Search results:
Found 11
Listing 1  10 of 11  << page >> 
Sort by

Choose an application
This book seeks to bridge the gap between leading edge scholarship about the nature of the physical, tangible Universe and the nature of the life process on Earth on the one hand, and on the other hand challenges facing human society as to the current revolution in energy sources, national and international levels of political and economic organization, and humanity`s impacts upon the global ecosystem which have given rise to the depiction of a new era in earthlife termed the anthropocene.The author`s public career included responsibilities for economic policy formulation and implementation at the United States Department of Justice, the United States Agency for International Development, and a White House Office of Consumer Affairs. This provided an elevated overview of many current economic and political issues.These responsibilities stimulated a multidecade exploration of leading academics` insights into the relational structuring of the Universe, nonequilibrium thermodynamics, complexity in the universe, and the structure of the life process. This book applies such fundamental insights to the question whether humanity will succeed or fail in its ambitious but uncertain quest.
non equilibrium thermodynamics  life structure  anthropocene
Choose an application
A challenging frontier in modern statistical physics concerns systems with a small number of degrees of freedom, far from the thermodynamic limit. Beyond the general interest in the foundation of statistical mechanics, the relevance of this subject is due to the recent increase of resolution in the observation and manipulation of biological and manmade objects at micro and nanoscales. A peculiar feature of small systems is the role played by fluctuations, which cannot be neglected and are responsible for many nontrivial behaviors. The study of fluctuations of thermodynamic quantities, such as energy or entropy, goes back to Einstein, Onsager, and Kubo; more recently, interest in this matter has grown with the establishment of new fluctuation–dissipation relations, and of socalled stochastic thermodynamics. This turning point has received a strong impulse from the study of systems that are far from the thermodynamic equilibrium, due to very long relaxation times, as in disordered systems, or due to the presence of external forcing and dissipation, as in granular or active matter. Applications of the thermodynamic and statistical mechanics of small systems range from molecular biology to micromechanics, including models of nanotransport, Brownian motors, and (living or artificial) selfpropelled organisms.
Statistical Mechanics  Small Systems  Stochastic Thermodynamics  NonEquilibrium Fluctuations  Large Deviations
Choose an application
Prototypical quantum optics models, such as the Jaynes–Cummings, Rabi, Tavis–Cummings, and Dicke models, are commonly analyzed with diverse techniques, including analytical exact solutions, meanfield theory, exact diagonalization, and so on. Analysis of these systems strongly depends on their symmetries, ranging, e.g., from a U(1) group in the Jaynes–Cummings model to a Z2 symmetry in the fullfledged quantum Rabi model. In recent years, novel regimes of light–matter interactions, namely, the ultrastrong and deepstrong coupling regimes, have been attracting an increasing amount of interest. The quantum Rabi and Dicke models in these exotic regimes present new features, such as collapses and revivals of the population, bounces of photonnumber wave packets, as well as the breakdown of the rotatingwave approximation. Symmetries also play an important role in these regimes and will additionally change depending on whether the few or manyqubit systems considered have associated inhomogeneous or equal couplings to the bosonic mode. Moreover, there is a growing interest in proposing and carrying out quantum simulations of these models in quantum platforms such as trapped ions, superconducting circuits, and quantum photonics. In this Special Issue Reprint, we have gathered a series of articles related to symmetry in quantum optics models, including the quantum Rabi model and its symmetries, Floquet topological quantum states in optically driven semiconductors, the spin–boson model as a simulator of nonMarkovian multiphoton Jaynes–Cummings models, parityassisted generation of nonclassical states of light in circuit quantum electrodynamics, and quasiprobability distribution functions from fractional Fourier transforms.
