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Mathematics of Economics and Business

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ISBN: 9780203401385 9780415332804 9780415332811 9781134319312 9781134319305 9781134319268 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203401385 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Mathematics --- Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:18
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For all students who wish to understand current economic and business literature, knowledge of mathematical methods has become a prerequisite. Clear and concise, with precise definitions and theorems, Werner and Sotskov cover all the major topics required to gain a firm grounding in this subject including sequences, series, applications in finance, functions, differentiations, differentials and difference equations, optimizations with and without constraints, integrations and much more. Containing exercises and worked examples, precise definitions and theorems as well as economic applications, this book provides the reader with a comprehensive understanding of the mathematical models and tools used in both economics and business.

Numerical Development - From cognitive functions to neural underpinnings

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194247 Year: Pages: 281 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-424-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Living at the beginning of the 21st century requires being numerate, because numerical abilities are not only essential for life prospects of individuals but also for economic interests of post-industrial knowledge societies. Thus, numerical development is at the core of both individual as well as societal interests. There is the notion that we are already born with a very basic ability to deal with small numerosities. Yet, this often called “number sense” seems to be very restricted, approximate, and driven by perceptual constraints. During our numerical development in formal (e.g., school) but also informal contexts (e.g., family, street) we acquire culturally developed abstract symbol systems to represent exact numerosities – in particular number words and Arabic digits – refining our numerical capabilities. In recent years, numerical development has gained increasing research interest documented in a growing number of behavioural, neuro-scientific, educational, cross-cultural, and neuropsychological studies addressing this issue. Additionally, our understanding of how numerical competencies develop has also benefitted considerably from the advent of different neuro-imaging techniques allowing for an evaluation of developmental changes in the human brain. In sum, we are now starting to put together a more and more coherent picture of how numerical competencies develop and how this development is associated with neural changes as well. In the end, this knowledge might also lead to a better understanding of the reasons for atypical numerical development which often has grieve consequences for those who suffer from developmental dyscalculia or mathematics learning disabilities. Therefore, this Research Topic deals with all aspects of numerical development: findings from behavioural performance to underlying neural substrates, from cross-sectional to longitudinal evaluations, from healthy to clinical populations. To this end, we included empirical contributions using different experimental methodologies, but also theoretical contributions, review articles, or opinion papers.

Writing, Medium, Machine: Modern Technographies

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Book Series: Technographies ISBN: 9781785420061 9781785420184 Year: DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_618513 Language: English
Publisher: Open Humanities Press
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2016-10-20 11:01:04
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Writing, Medium, Machine: Modern Technographies is a collection of thirteen essays by leading scholars which explores the mutual determination of forms of writing and forms of technology in modern literature. The essays unfold from a variety of historical and theoretical perspectives the proposition that literature is not less but more mechanical than other forms of writing: a transfigurative ideal machine. The collection breaks new ground archaeologically, unearthing representations in literature and film of a whole range of decisive technologies from the stereopticon through census-and slot-machines to the stock ticker, and from the Telex to the manipulation of genetic code and the screens which increasingly mediate our access to the world and to each other. It also contributes significantly to critical and cultural theory by investigating key concepts which articulate the relation between writing and technology: number, measure, encoding, encryption, the archive, the interface. Technography is not just a modern matter, a feature of texts that happen to arise in a world full of machinery and pay attention to that machinery in various ways. But the mediation of other machines has beyond doubt assisted literature to imagine and start to become the ideal machine it is always aspiring to be. Contributors: Ruth Abbott, John Attridge, Kasia Boddy, Mark Byron, Beci Carver, Steven Connor, Esther Leslie, Robbie Moore, Julian Murphet, James Purdon, Sean Pryor, Paul Sheehan, Kristen Treen.

Building the Foundation: Whole Numbers in the Primary Grades: The 23rd ICMI Study

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Book Series: New ICMI Study Series ISSN: 1387-6872 ISBN: 9783319635545 9783319635552 Year: Pages: 536 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-63555-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: International Commission on Mathematical Instruction (ICMI); International Mathematical Union (IMU)
Subject: Education --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 15:48:51
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This twenty-third ICMI Study addresses for the first time mathematics teaching and learning in the primary school (and pre-school) setting, while also taking international perspectives, socio-cultural diversity and institutional constraints into account. One of the main challenges of designing the first ICMI primary school study of this kind is the complex nature of mathematics at the early level. Accordingly, a focus area that is central to the discussion was chosen, together with a number of related questions. The broad area of Whole Number Arithmetic (WNA), including operations and relations and arithmetic word problems, forms the core content of all primary mathematics curricula. The study of this core content area is often regarded as foundational for later mathematics learning. However, the principles and main goals of instruction on the foundational concepts and skills in WNA are far from universally agreed upon, and practice varies substantially from country to country. As such, this study presents a meta-level analysis and synthesis of what is currently known about WNA, providing a useful base from which to gauge gaps and shortcomings, as well as an opportunity to learn from the practices of different countries and contexts.

