous oxide and methane or carbon monoxide oxidation, only a few articles address conversion processes of further bVOCs. The Research Topic is complemented by three review articles about the consumption of methane and monoterpenes, as well as the role of the phyllosphere as a particular habitat for trace gas-consuming microorganisms, and point out future research directions in the field. The presented scientific work illustrates that the field of microbial regulation of trace glas fluxes is still in its infancy when one broadens the view on gases beyond methane and nitrous oxide. However, there is a societal need to better predict global dynamics of trace gases that impact on the functionality and warming of the troposphere. Upcoming modelling approaches will need further information on process rates, features and distribution of the driving microorganisms to fulfill this demanding task.

Catalysts Deactivation, Poisoning and Regeneration

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039215461 / 9783039215478 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-547-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Abstract

Catalyst lifetime represents one of the most crucial economic aspects in industrial catalytic processes, due to costly shutdowns, catalyst replacements, and proper disposal of spent materials. Not surprisingly, there is considerable motivation to understand and treat catalyst deactivation, poisoning, and regeneration, which causes this research topic to continue to grow. The complexity of catalyst poisoning obviously increases along with the increasing use of biomass/waste-derived/residual feedstocks and with requirements for cleaner and novel sustainable processes. This book collects 15 research papers providing insights into several scientific and technical aspects of catalyst poisoning and deactivation, proposing more tolerant catalyst formulations, and exploring possible regeneration strategies.

Keywords

hydrogenation --- copper --- catalyst --- water --- deactivation --- octanal --- octanol --- V2O5–WO3/TiO2 catalysts --- poisoning --- sulfur-containing sodium salts --- SO3 --- NO removal --- Cu/SSZ-13 --- NH3-SCR --- sodium ions --- deactivation mechanism --- sulfur poisoning --- coke deposition --- in situ regeneration --- Co-Zn/H-Beta --- NOx reduction by C3H8 --- catalyst deactivation --- diesel --- natural gas --- SEM --- TEM --- poisoning --- oxygen storage capacity --- thermal stability --- cyclic operation --- deactivation --- oxysulfate --- oxysulfide --- Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) --- SO2 poisoning --- Low-temperature catalyst --- nitrogen oxides --- nitrous oxide --- dry reforming of methane --- nickel catalysts --- barium carbonate --- deactivation by coking --- catalytic methane combustion --- exhaust gas --- catalyst durability --- Liquefied natural gas --- biogas --- vehicle emission control --- sulfur deactivation --- catalyst deactivation --- aluminum sulfate --- palladium sulfate --- regeneration --- phthalic anhydride --- vanadia-titania catalyst --- unusual deactivation --- physico-chemical characterization --- over-reduction --- vanadia species --- coke deposition --- DeNOx --- MW incinerator --- deactivation --- ammonium sulfates --- regeneration --- washing --- CO2 reforming --- Ni-catalyst --- syngas --- tetragonal zirconia --- phase stabilization --- CPO reactor --- effect of flow rate --- deactivation --- iso-octane --- Rh catalysts --- Rh --- homogeneous catalysis --- catalyst deactivation --- n/a

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