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Linking Optical and Chemical Properties of Dissolved Organic Matter in Natural Waters

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450817 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-081-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Geography --- Oceanography --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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A substantial increase in the number of studies using the optical properties (absorbance and fluorescence) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) as a proxy for its chemical properties in estuaries and the coastal and open ocean has occurred during the last decade. We are making progress on finding the actual chemical compounds or phenomena responsible for DOM’s optical properties. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry, in particular, has made important progress in making the key connections between optics and chemistry. But serious questions remain and the last major special issue on DOM optics and chemistry occurred nearly 10 years ago. Controversies remain from the non-specific optical properties of DOM that are not linked to discrete sources, and sometimes provide conflicting information. The use of optics, which is relatively easier to employ in synoptic and high resolution sampling to determine chemistry, is a critical connection to make and can lead to major advances in our understanding of organic matter cycling in all aquatic ecosystems. The contentions and controversies raised by our poor understanding of the linkages between optics and chemistry of DOM are bottlenecks that need to be addressed and overcome.

Efficiency of Bank Filtration and Post-Treatment

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ISBN: 9783039213054 / 9783039213061 Year: Pages: 352 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-306-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Riverbank filtration (RBF) schemes for the production of drinking water are increasingly challenged by new constituents of concern, such as organic micropollutants and pathogens in the source water and hydrological flow variations due to weather extremes. RBF and new technology components are integrated and monitoring and operating regimes are adopted to further optimize water treatment in bank filtration schemes for these new requirements. This Special Issue presents results from the EU project AquaNES “Demonstrating synergies in combined natural and engineered processes for water treatment systems” (www.aquanes.eu). Additionally, papers from other research groups cover the efficiency of bank filtration and post-treatment, advantages and limitations of combining natural and engineered processes, parameter-specific assessment of removal rates during bank filtration, and the design and operation of RBF wells. The feasibility, design, and operation of RBF schemes under specific site conditions are highlighted for sites in the US, India, and South Korea

Keywords

riverbank filtration --- removal efficacy --- dissolved organic carbon (DOC) --- pesticides --- pharmaceutical residues --- riverbank filtration --- organic matter degradation --- manganese --- riverbed --- climate change --- floods --- droughts --- column experiments --- PHREEQC --- decentralized capillary nanofiltration --- anoxic --- suboxic --- organic micropollutants --- bank filtrate --- groundwater --- sulphate --- dissolved organic matter --- high temperature --- sub-oxic conditions --- organic matter composition --- PARAFAC-EEM --- LC-OCD --- redox sensitivity --- micropollutants --- oxypurinol --- gabapentin --- river bank filtration --- hydrological trends --- sustainable water production --- well structure remodeling --- point-bar alluvial setting --- riverbank filtration --- site investigation --- hydrochemistry --- subsurface geology --- riverbank filtration --- organic micropollutants --- water quality --- environmental monitoring --- riverbank filtration --- collector wells --- performance --- entrance velocity --- river bank filtration --- attenuation --- organic micropollutants --- pharmaceuticals --- riverbank filtration --- small communities --- disinfection by-products --- trihalomethanes --- riverbank filtration (RBF) --- Krishna River --- southern India --- water treatment --- water quality --- salinity --- river bank filtration --- ultrafiltration --- surface water treatment --- energy efficiency --- out/in membrane comparison --- inline electrolysis --- bank filtration --- biofilm --- clogging --- filter cake --- pathogen barrier --- pressure loss --- slow sand filtration --- electro-chlorination --- smart villages --- disinfection --- river bank filtration --- rural water supply, online monitoring --- dissolved organic matter --- fluorescence excitation-emission matrix --- LC-OCD --- Nakdong River --- riverbank filtration --- bank filtration --- drinking water treatment --- inorganic chemicals --- organic micropollutants --- Ganga --- Yamuna --- Damodar --- riverbank filtration --- water quality --- organic carbon --- nitrate --- heavy metals --- microorganisms --- riverbank filtration --- riverside water source --- analytical method --- mirror-image method --- optimization --- riverbank filtration --- water quality --- bank filtrate portion --- iron --- manganese --- microorganisms --- system costs --- water supply --- storage tank --- drinking water hydropower --- turbine --- energy generation --- renewable energy

