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Interactions between the mammalian main and accessory olfactory systems

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192564 Year: Pages: 155 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-256-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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The functional cross-talk and structural interaction between the main and accessory olfactory bulb is a central problem in mammalian sensory neurobiology. The early supposition that volatile substances and pheromones, most of them hydrosoluble molecules, are exclusively sensed and decoded by the main (MOS) and accessory olfactory systems (AOS), respectively, needs to be revised. In fact, a large number of structural and functional evidences accumulated during the last few decades, suggests that rather than separated entities, the MOS and AOS act synergically, bringing about physiological and behavioural responses. The goal of the present Research Topic will be to gather original research studies and revision papers, performed by the most authoritative research groups that have recently contributed to the broad area of sensory neurobiology. Special attention should be given to contributions addressed to the MOB and AOB cross-talk, involving current neuroanatomical techniques.

Olfactory memory networks: from emotional learning to social behaviors

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194865 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-486-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Odors are powerful stimuli that can evoke emotional states, and support learning and memory. Decades of research have indicated that the neural basis for this strong "odor-emotional memory" connection is due to the uniqueness of the anatomy of the olfactory pathways. Indeed, unlike the other sensory systems, the sense of smell does not pass through the thalamus to be routed to the cortex. Rather, odor information is relayed directly to the limbic system, a brain region typically associated with memory and emotional processes. This provides olfaction with a unique and potent power to influence mood, acquisition of new information, and use of information in many different contexts including social interactions. Indeed, olfaction is crucially involved in behaviors essential for survival of the individual and species, including identification of predators, recognition of individuals for procreation or social hierarchy, location of food, as well as attachment between mating pairs and infant-caretaker dyads. Importantly, odors are sampled through sniffing behavior. This active sensing plays an important role in exploratory behaviors observed in the different contexts mentioned above. Odors are also critical for learning and memory about events and places and constitute efficient retrieval cues for the recall of emotional episodic memories. This broad role for odors appears highly preserved across species. In addition, the consistent early developmental emergence of olfactory function across diverse species also provides a unique window of opportunity for analysis of myriad behavioral systems from rodents to nonhuman primates and humans. This, when combined with the relatively conserved organization of the olfactory system in mammals, provides a powerful framework to explore how complex behaviors can be modulated by odors to produce adaptive responses, and to investigate the underlying neural networks. The present research topic brings together cutting edge research on diverse species and developmental stages, highlighting convergence and divergence between humans and animals to facilitate translational research.

Olfactory subsystems in mammals: morphology, genetic and evolution

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195541 Year: Pages: 75 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-554-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The nasal cavity and the elements it comprises are lined by mucosa. This mucosa contains olfactory sensory neurons, which are organized into four different territories: main olfactory epithelium, septal organ, vomeronasal epithelium and ganglion of Grünemberg. From a morphological point of view, these territories could initially be considered as isolated olfactory subsystems, which - as a whole or independently - have been addressed in the contributions enclosed in this Topic.

Neural Circuits: Japan

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194377 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-437-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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This Frontiers Research Topic on ‘Neural Circuits: Japan’ explores the diversity of neural circuit research occurring across Japan by innovative researchers using cutting-edge approaches. This issue has brought together papers revealing the development, structure, and physiology of neuronal circuits involved in sensory perception, sleep and wakefulness, behavioral selection, and motor command generation in a range of species from the nematode to the primate. Like the USA and Europe, Japan is now making a strong effort to elucidate neural circuit function in diverse organisms by taking advantages of optogenetics and innovative approaches for gene manipulation, traditional physiological and anatomical approaches, and neural pathway-selective inactivation techniques that have recently been developed in Japan.