quasiprobability distribution functions  fractional Fourier transform  reconstruction of the wave function  microwave photons  quantum entanglement  superconducting circuits  circuit quantum electrodynamics  quantum Rabi model  spinboson model  JaynesCummings model  multiphoton processes  quantum simulation  topological excitations  Floquet  dynamical mean field theory  nonequilibrium  starkeffect  semiconductors  light–matter interaction  integrable systems  global spectrum  n/a
Choose an application
For the 250th birthday of Joseph Fourier, born in 1768 in Auxerre, France, this MDPI Special Issue will explore modern topics related to Fourier Analysis and Heat Equation. Modern developments of Fourier analysis during the 20th century have explored generalizations of Fourier and Fourier–Plancherel formula for noncommutative harmonic analysis, applied to locallycompact, nonAbelian groups. In parallel, the theory of coherent states and wavelets has been generalized over Lie groups. One should add the developments, over the last 30 years, of the applications of harmonic analysis to the description of the fascinating world of aperiodic structures in condensed matter physics. The notions of model sets, introduced by Y. Meyer, and of almost periodic functions, have revealed themselves to be extremely fruitful in this domain of natural sciences. The name of Joseph Fourier is also inseparable from the study of the mathematics of heat. Modern research on heat equations explores the extension of the classical diffusion equation on Riemannian, subRiemannian manifolds, and Lie groups. In parallel, in geometric mechanics, JeanMarie Souriau interpreted the temperature vector of Planck as a spacetime vector, obtaining, in this way, a phenomenological model of continuous media, which presents some interesting properties. One last comment concerns the fundamental contributions of Fourier analysis to quantum physics: Quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. The content of this Special Issue will highlight papers exploring noncommutative Fourier harmonic analysis, spectral properties of aperiodic order, the hypoelliptic heat equation, and the relativistic heat equation in the context of Information Theory and Geometric Science of Information.
WeylHeisenberg group  affine group  Weyl quantization  Wigner function  covariant integral quantization  Fourier analysis  special functions  rigged Hilbert spaces  quantum mechanics  signal processing  nonFourier heat conduction  thermal expansion  heat pulse experiments  pseudotemperature  GuyerKrumhansl equation  higher order thermodynamics  Lie groups thermodynamics  homogeneous manifold  polysymplectic manifold  dynamical systems  nonequivariant cohomology  Lie group machine learning  SouriauFisher metric  Born–Jordan quantization  shorttime propagators  timeslicing  Van Vleck determinant  thermodynamics  symplectization  metrics  nonequilibrium processes  interconnection  discrete multivariate sine transforms  orthogonal polynomials  cubature formulas  nonequilibrium thermodynamics  variational formulation  nonholonomic constraints  irreversible processes  discrete thermodynamic systems  continuum thermodynamic systems  fourier transform  rigid body motions  partial differential equations  Lévy processes  Lie Groups  homogeneous spaces  stochastic differential equations  harmonic analysis on abstract space  heat equation on manifolds and Lie Groups
Choose an application
Friction stir welding (FSW) is considered to be the most significant development in metal joining in decades and, in addition, is a ""green"" technology due to its energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and versatility. This process offers a number of advantages over conventional joining processes. Furthermore, because welding occurs via the deformation of material at temperatures below the melting temperature, many problems commonly associated with joining of dissimilar alloys can be avoided, and thus, highquality welds are produced. Due to this fact, FSW has been widely used in different industrial applications where metallurgical characteristics should be retained, such as in the aeronautic, naval, and automotive industries.
FSW process  aluminum alloy  stainless steel  intermetallic compounds  mechanical strength  friction stir welding  dissimilar welded joints  materials position  material orientation  process analysis  microstructure analysis  mechanical behaviour  friction stir welding  abnormal grain growth  high nitrogen steel  postweld heat treatment  nonequilibrium segregation  dissimilar joints  frictionstir welding  the rotational speeds  microstructure  mechanical properties  Vickers microhardness  Fecontaining constituents  lognormal distribution  friction stir processing  aluminum alloy  surface composites  particle distribution  high rotation speed friction stir welding  pin shapes  grain orientation  friction stir spot welding  plunge depth  adaptive control  force–deflection model  hightemperature softening materials  dissimilar metal welding  FSW  tilt angle  friction  material flow  Al/Fe dissimilar joining  friction stir welding  plunge depth control  offset position control  deflection compensation control  n/a
Choose an application
This Special Issue covers a wide range of topics from fundamental studies to applications of ionized gases. It is dedicated to four topics of interest: 1. ATOMIC COLLISION PROCESSES (electron and photon interactions with atomic particles, heavy particle collisions, swarms, and transport phenomena); 2. PARTICLE AND LASER BEAM INTERACTION WITH SOLIDS (atomic collisions in solids, sputtering and deposition, and laser and plasma interactions with surfaces); 3. LOW TEMPERATURE PLASMAS (plasma spectroscopy and other diagnostic methods, gas discharges, and plasma applications and devices); 4. GENERAL PLASMAS (fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, and collective phenomena). This Special Issue of Atoms will highlight the need for continued research on ionized gas physics in different topics ranging from fundamental studies to applications, and will review current investigations.
