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Governance Through Social Learning

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ISBN: 9780776627083 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Les Presses de l’Université d’Ottawa | University of Ottawa Press
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-09 12:19:45
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Governance connotes the way an organization, an economy, or a social system co-ordinates and steers itself. Some insist that governing is strictly a top-down process guided by authority and coercion, while others emphasize that it emerges bottom-up through the workings of the free market. This book rejects these simplistic views in favour of a more distributed view of governance based on a mix of coercion, quid pro quo market exchange and reciprocity, on a division of labour among the private, public, and civic sectors, and on the co-evolution of these different integration mechanisms. This book is for both practitioners confronted with governance issues and for citizens trying to make sense of the world around them.

Amtsmißbrauch - Eine rechtsvergleichende Untersuchung zu Artikel 323 des italienischen Strafgesetzbuchs

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Book Series: Göttinger Studien zu den Kriminalwissenschaften ISBN: 9783863950378 Year: Pages: 559 DOI: 10.17875/gup2012-135 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Law --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2013-04-12 20:08:17
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Das Phänomen des Mißbrauchs von Amtsbefugnissen ist in sämtlichen Gesellschaften verbreitet. Im Gegensatz zum deutschen hat der italienische Gesetzgeber den Amtsmißbrauch in Artikel 323 codice penale unter Strafe gestellt. Das Delikt hat durch die Anklage hochgestellter Politiker in Italien aktuell auch in Deutschland Bekanntheit erlangt. Die Bestimmung weist eine bewegte Geschichte auf und war in Italien Gegenstand heftiger wissenschaftlicher Auseinandersetzungen. Darauf geht die vorliegende Abhandlung anhand der Erläuterung der Tatbestandsmerkmale ein. Darüber hinaus wird untersucht, worin die Gründe für das Fehlen einer entsprechenden Norm im deutschen Recht zu sehen sind und inwiefern eine Inkriminierung der Zweckentfremdung von Amtskompetenzen hierzulande unter den Gesichtspunkten der Strafwürdigkeit und Strafbedürftigkeit in Betracht käme.

Emerging Zoonoses: Eco-Epidemiology, Involved Mechanisms and Public Health Implications

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196180 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-618-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-02 10:49:06
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Zoonoses are currently considered as one of the most important threats for public health worldwide. Zoonoses can be defined as any disease or infection that is naturally transmissible from vertebrate or invertebrate animals to humans and vice-versa. Approximately 75% of recently emerging infectious diseases affecting humans are diseases of animal origin; approximately 60% of all human pathogens are zoonotic. All types of potential pathogenic agents, including viruses, parasites, bacteria and fungi, can cause these zoonotic infections. From the wide range of potential vectors of zoonoses, insects are probably those of major significance due to their abundance, high plasticity and adaptability to different kinds of pathogens, high degrees of synanthropism in several groups and difficulties to apply effective programs of population control. Although ticks, flies, cockroaches, bugs and fleas are excellent insects capable to transmit viruses, parasites and bacteria, undoubtedly mosquitoes are the most important disease vectors. Mosquito borne diseases like malaria, dengue, equine encephalitis, West Nile, Mayaro or Chikungunya are zoonoses with increasing incidence in last years in tropical and temperate countries. Vertebrates can also transmit serious zoonoses, highlighting the role of some carnivorous animals in rabies dissemination or the spread of rodent borne diseases in several rural and urban areas. Moreover, the significance of other food borne zoonoses such as taeniasis, trichinellosis or toxoplasmosis may not been underestimated. According to WHO, FAO and OIE guidelines an emerging zoonotic disease can be defined as a zoonosis that is newly recognized or newly evolved, or that has occurred previously but shows an increase of incidence or expansion in geographical, host or vector range. There are many factors that can provoke or accelerate the emergence of zoonoses, such as environmental changes, habitat modifications, variations of human and animal demography, pathogens and vectors anomalous mobilization related with human practices and globalization, deterioration of the strategies of vector control or changes in pathogen genetics. To reduce public health risks from zoonoses is absolutely necessary to acquire an integrative perspective that includes the study of the complexity of interactions among humans, animals and environment in order to be able to fight against these issues of primary interest for human health. In any case, although zoonoses represent significant public health threats, many of them still remain as neglected diseases and consequently are not prioritized by some health international organisms.

