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16 Military Samhandling (Book chapter)

Author:
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 18 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch16 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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Abstract

"The chapter describes and discusses interaction within the Norwegian
Armed Forces. Military interaction is understood as the dynamic and sometimes unpredictable
action undertaken when two or more services interact. The chapter explores
why interaction between military services, such as land, sea and air forces, is
difficult – and, in some circumstances, completely absent. How can inadequate interaction
between the military branches be explained? As Europe’s armed forces become
increasingly complex and sophisticated, two perspectives from organisational theory
are applied. First, an instrumental perspective is used to comprehend the problem.
Particular attention is paid to the tension between hierarchical authority and the division
of labour. Thereafter, a cultural perspective is used to comprehend inter-service
rivalry. Here, attention is paid to informal rules and regulations, or habitual ‘rules of
thumb’ that have become institutionalised over time. These ‘the behavioural patterns’
affect the way military services perceive themselves in contrast to others. The main
finding is that Norway’s Armed Forces suffer from ‘limited rationality’. This is because
Norway’s military units operate within a fragmented command structure that consists
of many different sub-organisations; individually, in times of peace in Norway, they
pursue their own myopic agendas rather than a comprehensive national objective. In
this process, the branches are also forced to compromise with each other to reach their
individual objectives. A form of limited rationality therefore arises because the Army,
Navy and Air Force act rationally. This is, however, not on the basis of what serves
Norwegian security best, but on the basis of what is rational for their specific branch."

3 Is It Possible to Prevent Unforeseen Events? (Book chapter)

Author:
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 20 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch3 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
License:

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Abstract

"An unforeseen event may be defined as something that happens suddenly
and unexpectedly. Such events are seldom the result of an organisation’s operational
planning, but they can be side-effects of such planning. An unforeseen event may
have either positive or negative consequences. This chapter aims to discuss if it is
possible
to prevent unforeseen events. The major focus is on analysis and prevention
of unforeseen events with negative consequences, such as accidents, catastrophes
and acts of terror. Such events often take place in complex systems, and failures of
appropriate organisational interaction and communication among participants
with complementary competence in such systems may contribute to unforeseen
events. Risk-analysis methods and tools based on energy-barrier models, causal sequence
and process models, as well as information-processing models are presented
and their applicability to the prevention of unforeseen events is discussed. This also
includes the Bow-tie approach, as well as other approaches which take into consideration
organisational factors and social interaction (samhandling). The conclusion
is that unforeseen events can be prevented. However, in the aftermath of the implementation
of safety and security measures, it is not possible to know which events
they prevented, or to obtain knowledge about their efficiency. An additional strategy
for prevention of unforeseen events with negative consequences is proposed."

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