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Myelin-Mediated Inhibition of Axonal Regeneration: Past, Present, and Future

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452064 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-206-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Pioneering studies conducted in the 1980’s laid the foundation for the hypothesis that axonal regeneration is limited by CNS myelin, and the identification of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), Nogo, and oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein (OMgp) as inhibitors of neurite outgrowth firmly established myelin as a key factor in regenerative failure. Mechanistically, it has been shown that MAG, Nogo, and OMgp mediate inhibition by binding to either Nogo receptor (NgR) or paired immunoglobulin receptor B (PirB), and initiating a signaling cascade that culminates in the activation of RhoA.Since the discovery of these proteins, there has been tremendous interest in identifying compounds and molecular mechanisms that are capable of overcoming myelin-mediated inhibition. Many studies have focused on pharmacological antagonism of receptors and signaling intermediates, while others have sought to identify and enhance endogenous pro-regenerative pathways. The most notable example of the latter is the conditioning lesion effect, which led to the discovery of cyclic AMP’s ability to overcome inhibition by MAG and myelin. Many of the agents tested in these studies have been shown to promote axonal regeneration in vivo, and this research topic allows researchers to share information about new treatments that have been developed in both academia and industry. As we look toward the future, it is becoming increasingly clear that reversal of myelin-mediated inhibition alone will not be sufficient to produce functional recovery from spinal cord injury, and that other factors, such as astroglial scarring, the expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, neuronal cell death, and lack of neurotrophic support, must also be taken into consideration. Combinatorial approaches therefore hold a great deal of promise, and we hope to initiate a dialogue on how stem cell transplantation, chondroitinase ABC, gene therapy, growth-promoting agents, and other methods can be combined to optimize functional recovery. We introduce this topic in honor of the life and work of Dr. Marie T. Filbin (1955-2014). Through these articles, we highlight past achievements in the field, novel findings, unanswered questions and innovative ideas that we hope will lead to new advances in axonal regeneration.

Etničeskij jazyk. Opyt funkcional'noj differenciacii na materiale sopostavitel'nogo izučenija slavjanskich jazykov

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Book Series: Specimina philologiae Slavicae ISBN: 9783876907048 Year: Pages: 234 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:31:38
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V monografii rassmatrivaetsja širokij spektr aktual'nych sociolingvističeskich voprosov. Central'noe mesto v ich rjadu zanimaet fundamental'naja problema funkcional'noj differenciacii etničeskogo jazyka, vchodjaščaja v sostav kompleksnoj problemy jazykovoj situacii. Konkretnaja issledovatel'skaja zadača, kotoruju avtor pytalsja rešit', rabotaja nad dannoj monografiej, v samom obščem vide formuliruetsja kak makromodelirovanie stroenija etničeskogo jazyka, t.e. ustanovlenie obščej konfiguracii ego modeli, a takže organizujuščich ee principov.

Malyj dialektologičeskij atlas balkanskich jazykov. Serija grammatičeskaja

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Book Series: Studien zum Suedosteuropasprachatlas ISBN: 9783932331589 Year: Pages: 277 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:01
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Der hier vorliegende Kartenband behandelt die grammatischen Kategorien des Substantivs in den Sprachen Südosteuropas, wobei die Sprachdaten aus 12 südosteuropäischen Ortspunkten auf 127 Karten präsentiert werden. Als Grundlage dient das Sprachmaterial, das in internationaler Zusammenarbeit im Rahmen des Forschungsprojektes "Malyj dialektologičeskij atlas balkanskich jazykov/Kleiner Balkansprachatlas" erhoben und bearbeitet wurde

Cognitive Development and Individual Variability

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ISBN: 9783039210527 / 9783039210534 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-053-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The standard approach to cognitive development most frequently consists of cross-sectional studies comparing different ages and groups while restricted to a single task. The necessity to focus on the individual in an idiographic perspective, rather than on the task or the variable, has been repeatedly emphasized, most recently in several very important papers by Nesselroade and Molenaar. Variability has also emerged as a crucial characteristic. Moreover, understanding the developmental construction of a given cognitive achievement is imperative to understanding cognitive functioning in adulthood. The general objective of this book is to focus on the individual by studying intraindividual and interindividual variability in various cognitive tasks, that is, intraindividual variability across items of a given task (inconsistency), across various cognitive tasks (dispersion), and/or across years (intraindividual change), and of course, on interindividual differences in intraindividual variability. This book presents empirical studies that have been conducted by research groups in Europe and in North America, prominent in the field of variability and development or methodology. The 26 authors/co-authors include senior authors such as Lautrey, Schmiedek, Dauvier, van der Maas, Ghisletta, Stawski, MacDonald, and de Ribaupierre.

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