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Design and Experimental Investigation of a Second Harmonic 20 kW Class 28 GHz Gyrotron for Evaluation of New Emitter Technologies

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Book Series: Karlsruher Forschungsberichte aus dem Institut für Hochleistungsimpuls- und Mikrowellentechnik ISSN: 21922764 ISBN: 9783731505846 Year: Volume: 10 Pages: XI, 132 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000059748 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 19:59:17
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Gyrotrons are high-power mm-wave tubes. Here, the design, construction and experimental investigation of a 20 kW, 28 GHz gyrotron (2nd harmonic) are reported. This tube was designed to evaluate new emitters for future highly efficient and reliable fusion gyrotrons and for material processing applications. Following experimental results have been achieved in CW operation: 22.5 kW output power at 23.4 kV electron beam voltage and 2.23 A beam current with the world record efficiency of 43 %.

Systematic Study of Key Components for a Coaxial-Cavity Gyrotron for DEMO

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Book Series: Karlsruher Forschungsberichte aus dem Institut für Hochleistungsimpuls- und Mikrowellentechnik ISSN: 21922764 ISBN: 9783731506522 Year: Volume: 11 Pages: XX, 236 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000068000 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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The physical design of cavity and magnetron injection gun (MIG) for a realistic, DEMO-compatible, coaxial-cavity 238 GHz 2 MW CW fusion gyrotron is developed in this work, having auxiliary frequencies at 170 GHz and 204 GHz. Novel systematic approaches towards multi-frequency mode selection, magnet requirements, and MIG design are presented. Mode deterioration and voltage depression variation due to insert misalignment versus cavity wall and/or versus electron beam are studied.

Simulations for the optimization of High Temperatur Superconductor current leads for nuclear fusion applications

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Book Series: Karlsruher Schriftenreihe zur Supraleitung / Hrsg. Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Noe, Prof. Dr. rer. nat. M. Siegel ISSN: 18691765 ISBN: 9783731501329 Year: Volume: 14 Pages: III, 206 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000037132 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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Techniques based on numerical simulations have been applied to the analysis of the heat exchanger and the High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) module of HTS current leads. In the first case correlations have been derived for the meander flow geometry. In the second case steady state and transient thermal-electric models have been validated. Both techniques are used to design and optimize HTS current leads. The correlations were applied to a predictive analysis of the ITER HTS current leads.

Characterization of High Temperature Superconductor Cables for Magnet Toroidal Field Coils of the DEMO Fusion Power Plant

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Book Series: Karlsruher Schriftenreihe zur Supraleitung / Hrsg. Prof. Dr.-Ing. M. Noe, Prof. Dr. rer. nat. M. Siegel ISSN: 18691765 ISBN: 9783731506058 Year: Volume: 18 Pages: VII, 198 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000062054 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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Nuclear fusion is a key technology to satisfy the basic demand for electric energy sustainably. The official EUROfusion schedule foresees a first industrial DEMOnstration Fusion Power Plant for 2050. In this work several high temperature superconductor sub-size cables are investigated for their applicability in large scale DEMO toroidal field coils. Main focus lies on the electromechanical stability under the influence of high Lorentz forces at peak magnetic fields of up to 12 T.

Feasibility and Operational Limits for a 236 GHz Hollow-Cavity Gyrotron for DEMO

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Book Series: Karlsruher Forschungsberichte aus dem Institut für Hochleistungsimpuls- und Mikrowellentechnik ISSN: 21922764 ISBN: 9783731507178 Year: Volume: 12 Pages: XIV, 241 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000073581 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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The DEMOnstration fusion power plant (DEMO) will be the first fusion reactor, which is intended to generate net electrical power. For successful operation of DEMO, high-power gyrotrons with operating frequencies up to 240 GHz are required for plasma heating and stabilization. In this work, a systematic feasibility study and tolerance analysis are performed for the conventional-type hollow-cavity DEMO gyrotrons. The various approaches are also suggested to identify its operational limits.

Small Scale Deformation using Advanced Nanoindentation Techniques

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ISBN: 9783038979661 / 9783038979678 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-967-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Small scale mechanical deformations have gained a significant interest over the past few decades, driven by the advances in integrated circuits and microelectromechanical systems. One of the most powerful and versatile characterization methods is the nanoindentation technique. The capabilities of these depth-sensing instruments have been improved considerably. They can perform experiments in vacuum and at high temperatures, such as in-situ SEM and TEM nanoindenters. This allows researchers to visualize mechanical deformations and dislocations motion in real time. Time-dependent behavior of soft materials has also been studied in recent research works. This Special Issue on ""Small Scale Deformation using Advanced Nanoindentation Techniques""; will provide a forum for researchers from the academic and industrial communities to present advances in the field of small scale contact mechanics. Materials of interest include metals, glass, and ceramics. Manuscripts related to deformations of biomaterials and biological related specimens are also welcome. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

Glassy Materials Based Microdevices

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ISBN: 9783038976189 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-619-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 15:50:41
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Microtechnology has changed our world since the last century, when silicon microelectronics revolutionized sensor, control and communication areas, with applications extending from domotics to automotive, and from security to biomedicine. The present century, however, is also seeing an accelerating pace of innovation in glassy materials; as an example, glass-ceramics, which successfully combine the properties of an amorphous matrix with those of micro- or nano-crystals, offer a very high flexibility of design to chemists, physicists and engineers, who can conceive and implement advanced microdevices. In a very similar way, the synthesis of glassy polymers in a very wide range of chemical structures offers unprecedented potential of applications. The contemporary availability of microfabrication technologies, such as direct laser writing or 3D printing, which add to the most common processes (deposition, lithography and etching), facilitates the development of novel or advanced microdevices based on glassy materials. Biochemical and biomedical sensors, especially with the lab-on-a-chip target, are one of the most evident proofs of the success of this material platform. Other applications have also emerged in environment, food, and chemical industries. The present Special Issue of Micromachines aims at reviewing the current state-of-the-art and presenting perspectives of further development. Contributions related to the technologies, glassy materials, design and fabrication processes, characterization, and, eventually, applications are welcome.