Linguistic Influences on Mathematical Cognition

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452002 Year: Pages: 173 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-200-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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For many years, an abstract, amodal semantic magnitude representation, largely independent of verbal linguistic representations, has been viewed as the core numerical or mathematical representation This assumption has been substantially challenged in recent years. Linguistic properties affect not only verbal representations of numbers, but also numerical magnitude representation, spatial magnitude representations, calculation, parity representation, place-value representation and even early number acquisition. Thus, we postulate that numerical and arithmetic processing are not fully independent of linguistic processing. This is not to say, that in patients, magnitude processing cannot function independently of linguistic processing we just suppose, these functions are connected in the functioning brain. So far, much research about linguistic influences on numerical cognition has simply demonstrated that language influences number without investigating the level at which a particular language influence operates. After an overview, we present new findings on language influences on seven language levels: - Conceptual: Conceptual properties of language- Syntactic: The grammatical structure of languages beyond the word level influences- Semantic: The semantic meaning or existence of words- Lexical: The lexical composition of words, in particular number words- Visuo-spatial-orthographic: Orthographic properties, such as the writing/reading direction of a language- Phonological: Phonological/phonetic properties of languages- Other language-related skills: Verbal working memory and other cognitive skills related to language representationsWe hope that this book provides a new and structured overview on the exciting influences of linguistic processing on numerical cognition at almost all levels of language processing.

Physical (A)Causality: Determinism, Randomness and Uncaused Events

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Book Series: Fundamental Theories of Physics ISSN: 0168-1222 ISBN: 9783319708140 9783319708157 Year: Volume: 192 Pages: 219 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70815-7 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: OpenAIRE
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-29 14:42:45
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This book addresses the physical phenomenon of events that seem to occur spontaneously and without any known cause. These are to be contrasted with events that happen in a (pre-)determined, predictable, lawful, and causal way.All our knowledge is based on self-reflexive theorizing, as well as on operational means of empirical perception. Some of the questions that arise are the following: are these limitations reflected by our models? Under what circumstances does chance kick in? Is chance in physics merely epistemic? In other words, do we simply not know enough, or use too crude levels of description for our predictions? Or are certain events "truly", that is, irreducibly, random? The book tries to answer some of these questions by introducing intrinsic, embedded observers and provable unknowns; that is, observables and procedures which are certified (relative to the assumptions) to be unknowable or undoable. A (somewhat iconoclastic) review of quantum mechanics is presented which is inspired by quantum logic. Postulated quantum (un-)knowables are reviewed. More exotic unknowns originate in the assumption of classical continua, and in finite automata and generalized urn models, which mimic complementarity and yet maintain value definiteness. Traditional conceptions of free will, miracles and dualistic interfaces are based on gaps in an otherwise deterministic universe.

The Identification of the Genetic Components of Autism Spectrum Disorders 2017

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ISBN: 9783038425205 9783038425212 Year: Pages: X, 462 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-27 12:54:46
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This textbook is dedicated to the study of genetic factors contributing to autism and includes a collection of original research and review articles related to this topic. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) include a collection of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by three recognized behavioral domains involving difficulties in communication, social interaction and repetitive behavior. ASD affects 1 to 2 percent of children and is on the increase worldwide. Significant genetic contributions and mechanisms underlie the causation of ASD. Advances in genetic technology and better awareness have led to a diagnosis of 50 to 70 percent of individuals with ASD primarily due to chromosomal abnormalities, submicroscopic deletions or duplications now identified with high-resolution microarray analysis, next-generation DNA (exome) sequencing of gene variants or mutations, recognized single gene disorders or metabolic disturbances. Through discovery by searching genomic databases and peer-reviewed research articles, nearly 800 genes have been identified to contribute to ASD. Highlights in the field of autism research, discovery and identification of genetic components with characterization will be addressed. Furthermore, reviews of current understanding of the causes and diagnostic approaches for ASD and related syndromes will be presented along with discussion of psychiatric/behavior comorbidities and related features, environmental risk factors, parental attitudes and treatment.