Scents that matter - from olfactory stimuli to genes, behaviors and beyond

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198139 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-813-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Scents can carry a lot of important information about the environment, conspecifics and other species. While some of these scents are positively related, as the odor of food, mating partners, or familiar conspecifics, other scents are associated with negative situations and events, e.g. the occurrence of a predator, an aggressive territorial conspecific or spoiled food. The present research topic is focused on such “scents that matter”, i.e., scents that are crucial for the survival of an organism. Since many years, the importance of scents always attracts scientists to investigate how scents affect the behavior of mammals, via which mechanisms scents are perceived and how scents modulate neural circuitries responsible for behavior. We believe that this research topic gives a nice overview on current ‘olfactory research.’ Many of the contributions are focused on scents with aversive effects, i.e. kairomones or pheromones that warn about potential threats. These studies range from research articles identifying new active odor components of predator odors, describing the induced behavioral changes and the underlying neuroanatomical and neurochemical mechanisms, to review articles summarizing the findings of the last decades on this field. Other articles are focused on the effects of scents in social behaviors or on associative learning. This research topic also represents nicely the current combination of methodological approaches in ‘olfactory research’: cell biologists, geneticists, behavioral pharmacologists, neuroanatomists, and computational modelers work effectively together to unravel the mechanisms of how scents matters in humans and animals.

Why Have Cortical Layers? What Is the Function of Layering? Do Neurons in Cortex Integrate Information Across Different Layers?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456604 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-660-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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This research topic was suggested by Robert Sachdev to bring together a series of articles dealing with the laminar organization of the neocortex. By convention, there are six cortical layers but this number may vary throughout the cerebral cortex of a given species or between species: many regions lack one or more layers, whereas in other regions there are more than six layers.The laminar location of cortical neurons —their cell bodies— is determined during development. However, neurons are more than their cell bodies; they also have dendrites that may span within a given layer (intralaminar neurons) or across a variety of layers (translaminar neurons). For example, layer V pyramidal neurons have dendrites that span the entire cortical depth, whereas layer III pyramidal neurons have dendrites that span across layers I to IV. Some GABAergic interneurons have dendrites located within a cortical layer (e.g., neurogliaform cells), whereas the dendrites of other interneurons span several layers (e.g., bitufted cells).For neurons having dendrites that cross laminar boundaries, one might ask, why segregate their cell bodies so carefully into lamina? Among many other obvious questions: What is the evidence for or against integration of information across laminae for neurons whose dendrites span several layers?A traditional view is that activity flows through cortical layers in a feed-forward manner, going from layer IV, to layers II and III and onwards. Another view is that cortical layers can have distinct inputs that activate them, triggering spikes. Can processing sequences be state dependent?Furthermore, different cortical layers have distinct transcriptomic profiles, neurochemical attributes, connectivity patterns, number and types of synapses and many other structural attributes. Thus, based on anatomy, or physiology or imaging: What is the function of each cortical layer? What do the different layers do?

Biogenic Amines and Neuromodulation of Animal Behavior, 2nd Edition

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455645 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-564-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Since Erspamer and Boretti, 1951 first described the biogenic amine octopamine in the octopus salivary gland as a molecule with “adrenaline-like” action, decades of extensive studies demonstrated the important role octopamine and its precursor tyramine play in invertebrate physiology and behavior. This book contains the latest original research papers on tyramine/octopamine and their receptors in different neuronal and non-neuronal circuits of insects.

Additonally, this book elucidates in detail the latest research on the function of other biogenic amines and their receptors, such as dopamine and serotonin in insects and mice. The reviews in this book summarize the most recent research on the role of biogenic amines in insect antennae, synaptic development, and behavioral modulation by spontaneous dopamine release in Drosophila. Finally, one perspective paper discusses the evolution of social behavior and biogenic amines.

We recommend this book for all scholars interested in the latest advanced research on the role of biogenic amines in animal behavior.

ITS dedicates the topic to her teacher, Plotnikova Svetlana Ivanovna (1922-2013).
Environmental Enrichment of Pigs

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ISBN: 9783039280780 9783039280797 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-079-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Pigs have a strong motivation to explore and root. In conventional pig husbandry systems, this need is difficult to fulfil, unless adequate enrichment materials are provided. This book summarises how enrichment strategies for pigs have evolved over the last few decades in different countries and provides a vast array of possibilities to enhance the exploratory needs of pigs. The role of enrichment material on avoidance of tail biting outbreaks or as an element triggering positive emotions in pigs is also discussed.

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