Keywords

micro-crack propagation --- severing force --- quartz glass --- micro-grinding --- microfluidics --- single-cell analysis --- polymeric microfluidic flow cytometry --- single-cell protein quantification --- glass molding process --- groove --- roughness --- filling ratio --- label-free sensor --- optofluidic microbubble resonator --- detection of small molecules --- chalcogenide glass --- infrared optics --- precision glass molding --- aspherical lens --- freeform optics --- micro/nano patterning --- 2D colloidal crystal --- soft colloidal lithography --- strain microsensor --- vectorial strain gauge --- compound glass --- microsphere --- resonator --- lasing --- sensing --- microresonator --- whispering gallery mode --- long period grating --- fiber coupling --- distributed sensing --- chemical/biological sensing --- direct metal forming --- glassy carbon micromold --- enhanced boiling heat transfer --- metallic microstructure --- microspheres --- microdevices --- glass --- polymers --- solar energy --- nuclear fusion --- thermal insulation --- sol-gel --- Ag nanoaggregates --- Yb3+ ions --- down-shifting --- photonic microdevices --- alkali cells --- MEMS vapor cells --- optical cells --- atomic spectroscopy --- microtechnology --- microfabrication --- MEMS --- microfluidic devices --- laser materials processing --- ultrafast laser micromachining --- ultrafast laser welding --- enclosed microstructures --- glass --- porous media --- fluid displacement --- spray pyrolysis technique --- dielectric materials --- luminescent materials --- photovoltaics --- frequency conversion --- device simulations --- europium --- luminescence --- hybrid materials --- microdevices --- light --- photon --- communications --- waveguides --- fibers --- biosensors --- microstructured optical fibers --- whispering gallery modes --- light localization --- optofluidics --- lab-on-a-chip --- femtosecond laser --- laser micromachining --- diffusion

Radiation Tolerant Electronics

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ISBN: 9783039212798 / 9783039212804 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-280-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Research on radiation-tolerant electronics has increased rapidly over the past few years, resulting in many interesting approaches to modeling radiation effects and designing radiation-hardened integrated circuits and embedded systems. This research is strongly driven by the growing need for radiation-hardened electronics for space applications, high-energy physics experiments such as those on the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and many terrestrial nuclear applications including nuclear energy and nuclear safety. With the progressive scaling of integrated circuit technologies and the growing complexity of electronic systems, their susceptibility to ionizing radiation has raised many exciting challenges, which are expected to drive research in the coming decade. In this book we highlight recent breakthroughs in the study of radiation effects in advanced semiconductor devices, as well as in high-performance analog, mixed signal, RF, and digital integrated circuits. We also focus on advances in embedded radiation hardening in both FPGA and microcontroller systems and apply radiation-hardened embedded systems for cryptography and image processing, targeting space applications.

Keywords

physical unclonable function --- FPGA --- total ionizing dose --- Co-60 gamma radiation --- ring-oscillator --- Image processing --- line buffer --- SRAM-based FPGA --- single event upset (SEU) --- configuration memory --- soft error --- radiation-hardened --- instrumentation amplifier --- sensor readout IC --- total ionizing dose --- nuclear fusion --- radiation hardening --- hardening by design --- TMR --- selective hardening --- VHDL --- FPGA --- radiation hardening --- single event upsets --- heavy ions --- error rates --- single-event upsets (SEUs) --- digital integrated circuits --- triple modular redundancy (TMR) --- radiation hardening by design --- TMR --- FMR --- 4MR --- triplex–duplex --- FPGA-based digital controller --- radiation tolerant --- single event effects --- proton irradiation --- RFIC --- SEE testing --- space application --- CMOS --- TDC --- radiation effects --- total ionizing dose (TID) --- single-shot --- PLL --- ring oscillator --- analog single-event transient (ASET) --- bandgap voltage reference (BGR) --- CMOS analog integrated circuits --- gamma-rays --- heavy-ions --- ionization --- protons --- radiation hardening by design (RHBD) --- reference circuits --- single-event effects (SEE) --- space electronics --- total ionization dose (TID) --- voltage reference --- X-rays --- radiation-hardened --- single event gate rupture (SEGR) --- SEB --- power MOSFETs --- Single-Event Upsets (SEUs) --- radiation effects --- Ring Oscillators --- Impulse Sensitive Function --- Radiation Hardening by Design --- fault tolerance --- single event upset --- proton irradiation effects --- neutron irradiation effects --- soft errors --- saturation effect --- gain degradation --- total ionizing dose --- gamma ray --- bipolar transistor --- single event transient (SET) --- single event opset (SEU) --- radiation-hardening-by-design (RHBD) --- frequency synthesizers --- voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) --- frequency divider by two --- CMOS --- n/a

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