Recent Advances in Water and Wastewater Treatment with Emphasis in Membrane Treatment Operations

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ISBN: 9783038976240 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-625-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Engineering --- General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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The present Special Issue brings together recent research findings from renowned scientists in the field of water treatment and assembled contributions on advanced technologies applied to the treatment of wastewater and drinking water, with emphasis on novel membrane treatment technologies. 12 research contributions have highlighted various processes and technologies, which can achieve effective treatment and purification of wastewater and of drinking water, aiming (occasionally) for water reuse. The main topics which are analyzed are the use of novel type membranes in bioreactors, the use of modified membranes, for example using vacuum membrane distillation, the fouling of membranes, the problem of arsenic, antimony and chromium contamination in groundwaters and its removal and the use of novel technologies for more efficient ozonation.

Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling in Forest Soils

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ISBN: 9783038976820 / 9783038976837 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-683-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The majority of carbon stored in the soils of the world is stored in forests. The refractory nature of some portions of forest soil organic matter also provides the slow, gradual release of organic nitrogen and phosphorus to sustain long term forest productivity. Contemporary and future disturbances, such as climatic warming, deforestation, short rotation sylviculture, the invasion of exotic species, and fire, all place strains on the integrity of this homeostatic system of C, N, and P cycling. On the other hand, the CO2 fertilization effect may partially offset losses of soil organic matter, but many have questioned the ability of N and P stocks to sustain the CO2 fertilization effect.

Keywords

carbon distribution index --- moisture gradient --- soil organic matter fraction --- soil degradation --- soil available nitrogen --- soil available phosphorus --- temperature --- stand density --- charcoal --- forest soil --- carbon mineralization --- microbial activity --- nitrification --- polyphenols --- temperature --- soil microbial communities --- PLFA --- seasons --- nitrogen dynamics --- gross nitrogen transformations --- Daxing’an Mountains --- climatic factors --- soil nutrients --- forest types --- principal component analyses --- soil structure --- soil pH --- Oxisol --- variable-charge soils --- aluminum accumulator --- seasonal trends --- beech forests --- soil enzymes --- organic matter --- multilevel models --- near natural forest management --- Pinus massoniana plantation --- Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation --- soil greenhouse gas flux --- biolability --- tree-DOM --- dissolved organic matter (DOM) --- carbon --- dissolved organic carbon (DOC) --- stemflow --- throughfall --- alpine forest --- ammonia-oxidizing bacteria --- ammonia-oxidizing archaea --- ammonium --- nitrate --- revegetation --- microbial biomass --- chloroform fumigation extraction --- enzyme activities --- stoichiometric homeostasis --- the Three Gorges Reservoir --- Eucalyptus sp. --- wood volume --- second production cycle --- annual increment average --- soil fertility --- nutrient cycling --- Chamaecyparis forest --- humic substances --- 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P NMR) --- P species --- topography --- net primary productivity --- climate zone --- climate --- soil N --- litter N --- climate change --- manuring --- manure pelleting --- northern temperate --- pyrolysis --- information review --- leaf N:P ratio --- P resorption efficiency --- soil P fractions --- P stock --- stand age

