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Dendritic Cell and Macrophage Nomenclature and Classification

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199181 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-918-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Abstract

The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) comprises dendritic cells (DCs), monocytes and macrophages (MØs) that together play crucial roles in tissue immunity and homeostasis, but also contribute to a broad spectrum of pathologies. They are thus attractive therapeutic targets for immune therapy. However, the distinction between DCs, monocytes and MØ subpopulations has been a matter of controversy and the current nomenclature has been a confounding factor. DCs are remarkably heterogeneous and consist of multiple subsets traditionally defined by their expression of various surface markers. While markers are important to define various populations of the MPS, they do not specifically define the intrinsic nature of a cell population and do not always segregate a bona fide cell type of relative homogeneity. Markers are redundant, or simply define distinct activation states within one subset rather than independent subpopulations. One example are the steady-state CD11b+ DCs which are often not distinguished from monocytes, monocyte-derived cells, and macrophages due to their overlapping phenotype. Lastly, monocyte fate during inflammation results in cells bearing the phenotypic and functional features of both DCs and MØs significantly adding to the confusion. In fact, depending on the context of the study and the focus of the laboratory, a monocyte-derived cell will be either be called "monocyte-derived DCs" or "macrophages". Because the names we give to cells are often associated with a functional connotation, this is much more than simple semantics. The "name" we give to a population fundamentally changes the perception of its biology and can impact on research design and interpretation. Recent evidence in the ontogeny and transcriptional regulation of DCs and MØs, combined with the identification of DC- and MØ-specific markers has dramatically changed our understanding of their interrelationship in the steady state and inflammation. In steady state, DCs are constantly replaced by circulating blood precursors that arise from committed progenitors in the bone marrow. Similarly, some MØ populations are also constantly replaced by circulating blood monocytes. However, others tissue MØs are derived from embryonic precursors, are seeded before birth and maintain themselves in adults by self-renewal. In inflammation, such differentiation pathways are fundamentally changed and unique monocyte-derived inflammatory cells are generated. Current DC, monocyte and MØ nomenclature does not take into account these new developments and as a consequence is quite confusing. We believe that the field is in need of a fresh view on this topic as well as an upfront debate on DC and MØ nomenclature. Our aim is to bring expert junior and senior scientists to revisit this topic in light of these recent developments. This Research Topic will cover all aspects of DC, monocyte and MØ biology including development, transcriptional regulation, functional specializations, in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues, and in both human and mouse models. Given the central position of DCs, monocytes and MØs in tissue homeostasis, immunity and disease, this topic should be of interest to a large spectrum of the biomedical community.

Edhina Ekogidho – Names as Links

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Book Series: Studia Fennica Linguistica ISBN: 9789517465298 9789522228161 9789522228208 Year: Pages: 373 DOI: 10.21435/sflin.11 Language: English
Publisher: Finnish Literature Society / SKS
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:41
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"What are the most popular names of the Ambo people in Namibia? Why do so many Ambos have Finnish first names? What do the African names of these people mean? Why is the namesake so important in Ambo culture? How did the long independence struggle affect personal naming, and what are the latest name-giving trends in Namibia?

This study analyses the changes in the personal naming system of the Ambo people in Namibia over the last 120 years, starting from the year 1883 when the first Ambos received biblical and European names at baptism. The central factors in this process were the German and South African colonisation and European missionary work on the one hand, and the rise of African nationalism on the other hand. Eventually, this clash between African and European naming practices led to a new and dynamic naming system which includes elements of both African and European origin.

Dr. Minna Saarelma-Maunumaa is the Publishing Director of the Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Mission and the Vice-President of the Finnish-Namibian Society.

""Within the field of onomastics, i.e. the scientific study of names, this study is a remarkable and extremely important one... I suspect that it will become a major and standard reference work in the future, not only regarding Ambo anthroponymy, but anthroponymy in general, particularly where cultures interact."" —Professor S.J. Neethling, University of the Western Cape, South Africa"

Fungal Infections in Immunocompromised Hosts

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ISBN: 9783038977162 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-717-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Microbiology --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Fungal Infections in Immunocompromised Hosts that was published in JoF

Keywords

Candida auris --- Aspergillus fumigatus --- antifungal resistance --- multidrug resistance --- mechanisms of antifungal resistance --- liver disease --- hepatic impairment --- invasive fungal infection --- antifungal agent --- antifungal drug --- toxicity --- Immunotherapy --- invasive aspergillosis --- Aspergillus fumigatus --- fungal infections --- innate immunity --- adaptive immunity --- cell therapy --- cytokine therapy --- taxonomy --- fungal nomenclature --- phylogenetics --- species complex --- invasive fungal infections --- mycoses --- immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome --- fungal immunity --- prognostic risk model --- prediction models --- risk score --- invasive mold disease --- hematological malignancy --- risk assessment --- antifungal stewardship --- paracoccidioidomycosis --- HIV --- cancer --- lymphoma --- kidney transplant --- TNF inhibitors --- literature review --- MALDI-ToF MS --- yeast --- fungus --- AIDS --- IRIS --- cat-transmitted sporotrichosis --- immunocompromised hosts --- mycoses of implantation --- sporotrichosis --- Sporothrix brasiliensis --- Sporothrix schenckii --- subcutaneous mycoses --- invasive fungal infection --- non-culture-based diagnostics --- aspergillosis --- candidiasis --- Aspergillus PCR --- galactomannan --- lateral flow --- beta-d-glucan --- T2 Candida --- candidemia --- Candida meningoencephalitis --- (1?3)-?-d-glucan --- T2Candida --- PCR --- liposomal amphotericin B --- micafungin --- anidulafungin --- Aspergillus --- anti-fungal agents --- hematological malignancies

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