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Harnessing oncolytic virus-mediated immunity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194506 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-450-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Abstract

Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have emerged as a promising anticancer treatment. OVs selectively infect, replicate in, and kill tumor cells. Oncolytic viral therapy occurs in two phases: an initial phase where the virus mediates direct oncolysis of tumor cells, and a second phase where an induced post-oncolytic immune response continues to mediate tumor destruction and retards progression of the disease. For a long time, the therapeutic efficacy was thought to depend mainly on the direct viral oncolysis based on their tumor selective replication and killing activities. But the post-oncolytic anti-tumor activity induced by the OV therapy is also a key factor for an efficient therapeutic activity. The topic adresses various strategies how to optimize OVs anti-tumor activity.

Epigenetic Modifications and Viral Infections

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195879 Year: Pages: 111 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-587-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Genetics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Epigenetics is defined as the study of modifications of the genome, heritable during cell division that does not involve changes in DNA sequences. Up to date, epigenetic modifications involve at least three general mechanisms regulating gene expression: histone modifications, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). For the past two decades, an explosion in our interest and understanding of epigenetic mechanisms has been seen. This mainly based on the influence that epigenetic alterations have on an amazing number of biological processes, such as gene expression, imprinting, programmed DNA rearrangements, germ line silencing, developmentally cued stem cell division, and overall chromosomal stability and identity. It has become also evident that the constant exposure of living organisms to environment factors affects their genomes through epigenetic mechanisms. Viruses infecting animal cells are thought to play central roles in shaping the epigenetic scenario of infected cells. In this context it has become obvious that knowing the impact that viral infections have on the epigenetic control of their host cells will certainly lead to a better understanding of the interplay viruses have with animal cells. In fact, DNA viruses use host transcription factors as well as epigenetic regulators in such a way that they affect epigenetic control of gene expression that extends to host gene expression. At the same time, animal cells employ mechanisms controlling transcription factors and epigenetic processes, in order to eliminate viral infections. In summary, epigenetic mechanisms are involved in most virus-cell interactions. We now know that some viruses exhibit epigenetic immune evasion mechanisms to survive and propagate in their host; however, there is still much ambiguity over these epigenetic mechanisms of viral immune evasion, and most of the discovered mechanisms are still incomplete. Other animal viruses associated to cancer often deregulate cellular epigenetic mechanisms, silencing cellular tumor-suppressor genes and/or activating either viral or host cell oncogenes. In addition, in several cancers the down-regulation of tumor suppressor protein-coding genes and ncRNAs with growth inhibitory functions, such as miRNAs, have been closely linked to the presence of cell CpG island promoter hypermethylation. The goal of the aforementioned Research Topic is to bring together the key experimental and theoretical research, linking state-of-the-art knowledge about the epigenetic mechanisms involved in animal virus-cell interactions.

Regulatory microRNA

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ISBN: 9783038977681 9783038977698 Year: Pages: 348 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-769-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Abstract

This book includes updated information about microRNA regulation, for example, in the fields of circular RNAs, multiomics analysis, biomarkers and oncogenes. The variety of topics included in this book reaffirms the extent to which microRNA regulation affects biological processes. Although microRNAs are not translated to proteins, their importance for biological processes is not less than proteins. An understanding of their roles in various biological processes is critical to understanding gene function in these biological processes. Although non-coding RNAs other than microRNAs have recently come under investigation, microRNA still remains the front runner as the subject of genetic and biological studies. In reading the collection of papers, readers can grasp the most updated information regarding microRNA regulation, which will continue to be an important topic in genetics and biology.

Keywords

tensor decomposition --- miRNA transfection --- sequence-nonspecific off-target regulation --- extracellular vesicles --- cancer --- therapeutics --- miRNA --- virus --- host --- Cross-Kingdom --- target prediction --- microRNAs --- autophagy --- mitophagy --- cardiac diseases --- biomarker --- calf --- Ileum --- miRNA-mRNA integration --- miRNA sequencing --- growth --- development --- microRNA --- myelodysplastic syndromes --- acute myeloid leukemia --- azacitidine --- 14q32 --- MEG3 --- autophagy regulator --- transcriptional factor --- non-coding RNA --- regulatory network --- RWR algorithm --- circular RNA --- circFGFR2 --- FGFR2 --- miR-133a-5p --- miR-29b-1-5p --- skeletal muscle --- proliferation --- differentiation --- breast cancer --- CAFs --- estrogens --- GPER --- miR-338-3p --- c-Fos --- Cyclin D1 --- amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) --- biomarker --- microRNA --- cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) --- muscle biopsy --- circulating miRNAs --- RNA interference --- small interfering RNA --- microRNA --- oncolytic virotherapy --- conditionally replicating adenovirus (CRAd) --- biomarker --- gene --- microRNA --- parkinson’s disease --- miRNA --- bioinformatic analysis --- ischemic stroke --- miRNA-gene target interaction --- network --- biomarker --- diagnosis --- prognosis --- microRNAs --- epigenetic biomarker --- sepsis --- inflammation --- Teleostei --- embryogenesis --- tissue-enriched miRNAs --- post-transcriptional gene regulation --- miRNA expression and regulation --- passenger miRNA --- biomarker --- vascular injury --- smooth muscle cells --- porcine vein graft and stent models --- bone angiogenesis --- osteogenesis --- angiogenic-osteogenic coupling --- microRNAs --- bone regeneration --- bone formation --- bone tissue-engineering --- angiomiRs --- osteomiRs --- hypoxamiRs --- circular RNA --- circHIPK3 --- microRNA --- miR-30a-3p --- skeletal muscle --- proliferation --- differentiation

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