Quality and Production of Forage

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ISBN: 9783039216741 / 9783039216758 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-675-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The book ""Quality and Production of Forage"" is intended to keep readers updatedon the developments occurring in this field. As it is apparent that livestockanimals are important throughout the world because of the meat, milk and eggthey produce, knowledge about the forages available to animals must also beconsidered for increased production, quality and efficiency. This book providesinformation that readers will find considerably invaluable about forage feeds, suchas grass, legumes, and straw. The book is composed of ten papers, focusing on awide range of research activities and topics that feature the following concepts offorage: the effect of conservation method on forage protein value; Microbial thecomposition and mycotoxin content in forage; genetic diversity of forages; timelysowing to maximize yield for both grain and biomass; ensiling treatments onforage quality; the qualitative characteristics of different accessions of new foragespecies; forage policy influencing feed costs; feeding forage on animal health;high-protein tropical forages as alternative sources for poultry; impact of foragesin poultry diet and significance of forages in sustainable poultry productionsystems. This book will be an invaluable reference for students and professionalsin agricultural science and grassland and animal husbandry researches.

Outstanding Topics in Ocean Optics

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ISBN: 9783038977049 9783038977056 Year: Pages: 454 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-705-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Ocean optics is a branch of oceanography which is firmly embedded in studies of a great variety of ocean science and engineering questions. The interactive nature between radiative transfer of light and various dissolved and particulate constituents of seawater is at the core of ocean optics science and applications. The transfer of radiant solar energy has vital implications to life and climate on Earth, and the large variety of subjects of ocean optics ranges from the subtle problems of physical optics to optical remote sensing towards a better understanding of ocean biology, biogeochemistry and ecosystems and their roles in the Earth's system processes. The intention of this book is to present a collection of papers that generally share a common denominator of frontier topics in ocean optics which are unique, uncommon or outstanding in the literature, and to provide a balanced view of the extraordinary breadth of research in this field. Topics as diverse as measurements and modeling of radiative transfer, light fields, light scattering and polarization, ocean color, benthic optical properties, and the use of optics for characterizing seawater constituents are addressed in this book. The book is expected to be of interest and useful to a broad audience of professional ocean scientists, engineers and advanced students with an interest in ocean optics and applications of optical methods in oceanography.

Keywords

forward modeling --- suspended matter --- marine particles --- fractal structure --- organic carbon --- chlorophyll-a --- oceanic light field --- irradiance quartet --- apparent optical properties --- inelastic processes --- Gershun equation --- ocean euphotic zone --- phytoplankton pigments --- ocean color --- remote sensing --- MERIS --- global oceans --- light scattering --- light scattering by pure water --- light scattering by pure seawater --- anomalous properties of water --- remote-sensing reflectance --- bathymetry --- hyperspectral --- bottom mapping --- radiative transfer --- apparent optical properties --- 3D Monte Carlo numerical simulations --- downward irradiance --- upward radiance --- sea ice heterogeneity --- vertical attenuation coefficient --- melt ponds --- remote sensing --- coral reef --- sensor noise --- retrieval uncertainty --- particle dynamics --- optical properties --- suspended sediment --- phytoplankton --- PFT --- ocean colour --- satellite radiometry --- radiative transfer --- optical modelling --- vector radiative transfer --- polarization --- coupled systems --- atmosphere --- ocean --- forward modeling --- inverse problems --- marine optics --- inherent optical properties --- volume scattering function --- degree of linear polarization --- marine particles --- light scattering measurements --- LISST-VSF instrument --- ocean optics --- ocean color --- remote sensing --- radiative transfer approximation --- volume scattering function --- NASA PACE mission --- polarization --- ocean optics --- upwelling radiance distribution --- remote sensing --- remote sensing --- hyperspectral --- shallow water --- coral --- derivative --- radiative transfer --- canopy --- ocean color database --- oceanic carbon --- chromophoric dissolved organic matter --- dissolved organic carbon --- CDOM spectral slope --- ocean color remote sensing --- algorithm development --- ocean color algorithm validation --- ocean optics --- CDOM climatology --- CDOM and ENSO --- machine learning --- ocean optics --- backscattering ratio --- phytoplankton --- coated-sphere model --- bulk refractive index --- seawater component --- natural organic matter --- DOM --- FDOM --- CDOM --- Gelbstoff --- EEMS --- PARAFAC --- marine sensors --- Kallemeter --- FerryBox --- Trondheimsfjord --- Norway --- ocean optics --- light scattering --- Mueller matrix --- volume and surface integral methods