Developments in Bovine Immunology - An Integrated View

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196326 Year: Pages: 112 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-632-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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The world’s population is predicted to hit 9 Billion by 2050, and with it food demand is predicted to increase substantially. The World Bank estimates that cereal and meat production needs to increase by 50% and 85% respectively between 2000 and 2030 to meet demand, putting serious pressure on the global agricultural industry. Critical to meeting this demand for food are mechanisms to reduce the incidence of animal disease. With in excess of 1.3 billion cattle globally, the total cost of infectious diseases is difficult to estimate. However in North America alone, the cost is predicted to be $18 billion annually. Non-infectious diseases also account for another major impediment to the production capacity and welfare of animals as well as the economic sustainability of farming. However animal diseases have implications that spread far beyond the farm gate. Infectious agents can also contaminate the food chain, and potentially affect human health. Controlling diseases, through better preventative and treatment methods requires a detailed understanding of the immune response in livestock species. Multiple studies have identified associations between variation in immune genes and disease susceptibility, which potentially opens up new avenues to select animals with superior disease resistance. Detailed understanding of immunity in cattle is leading to the design of more effective vaccines. Furthermore, appreciation of the significant differences between rodent and human immune responses has also led to bovine models being developed for some human diseases. The publication of the bovine genome and the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies have facilitated a massive expansion in our knowledge of the immune response in cattle. As a result there has been an explosion of exciting research findings including in metagenomics and epigenetics. Recently, there has been a welcome move to integrate our emerging understanding of the immune response with detailed studies of other important physiological processes including nutrition and reproduction. The interactions between the reproductive system, nutrition and the immune system are of particular interest, since each places significant demands on the animal at various stages through the production cycle. The interplay between these morphologically diffuse systems involves widely distributed chemical signals in response to environmental input, and each system must interact for the normal functioning of the other. A comprehensive “systems” approach is improving our understanding of normal physiological interactions between these systems and furthermore, how dysregulation can lead to disease. The successful translation of bovine immunological research into improved treatments for animal disease requires tight interaction between diverse scientific and clinical disciplines including immunology, microbiology, endocrinology, physiology, nutrition, reproduction and clinical veterinary medicine. With so much recent progress in the field, we believe that it is valuable and well-timed to review the broad variety of the relevant studies that attempt to increase our understanding through comprehensive collaboration between these disciplines. We are looking forward to a wide and vivid discussion of developments in bovine immunology and related issues, and we expect that our readers profoundly benefit from new exciting insights and fruitful collaborations.

Surveying Antimicrobial Resistance: Approaches, Issues, and Challenges to Overcome

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451418 Year: Pages: 419 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-141-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Why Antibiotic Resistance? The use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine may have consequences beyond their intended applications. The “One Health” concept recognizes that the health of humans is connected to the health of animals and the environment. Progress in molecular genetics is facilitating the rapid evaluation of the essentiality of these targets on a genomic scale. In 2015, a group of researchers established the International Conference on Antibiotic Resistance (IC2AR).The primary objective of this meeting is to bring together scientists involved in antibiotic resistance prevention and control. The IC2AR conducted its inaugural world congress in January 2015 at Caparica (Portugal). Antimicrobial resistance presents a significant challenge to scientists in the field of infectious diseases. The full knowledge of how antibiotics resistance is evolving and being transmitted between hosts in different ecosystems is taking on great importance. Necessary action includes research to define the scope of the problem including its various sources. This eBook comprises a series of original research and review articles dealing with the epidemiology of resistance in animal and zoonotic pathogens, mobile elements containing resistance genes, the omics of antimicrobial resistance, emerging antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, control of resistant infections, establishing antimicrobial use and resistance surveillance systems, and alternatives strategies to overcome the problem of antimicrobial resistance worldwide. Gilberto Igrejas, José Luis Capelo and Patrícia Poeta Scientific Committee of IC2AR, February 20th, 2017Why Antibiotic Resistance? The use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine may have consequences beyond their intended applications. The “One Health” concept recognizes that the health of humans is connected to the health of animals and the environment. Progress in molecular genetics is facilitating the rapid evaluation of the essentiality of these targets on a genomic scale. In 2015, a group of researchers established the International Conference on Antibiotic Resistance (IC2AR).The primary objective of this meeting is to bring together scientists involved in antibiotic resistance prevention and control. The IC2AR conducted its inaugural world congress in January 2015 at Caparica (Portugal). Antimicrobial resistance presents a significant challenge to scientists in the field of infectious diseases. The full knowledge of how antibiotics resistance is evolving and being transmitted between hosts in different ecosystems is taking on great importance. Necessary action includes research to define the scope of the problem including its various sources. This eBook comprises a series of original research and review articles dealing with the epidemiology of resistance in animal and zoonotic pathogens, mobile elements containing resistance genes, the omics of antimicrobial resistance, emerging antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, control of resistant infections, establishing antimicrobial use and resistance surveillance systems, and alternatives strategies to overcome the problem of antimicrobial resistance worldwide. Gilberto Igrejas, José Luis Capelo and Patrícia Poeta Scientific Committee of IC2AR, February 20th, 2017

