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Mass Spectrometry Application in Biology

ISBN: 9783906980898 9783906980904 Year: Pages: 252 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 06:39:08
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Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a vital tool for scientist in exploring how biological systems function and how therapeutic drug intervention (both small molecules and biologics) impact these systems. The application of mass spectrometry has advanced our knowledge in the biological sciences through the study of proteins and peptides in proteomics and as biomarkers, imaging via MALDI MS, and analysis of SNP’s in the genome to allow personalized medical treatment.The aim of this book is to provide a glimpse of some of the many applications of the advancing field of mass spectrometry and its application to complex biological problems. The topics presented here touch on many of the areas listed above will hopefully serve as a catalyst to generate new ideas for the continued innovative application of mass spectrometry to the fields of medicine, biology and beyond.

A Commemorative Issue in Honor of Professor Nick Hadjiliadis: Metal Complex Interactions with Nucleic Acids and/or DNA

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ISBN: 9783038975113 9783038975120 Year: Pages: 256 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-512-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biochemistry --- Biology --- Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-05 12:36:28
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This Special Issue of the International Journal of Molecular Science comprises a comprehensive study on “Metal Complex Interactions with Nucleic Acids and/or DNA”. This Special Issue has been inspired by the important contribution of Prof. Nick Hadjiliadis to the field of palladium or/and platinum/nucleic acid interactions. It covers a selection of recent research and review articles in the field of metal complex interactions with nucleic acids and/or DNA. Moreover, this Special Issue on "Metal Complexes Interactions with Nucleic Acids and/or DNA" provides an overview of this increasingly diverse field, presenting recent developments and the latest research with particular emphasis on metal-based drugs and metal ion toxicity.

G-quadruplex and Microorganisms

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ISBN: 9783039212439 9783039212446 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-244-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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G-quadruplexes (G4s) are nucleic acids secondary structures that form in DNA or RNA guanine (G)-rich strands. In recent years, the presence of G4s in microorganisms has attracted increasing interest. In prokaryotes, G4 sequences have been reported in several human pathogens. Bacterial enzymes able to process G4s have been identified. In viruses, G4s have been suggested to be involved in key steps of the viral life cycle: They have been associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), human papilloma virus, swine pseudorabies virus, and other viruses’ genomes. New evidence shows the presence of G4s in parasitic protozoa, such as the causative agent of malaria. G4 binding proteins and mRNA G4s have been implicated in the regulation of microorganisms’ genome replication and translation. G4 ligands have been developed and tested both as tools to study the complexity of G4-mediated mechanisms in the viral life cycle and as therapeutic agents. Moreover, new techniques to study G4 folding and their interactions with proteins have been developed. This Special Issue will focus on G4s present in microorganisms, addressing all the above aspects.

Cell-Free Nucleic Acids

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ISBN: 9783039280742 9783039280759 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-075-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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The deficits of mammography and the potential of noninvasive diagnostic testing using circulating miRNA profiles are presented in our first review article. Exosomes are important in the transfer of genetic information. The current knowledge on exosome-associated DNAs and on vesicle-associated DNAs and their role in pregnancy-related complications is presented in the next article. The major obstacle is the lack of a standardized technique for the isolation and measurement of exosomes. One review has summarized the latest results on cell-free nucleic acids in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Despite the extensive research, the etiology and exact pathogenesis are still unclear, although similarity to the cell-free ribonucleic acids (cfRNAs) observed in other autoimmune diseases seems to be relevant in IBD. Liquid biopsy is a useful tool for the differentiation of leiomyomas and sarcomas in the corpus uteri. One manuscript has collected the most important knowledge of mesenchymal uterine tumors and shows the benefits of noninvasive sampling. Microchimerism has also recently become a hot topic. It is discussed in the context of various forms of transplantation and transplantation-related advanced therapies, the available cell-free nucleic acid (cfNA) markers, and the detection platforms that have been introduced. Ovarian cancer is one of the leading serious malignancies among women, with a high incidence of mortality; the introduction of new noninvasive diagnostic markers could help in its early detection and treatment monitoring. Epigenetic regulation is very important during the development of diseases and drug resistance. Methylation changes are important signs during ovarian cancer development, and it seems that the CDH1 gene is a potential candidate for being a noninvasive biomarker in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Preeclampsia is a mysterious disease—despite intensive research, the exact details of its development are unknown. It seems that cell-free nucleic acids could serve as biomarkers for the early detection of this disease. Three research papers deal with the prenatal application of cfDNA. Copy number variants (CNVs) are important subjects for the study of human genome variations, as CNVs can contribute to population diversity and human genetic diseases. These are useful in NIPT as a source of population specific data. The reliability of NIPT depends on the accurate estimation of fetal fraction. Improvement in the success rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) is an important goal. The measurement of embryo-specific small noncoding RNAs in culture media could improve the efficiency of ET.

Keywords

breast cancer --- screening --- liquid biopsy --- omics --- multi-level diagnostics --- individualized patient profile --- miRNA --- mammography --- predictive and preventive approach --- personalized medicine --- cell-free DNA --- exosomes --- extracellular vesicles --- fetal DNA --- preeclampsia --- growth retardation --- gestational diabetes mellitus --- miRNA --- piRNA --- NGS --- RT-PCR --- embryo culture medium --- C19MC microRNA --- expression --- exosomes --- fetal growth restriction --- gestational hypertension --- plasma --- prediction --- preeclampsia --- pregnancy-related complications --- screening --- non-invasive prenatal testing --- statistical models --- z-score --- cell-free nucleic acids --- circulating nucleic acids --- cell-free DNAs --- cell-free RNAs --- exosomes --- inflammatory bowel disease --- neutrophil extracellular traps --- NETosis --- liquid biopsy --- cell-free nucleic acids --- circulating tumor cells --- leiomyomas --- sarcomas --- leiomyosarcomas --- exosomes --- NIPT --- fetal fraction --- statistical methods --- DNA --- maternal serum screening --- fetal cells --- liquid biopsy --- pyrosequencing --- ovarian cancer --- CDH1 --- PTEN --- PAX1 --- RASSF1 --- cfDNA --- cell-free DNA --- nuclease activity --- aging --- obesity --- gender differences --- copy number variants --- next generation sequencing --- non-invasive prenatal testing --- population study --- microchimerism --- solid organ transplantation --- hematopoietic stem cell transplantation --- genetic marker --- single nucleotide polymorphism --- deletion/insertion polymorphism --- ovarian cancer --- circulating miRNA --- blood plasma --- NanoString --- network analysis --- biomarker --- n/a

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