Recent Advances in Water Management: Saving, Treatment and Reuse

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038970316 / 9783038970323 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-032-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:28
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Recent Advances in Water Management: Saving, Treatment and Reuse that was published in Water

Keywords

guidelines --- contaminated sites --- risk assessment --- China --- ferrous iron --- ferrous sulfide --- hydrogen sulfide --- odor control --- pumping mains --- sewerage --- pharmaceuticals --- micropollutant removal --- tezontle --- filter media --- active sites --- trickling filter --- anaerobic digester --- swine wastewater --- organic matter --- COD --- decomposition analysis --- global patent data --- research and development strategy --- water treatment technology --- anammox bacteria --- wastewater treatment --- nitrification --- denitrification --- zeolite --- combined sewer --- wastewater treatment --- microbiological quality --- surface water --- river --- lignin --- delignification --- pulp-and-paper-mill c --- wastewater --- white rot fungi --- B. adusta --- P. crysosporium --- foreign countries --- agricultural occupations --- water --- environmental education --- surveys --- sustainability --- milk production --- water --- footprint --- water recycling --- conservation --- partitioning --- efficiency --- forest waste --- palm mulch --- constructed wetlands --- vertical flow --- water treatment --- passive treatment systems --- anaerobic processes --- constructed wetlands --- ornamental plants --- treated wastewater reuse --- advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) --- activated carbon adsorption --- carbamazepine toxicity --- conventional treatment processes --- membrane technology --- occurrence --- food industry --- anticorrosive agent --- benzotriazole --- emerging contaminant --- oxygen injection --- Pb(II) --- nano illite/smectite clay --- adsorption kinetics --- adsorption thermodynamic

Fertilizer Application on Crop Yield

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ISBN: 9783038976547 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-655-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Fertilizer Application on Crop Yield that was published in Agronomy

Keywords

soil organic matter --- soil biota --- soil acidity --- soil erosion --- fertilizer management --- site-specific nutrient management --- balanced use of fertilizers --- integrated nutrient management --- agronomic response --- calcium --- Copper --- NPK amendments --- Value Cost Ratio --- Zinc --- nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) --- nitrate assimilation --- nitrate reductase activity --- maize --- nitrate --- ammonia --- NADH --- NADH-dehydrogenase --- Complex I --- site-specific K management --- soil K supply --- maize yield response to K --- maize crop manager --- nutrient expert for maize --- durum wheat --- mineral N --- organic N --- S fertilization --- grain quality --- grain yield --- phosphorous --- potassium --- corn–soybean rotation --- management --- production system --- organic farming --- conventional farming --- organic nutrients --- chemical fertilizers --- global food demand --- agroforestry system --- evergreen agriculture --- biofertilizer --- Bacillus pumilus --- growth promotion --- N fertilizer --- rice --- yield --- green manure --- nitrogen uptake --- Orychophragmus violaceus L. --- soil nitrogen pools --- grain yield --- Zea mays L. --- hybrid rice --- K use efficiency --- potassium --- saline tract --- soil N supply --- soil N mineralization --- N fertilization --- potentially mineralizable N --- humid Mediterranean climate --- conservation agriculture --- NUE --- nitrogen recovery efficiency --- nitrogen physiological recovery --- wheat yields --- Agrotain® urea --- rice-wheat system --- organic farming --- forage legume --- long-term productivity --- soil health --- economics --- integrated nutrient management --- rice --- wheat --- yield --- net returns --- soil health --- sustainability