strongfield physics  attoscience  bicircular field  highorder harmonic generation  abovethreshold ionization  spinpolarized electrons  capacitivelycoupled discharge  oxygen  particleincell/Monte Carlo collision  electron heating  secondary electron emission  Large Helical Device (LHD)  deuterium experiment  ion temperature of 10 keV  plasma research  spectroscopic study  dispersion interferometer  modified theories of gravity  methods: analytical  methods: numerical  galaxies: elliptical  galaxies: fundamental parameters  nonequilibrium  collisions  radiation  planetary atmospheric entry  laser matter interaction  laserinduced breakdown  plasma  spectroscopy  streak camera  plasma  spectral lines  Stark broadening  oxygen  silicon  spectroscopy  gas discharges  plasma applications  databases  virtual observatory  cross sections  rate coefficients  runway electron  plasma current  fusion plasma  tokamak  glow discharge  argon  nitrogen admixture  discharge voltage  diffuse discharge  constricted discharge  electrical theory of DBDs  QVplot  instantaneous power  rainbow scattering  positron channeling effect  timedependent Schrödinger equation  chiral single wall carbon nanotubes  black hole physics  cosmology  quasar spectroscopy  cosmological parameters  ionized gas  broad line region  Rydberg atoms  dynamic instability  control of atomic states  Förster resonance  plasma spectroscopy  Stark broadening  plasma diagnostics  line shape modeling  ZeemanDoppler broadening  Balmer line series  radiative recombination  photoacoustic  photothermal  inverse problem  thermal memory  minimum volume cell  neural networks  thermal diffusivity  conductivity  linear coefficient of thermal extension  AGN  black holes  gravitational waves  binary black holes  quasars  photodetachment  magnetically confined fusion  neutral beam injection  plasma heating  optical cavity amplification  lowenergy electrons  electron–molecule interactions  astrochemistry  laboratory plasma  astrophysical plasma  fusion plasma  lasers  stars  extragalactic objects  spectra  spectroscopy  scaling laws
Choose an application
What is the future of CMOS? Sustaining increased transistor densities along the path of Moore's Law has become increasingly challenging with limited power budgets, interconnect bandwidths, and fabrication capabilities. In the last decade alone, transistors have undergone significant design makeovers; from planar transistors of ten years ago, technological advancements have accelerated to today's FinFETs, which hardly resemble their bulky ancestors. FinFETs could potentially take us to the 5nm node, but what comes after it? From gateallaround devices to single electron transistors and twodimensional semiconductors, a torrent of research is being carried out in order to design the next transistor generation, engineer the optimal materials, improve the fabrication technology, and properly model future devices. We invite insight from investigators and scientists in the field to showcase their work in this Special Issue with research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on trends in micro and nanotechnology from fundamental research to applications.