The Eurasian Triangle. Russia, The Caucasus and Japan, 1904-1945

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783110469592 9783110469790 Year: Pages: 239 DOI: 10.1515/9783110469592 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Political Science --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-19 15:12:22
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Even the best books on international history are ignorant of the secret war against the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union waged jointly by the Caucasian peoples and Japan in the first half of the twentieth century. This book explores and exposes previously unknown passages in Eurasian international history. Although the secret war ultimately failed in liberating the Caucasian peoples, the lessons of this Eurasian collaboration were not lost on the United States, which after World War II confronted the Soviet Union just as Japan had earlier. Washington copied the strategy of its former enemy and developed it further. The Eurasian triangle of Russia, the Caucasus, and Japan is a forgotten history of cardinal importance that, stretching from the Russo-Japanese War to World War II, influenced Western Cold War strategies. This book is also the story of a friendship rare in international politics between two unlikely partners unspoiled by political vicissitudes.

Rabies Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prophylaxis and Treatment

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038426820 9783038426837 Year: Pages: 314 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-26 15:43:30
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Rabies is an acute, progressive, incurable viral encephalitis and one of the oldest described infectious diseases. All mammals are susceptible to infection, but rabid dogs are responsible for the greatest global burden. Bats and carnivores are the major wildlife reservoirs. More than 60,000 persons, primarily children, succumb each year after the bite from a rabid animal. This compilation describes new information on disease surveillance, diagnosis, prevention and control within Africa, Eurasia and the New World. Public health professionals, veterinarians, physicians, laboratory workers and conservation biologists should appreciate the novel communications provided from internationally renowned authors and the diversity of topics in this special issue on rabies.

Towards Elimination of Dog Mediated Human Rabies

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452996 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-299-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Rabies is an ancient zoonotic viral disease that still exerts a high impact on human and animal health. The disease is almost 100% fatal after clinical signs appear, and it kills tens of thousands of people per year worldwide, particularly in Africa and many parts of Asia. Although the disease in humans can be prevented by timely post-exposure prophylaxis, its access and affordability is limited in rabies endemic countries. With 99% of infections in humans caused by rabid domestic dog bites, controlling the infection in this reservoir population has been proven to be most effective to reduce and eliminate human rabies cases. In this context, this Research Topic invited contributions on the control and elimination of dog mediated human rabies. Publications on epidemiological, educational, policy-related and economic aspects of dog and human rabies surveillance, implementation of control in dogs and humans and scientific documentation of success stories were consolidated. We hope that these articles contribute to reaching the ambitious goal, set by key players in global health, of the elimination of dog mediated human rabies by 2030.

B-Vitamins and One-Carbon Metabolism

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ISBN: 9783038429739 9783038429746 Year: Pages: XII, 390 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-26 13:22:55
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Folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and riboflavin play a key role as coenzymes in one-carbon metabolism which, in turn, is essential for a broad range of fundamental physiological processes, including RNA and DNA synthesis, cell division, tissue growth and methylation. Deficiencies or imbalance of B-vitamins, as well as genetic polymorphisms and environmental factors, are shown to disturb the normal function of one-carbon metabolism with adverse effects on human health. Although a vast volume of research has already been conducted in this area, there are still significant gaps in our knowledge that require further investigations. This Special Issue of Nutrients invited submission of manuscripts, original research or reviews of the scientific literature, focused on novel findings in relation to B-vitamins and one-carbon metabolism in terms of: metabolic roles and molecular mechanisms; gene–nutrient interactions; fetal growth and programing; risk of disease (birth defects and pregnancy related conditions, cancer, cardiovascular disease and hypertension, neuropsychiatric disease, osteoporosis); health effects of B-vitamin supplementation and food fortification.

Genetics of Acquired Antimicrobial Resistance in Animal and Zoonotic Pathogens

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453948 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-394-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Development and spread of antimicrobial resistance is the result of an evolutionary process by which microorganisms adapt to antibiotics through several mechanisms including alteration of drug target by mutation and horizontal transfer of resistance genes. The concomitant occurrence of independent antimicrobial resistance mechanisms is a serious threat to human health and has appeared in several emerging epidemic clones over the past decade in humans and also in animals. The increasing prevalence of antimicrobial drug resistance among animal and zoonotic foodborne pathogens is of particular concern for public health. In this Ebook, we gathered a collection of articles which deal with the most important aspects of the genetics of acquired antimicrobial resistance extending from medically-important resistance, emerging epidemic resistant clones, main mobile genetic elements spreading resistance, resistomes, dissemination between animals and humans, to the “One Health” concept.

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