Drinking Water Quality and Human Health

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ISBN: 9783038977261 Year: Pages: 374 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-727-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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The quality of drinking water is paramount for public health. Despite important improvements in the last decades, access to safe drinking water is not universal. The World Health Organization estimates that almost 10% of the population in the world do not have access to improved drinking water sources. Among other diseases, waterborne infections cause diarrhea, which kills nearly one million people every year, mostly children under 5 years of age. On the other hand, chemical pollution is a concern in high-income countries and an increasing problem in low- and middle-income countries. Exposure to chemicals in drinking water may lead to a range of chronic non-communicable diseases (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular disease), adverse reproductive outcomes, and effects on children’s health (e.g., neurodevelopment), among other health effects. Although drinking water quality is regulated and monitored in many countries, increasing knowledge leads to the need for reviewing standards and guidelines on a nearly permanent basis, both for regulated and newly identified contaminants. Drinking water standards are mostly based on animal toxicity data, and more robust epidemiologic studies with accurate exposure assessment are needed. The current risk assessment paradigm dealing mostly with one-by-one chemicals dismisses the potential synergisms or interactions from exposures to mixtures of contaminants, particularly at the low-exposure range. Thus, evidence is needed on exposure and health effects of mixtures of contaminants in drinking water. Finally, water stress and water quality problems are expected to increase in the coming years due to climate change and increasing water demand by population growth, and new evidence is needed to design appropriate adaptation policies.This Special Issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) focuses on the current state of knowledge on the links between drinking water quality and human health.

Keywords

Vibrio pathogens --- rural water resources --- public health --- sub-Saharan Africa --- diarrhoeal disease --- HWTS implementation --- water and sanitation --- drinking water guidance --- infant exposure --- chemical risk assessment --- duration extrapolation --- acute gastroenteritis --- risk --- tap water --- time series study --- turbidity --- urban area --- water operation data --- THMs --- cancer --- effect measure modification --- drinking water --- drinking water --- exposure assessment --- sodium --- potassium --- magnesium --- calcium --- spatial variations --- Denmark --- water safety plans --- drinking water quality --- risk management --- impact assessment --- Asia-Pacific region --- diarrhea --- fever --- cough --- Nigeria --- infant health --- drinking water --- inorganic manganese --- health-based guideline --- infants --- pharmaceuticals --- human health --- environment --- drug labels --- screening method --- LTD --- uncertainty factors --- risk assessment --- risk context --- biomonitoring --- dental health --- drinking water --- fluoride --- pharmacokinetic modeling --- waterborne disease outbreak --- simulation study --- health insurance data --- space–time detection --- drinking water --- nitrate --- cancer --- adverse reproductive outcomes --- methemoglobinemia --- thyroid disease --- endogenous nitrosation --- N-nitroso compounds --- E. coli --- monitoring --- drinking water --- water safety plan --- sanitary inspection --- gravity-fed piped water scheme --- risk management --- chlorination by-product --- France --- environmental exposure --- organic matter --- tap water --- trihalomethanes --- private wells --- groundwater --- drinking water --- animal feeding operation --- fecal coliforms --- enterococci --- E. coli --- Maryland --- nitrite --- disinfection by-product --- drinking water distribution systems --- seasonality --- atrazine --- community water system --- low birth weight --- preterm birth --- small for gestational age --- water contamination --- endocrine disruptor --- drinking water --- radioactivity --- annual effective dose --- carcinogenic --- chronic kidney disease --- end-stage renal disease --- water contaminants --- zinc --- ammonia --- chemical oxygen demand --- dissolved oxygen --- arsenic

Dinophysis Toxins: Distribution, Fate in Shellfish and Impacts

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ISBN: 9783039213634 / 9783039213641 Year: Pages: 376 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-364-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Abstract