Mathematical Analysis and Applications

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ISBN: 9783038974000 / 9783038974017 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-401-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-14 13:26:06
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Investigations involving the theory and applications of mathematical analytic tools and techniques are remarkably wide-spread in many diverse areas of the mathematical, physical, chemical, engineering and statistical sciences. In this Special Issue, we invite and welcome review, expository and original research articles dealing with the recent advances in mathematical analysis and its multidisciplinary applications.

Applied Analysis of Ordinary Differential Equations

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ISBN: 9783039217267 / 9783039217274 Year: Pages: 62 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-727-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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One might say that ordinary differential equations (notably, in Isaac Newton’s analysis of the motion of celestial bodies) had a central role in the development of modern applied mathematics. This book is devoted to research articles which build upon this spirit: combining analysis with the applications of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). ODEs arise across a spectrum of applications in physics, engineering, geophysics, biology, chemistry, economics, etc., because the rules governing the time-variation of relevant fields is often naturally expressed in terms of relationships between rates of change. ODEs also emerge in stochastic models—for example, when considering the evolution of a probability density function—and in large networks of interconnected agents. The increasing ease of numerically simulating large systems of ODEs has resulted in a plethora of publications in this area; nevertheless, the difficulty of parametrizing models means that the computational results by themselves are sometimes questionable. Therefore, analysis cannot be ignored. This book comprises articles that possess both interesting applications and the mathematical analysis driven by such applications.

Multiple-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) Techniques for Business Processes Information Management

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ISBN: 9783038976424 Year: Pages: 320 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-643-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-08 11:42:05
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Information management is a common paradigm in modern decision-making. A wide range of decision-making techniques have been proposed in the literature to model complex business and engineering processes. In this Special Issue, 16 selected and peer-reviewed original research articles contribute to business information management in various current real-world problems by proposing crisp or uncertain multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) models and techniques, mostly including multi-attribute decision-making (MADM) approaches, in addition to a single paper proposing an interactive multi-objective decision-making (MODM) approach. Particular attention is devoted to information aggregation operators; 65% of papers dealt with this item. The topics of this Special Issue gained attention in Europe and Asia. A total of 48 authors from seven countries contributed to this Issue. The papers are mainly concentrated in three application areas: supplier selection and rational order allocation, the evaluation and selection of goods or facilities, and personnel selection/partner selection. A number of new approaches are proposed that are expected to attract great interest from the research community.

Keywords

multi-criteria decision-making --- group decision-making --- subcontractor evaluation --- MCDM --- MADM --- fuzzy sets --- fuzzy EDAS --- multi-attribute decision making --- projection model --- bi-directional projection model --- Pythagorean uncertain linguistic variable --- rough number --- rough weighted aggregated sum product assessment (WASPAS) --- rough analytical hierarchical process (AHP) --- multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) --- supplier --- supplier selection --- order allocation --- multiobjective optimization --- interactive approach --- desirability function --- Pythagorean fuzzy set --- Muirhead mean --- multiple criteria group decision-making --- multiple attributes decision-making --- group decision-making --- unbalanced linguistic set --- prioritized average operator --- maximizing deviation model --- Pythagorean fuzzy set --- Muirhead mean --- interaction operational laws --- multi-attribute group decision-making --- green supplier --- rough ANP --- trapezoidal fuzzy number --- rough boundary interval --- evidence theory --- trust interval --- multiple attribute decision making --- linguistic cubic variable --- Dombi operations --- linguistic cubic variable Dombi weighted arithmetic average (LCVDWAA) operator --- linguistic cubic variable Dombi weighted geometric average (LCVDWGA) operator --- single-valued linguistic neutrosophic interval linguistic number --- score function --- weighted aggregation operator --- decision making --- multiple attribute decision making --- nonnegative normal neutrosophic number --- aggregation operator --- multi-criteria decision-making --- multi-hesitant fuzzy sets --- aggregation operators --- hesitant probabilistic fuzzy element (HPFE) --- Einstein operations --- hesitant probabilistic fuzzy Einstein aggregation operators --- multiple attribute decision making (MADM). --- ANFIS --- warehouse --- queuing systems --- logistics --- uncertain group decision-making support systems --- multiple criteria decision-making --- reliable group decision-making --- interval multiplicative preference relations --- rough sets --- binary discernibility matrices --- deterministic finite automata --- multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) --- multi-attribute decision-making (MADM) --- fuzzy sets --- neutrosophic sets --- rough sets --- aggregation operators --- adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS)

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