flux calculation  etching simulation  process simulation  topography simulation  CMOS  fieldeffect transistor  ferroelectrics  MOS devices  negativecapacitance  piezoelectrics  power consumption  thinfilm transistors (TFTs)  compact model  surface potential  technology computeraided design (TCAD)  metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET)  topography simulation  metal gate stack  level set  highk  fin field effect transistor (FinFET)  line edge roughness  metal gate granularity  nanowire  nonequilibrium Green’s function  random discrete dopants  SiGe  variability  bandtoband tunneling (BTBT)  electrostatic discharge (ESD)  tunnel fieldeffect transistor (TFET)  SiliconGermanium source/drain (SiGe S/D)  technology computer aided design (TCAD)  bulk NMOS devices  radiation hardened by design (RHBD)  total ionizing dose (TID)  Sentaurus TCAD  layout  twodimensional material  field effect transistor  indium selenide  phonon scattering  mobility  high? dielectric  lowfrequency noise  silicononinsulator  MOSFET  inversion channel  buried channel  subthreshold bias range  low voltage  low energy  theoretical model  process simulation  device simulation  compact models  process variations  systematic variations  statistical variations  FinFETs  nanowires  nanosheets  semifloating gate  synaptic transistor  neuromorphic system  spiketimingdependent plasticity (STDP)  highly miniaturized transistor structure  low power consumption  drain engineered  tunnel field effect transistor (TFET)  polarization  ambipolar  subthreshold  ONstate  doping incorporation  plasmaaided molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)  segregation  silicon nanowire  n/a
Choose an application
In recent years, entropy has been used as a measure of the degree of chaos in dynamical systems. Thus, it is important to study entropy in nonlinear systems. Moreover, there has been increasing interest in the last few years regarding the novel classification of nonlinear dynamical systems including two kinds of attractors: selfexcited attractors and hidden attractors. The localization of selfexcited attractors by applying a standard computational procedure is straightforward. In systems with hidden attractors, however, a specific computational procedure must be developed, since equilibrium points do not help in the localization of hidden attractors. Some examples of this kind of system are chaotic dynamical systems with no equilibrium points; with only stable equilibria, curves of equilibria, and surfaces of equilibria; and with nonhyperbolic equilibria. There is evidence that hidden attractors play a vital role in various fields ranging from phaselocked loops, oscillators, describing convective fluid motion, drilling systems, information theory, cryptography, and multilevel DC/DC converters. This Special Issue is a collection of the latest scientific trends on the advanced topics of dynamics, entropy, fractional order calculus, and applications in complex systems with selfexcited attractors and hidden attractors.
new chaotic system  multiple attractors  electronic circuit realization  SBox algorithm  chaotic systems  circuit design  parameter estimation  optimization methods  Gaussian mixture model  chaotic system  empirical mode decomposition  permutation entropy  image encryption  hidden attractors  fixed point  stability  nonlinear transport equation  stochastic (strong) entropy solution  uniqueness  existence  multiscale multivariate entropy  multistability  selfreproducing system  chaos  hidden attractor  selfexcited attractor  fractional order  spectral entropy  coexistence  multistability  chaotic flow  hidden attractor  multistable  entropy  core entropy  Thurston’s algorithm  Hubbard tree  external rays  chaos  Lyapunov exponents  multiplevalued  static memory  strange attractors  fractional discrete chaos  entropy  projective synchronization  full state hybrid projective synchronization  generalized synchronization  inverse full state hybrid projective synchronization  inverse generalized synchronization  multichannel supply chain  service game  chaos  entropy  BOPS  Hopf bifurcation  selfexcited attractors  multistability  sample entropy  PRNG  Nonequilibrium fourdimensional chaotic system  entropy measure  adaptive approximatorbased control  neural network  uncertain dynamics  synchronization  fractionalorder  complexvariable chaotic system  unknown complex parameters  chaotic map  fixed point  chaos  approximate entropy  implementation  hidden attractor  hyperchaotic system  multistability  entropy analysis  hidden attractor  complex systems  fractionalorder  entropy  chaotic maps  chaos  spatial dynamics  Bogdanov Map  chaos  laser  resonator
Choose an application
Unconventional reservoirs are usually complex and highly heterogeneous, such as shale, coal, and tight sandstone reservoirs. The strong physical and chemical interactions between fluids and pore surfaces lead to the inapplicability of conventional approaches for characterizing fluid flow in these lowporosity and ultralowpermeability reservoir systems. Therefore, new theories and techniques are urgently needed to characterize petrophysical properties, fluid transport, and their relationships at multiple scales for improving production efficiency from unconventional reservoirs. This book presents fundamental innovations gathered from 21 recent works on novel applications of new techniques and theories in unconventional reservoirs, covering the fields of petrophysical characterization, hydraulic fracturing, fluid transport physics, enhanced oil recovery, and geothermal energy. Clearly, the research covered in this book is helpful to understand and master the latest techniques and theories for unconventional reservoirs, which have important practical significance for the economic and effective development of unconventional oil and gas resources.