Several species of Dinophysis produce one or two groups of lipophilic toxins: okadaic acid (OA) and its derivatives; or the dinophysistoxins (DTXs) (also known as diarrhetic shellfish poisons or DSP toxins) and pectenotoxins (PTXs). DSP toxins are potent inhibitors of protein phosphatases, causing gastrointestinal intoxication in consumers of contaminated seafood. Forty years after the identification of Dinophysis as the causative agent of DSP in Japan, contamination of filter feeding shellfish exposed to Dinophysis blooms is recognized as a problem worldwide. DSP events affect public health and cause considerable losses to the shellfish industry. Costly monitoring programs are implemented in regions with relevant shellfish production to prevent these socioeconomic impacts. Harvest closures are enforced whenever toxin levels exceed regulatory limits (RLs). Dinophysis species are kleptoplastidic dinoflagellates; they feed on ciliates (Mesodinium genus) that have previously acquired plastids from cryptophycean (genera Teleaulax, Plagioselmis, and Geminigera) nanoflagellates. The interactions of Dinophysis with different prey regulate their growth and toxin production. When Dinophysis cells are ingested by shellfish, their toxins are partially biotransformed and bioaccumulated, rendering the shellfish unsuitable for human consumption. DSP toxins may also affect shellfish metabolism. This book covers diverse aspects of the abovementioned topics—from the laboratory culture of Dinophysis and the kinetics of uptake, transformation, and depuration of DSP toxins in shellfish to Dinophysis population dynamics, the monitoring and regulation of DSP toxins, and their impact on the shellfish industry in some of the aquaculture regions that are traditionally most affected, namely, northeastern Japan, western Europe, southern Chile, and New Zealand.

Keywords

harmful algal bloom --- Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning --- okadaic acid --- toxin accumulation --- toxin vectors --- trophic transfer --- Brazil --- diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DST) --- Mytilus galloprovincialis --- DST accumulation --- DST esterification --- suspended particulate matter (SPM) --- harmful algal blooms --- okadaic acid --- Argopecten irradians --- transcriptomic response --- deep sequencing --- pectenotoxins --- surf clam --- accumulation --- biotransformation --- depuration --- diarrhetic shellfish toxins --- accumulation --- dinophysistoxin --- Japanese scallop --- dinophysis --- LC/MS/MS --- statistical analysis --- Dinophysis --- HAB monitoring --- DSP toxins --- aquaculture --- shellfish toxicity --- human health --- time-series --- seasonality --- Scotland --- DSP toxins --- bivalves --- mussel --- resistance --- RNA-Seq --- qPCR --- metabolism --- defense --- immunity --- DSP toxins --- pectenotoxins --- Dinophysis acuminata --- Mesodinium rubrum --- bacterial community --- high throughput sequencing --- diarrhetic shellfish toxins --- Dinophysis --- wild harvest --- bivalve shellfish --- pipis (Plebidonax deltoides) --- Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) --- okadaic acid --- pectenotoxins --- Dinophysis toxins --- accumulation --- digestion --- biotransformation --- compartmentalization --- depuration --- kinetics --- Dinophysis --- diarrhetic shellfish poisoning --- marine toxins --- pectenotoxin --- okadaic acid --- dinophysistoxin --- okadaic acid --- pectenotoxins --- Dinophysis --- D. acuminata-complex --- D. caudata --- Argopecten purpuratus --- Dinophysis --- Mesodinium --- cryptophytes --- predator-prey preferences --- Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins (DST) --- pectenotoxins (PTXs) --- mixotrophic cultures --- mass culture conditions --- Dinophysis acuminata --- Protoceratium reticulatum --- Reloncaví Fjord --- OMI analysis --- WitOMI analysis --- Mesodinium cf. rubrum --- El Niño Southern Oscillation --- Southern Annual Mode --- Dinophysis acuta --- Dinophysis acuminata --- DSP --- physical–biological interactions --- niche partitioning --- climatic anomaly --- Dinophysis acuminata --- Mesodinium rubrum --- lysate --- organic matter --- diarrhetic shellfish poisoning --- okadaic acid --- dinophysistoxin --- pectenotoxins --- dinophysis --- DSP --- toxins --- OA --- DTX-2 --- PTXs --- Dinophysis acuminata --- dinophysistoxins --- pectenotoxins --- Port Underwood --- New Zealand --- Dinophysis --- Diarrhetic shellfish toxins --- marine biotoxins --- blooms --- n/a

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