fracturing fluid  rheology  chelating agent  viscosity  polymer  fluidsolid interaction  velocity profile  the average flow velocity  flow resistance  pore network model  shale gas  volume fracturing  finite volume method  production simulation  multiscale flow  multiscale fracture  shale gas reservoir  fractured well transient productivity  succession pseudosteady state (SPSS) method  complex fracture network  multiscale flow  analysis of influencing factors  tight sandstones  spontaneous imbibition  remaining oil distributions  imbibition front  imbibition recovery  NMR  slip length  large density ratio  contact angle  pseudopotential model  lattice Boltzmann method  microfracture  dissolved gas  experimental evaluation  reservoir depletion  recovery factor  tight oil  Lucaogou Formation  tight oil  pore structure  prediction by NMR logs  tight oil reservoir  SRVfractured horizontal well  multiporosity and multiscale  flow regimes  productivity contribution degree of multimedium  equilibrium permeability  nonequilibrium permeability  matrix–fracture interaction  effective stress  coal deformation  porous media  nonlinear flow  conformable derivative  fractal  hydraulic fracturing  tight reservoirs  fracture diversion  extended finite element method  fracture network  gas adsorption capacity  shale reservoirs  influential factors  integrated methods  sulfonate gemini surfactant  thickener  temperatureresistance  clean fracturing fluid  lowsalinity water flooding  clay mineral composition  enhanced oil recovery  wetting angle  pH of formation water  fractional diffusion  fractal geometry  analytical model  shale gas reservoir  carbonate reservoir  petrophysical characterization  pore types  pore structure  permeability  fractal dimension  reservoir classifications  deep circulation groundwater  groundwater flow  geothermal water  faults  isotopes  shale permeability  local effect  global effect  matrixfracture interactions  nanopore  pore structure  shale  tight sandstone  mudstone  nitrogen adsorption  fractal  enhanced geothermal system  wellplacement optimization  fracture continuum method  01 programming  unconventional reservoirs  petrophysical characterization  fluid transport physics
Choose an application
This Special Issue presents research papers on various topics within many different branches of mathematics, applied mathematics, and mathematical physics. Each paper presents mathematical theories, methods, and their application based on current and recently developed symmetric polynomials. Also, each one aims to provide the full understanding of current research problems, theories, and applications on the chosen topics and includes the most recent advances made in the area of symmetric functions and polynomials.
Fubini polynomials  wtorsion Fubini polynomials  fermionic padic integrals  symmetric identities  Chebyshev polynomials  sums of finite products  hypergeometric function  Fubini polynomials  Euler numbers  symmetric identities  elementary method  computational formula  two variable qBerstein polynomial  two variable qBerstein operator  qEuler number  qEuler polynomial  Fubini polynomials  Euler numbers  congruence  elementary method  qBernoulli numbers  qBernoulli polynomials  two variable qBernstein polynomials  two variable qBernstein operators  padic integral on ?p  the degenerate gamma function  the modified degenerate gamma function  the degenerate Laplace transform  the modified degenerate Laplace transform  Fibonacci  Lucas  linear form in logarithms  continued fraction  reduction method  sums of finite products of Chebyshev polynomials of the third and fourth kinds  Hermite  generalized Laguerre  Legendre  Gegenbauer  Jacobi  thirdorder character  classical Gauss sums  rational polynomials  analytic method  recursive formula  fermionic padic qintegral on ?p  qEuler polynomials  qChanghee polynomials  symmetry group  Apostoltype Frobenius–Euler polynomials  threevariable Hermite polynomials  symmetric identities  explicit relations  operational connection  qVolkenborn integral on ?p  Bernoulli numbers and polynomials  generalized Bernoulli polynomials and numbers of arbitrary complex order  generalized Bernoulli polynomials and numbers attached to a Dirichlet character ?  Changhee polynomials  Changhee polynomials of type two  fermionic padic integral on ?p  Chebyshev polynomials of the first, second, third, and fourth kinds  sums of finite products  representation  catalan numbers  elementary and combinatorial methods  recursive sequence  convolution sums  wellposedness  stability  acoustic wave equation  perfectly matched layer  Fibonacci polynomials  Lucas polynomials  trivariate Fibonacci polynomials  trivariate Lucas polynomials  generating functions  central incomplete Bell polynomials  central complete Bell polynomials  central complete Bell numbers  Legendre polynomials  Laguerre polynomials  generalized Laguerre polynomials  Gegenbauer polynomials  hypergeometric functions 1F1 and 2F1  Euler polynomials  Bernoulli polynomials  elementary method  identity  congruence  new sequence  Catalan numbers  elementary and combinatorial methods  congruence  conjecture  fluctuation theorem  thermodynamics of information  stochastic thermodynamics  mutual information  nonequilibrium free energy  entropy production
Listing 1  10 of 11  << page >> 
Sort by
