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17 Samhandling and Trust in Military Leadership Structures (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 20 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch17 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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"The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the importance of trust in military&#xD;samhandling. Trust serves as one of the main prerequisites for effective collaboration&#xD;(Kouzes & Posner, 2003). The Norwegian Armed Forces’ (NAF) core business is&#xD;the planning and execution of military operations (Forsvarsstaben, 2014). One of&#xD;the main tasks of the NAF is to plan for the unexpected and, ultimately, for war. The&#xD;chapter further discuss trust in military leadership, and leadership and situational&#xD;awareness. Leadership as a social interaction process that builds trust is discussed,&#xD;and samhandling is seen in a military context. A basic “trust-based model” of samhandling&#xD;is introduced and viewed in terms of internal and external framework factors.&#xD;The chapter concludes that trust is still quite an open concept, and that trust&#xD;is essential for the effective accomplishment of military missions. The basic trust&#xD;model is an attempt to underline understanding of the importance of trust in a&#xD;military planning and leadership context."&#xD;

15 Competence for the Unforeseen (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 34 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch15 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"This study examines self-assessment of preparedness for unforeseen events&#xD;and how it varies between groups and individuals according to roles and functions&#xD;within an organization. The study has two objectives. The first is to analyse the relationship&#xD;between general self-efficacy, perceived competence in demanding situations and&#xD;social support, and based on this, to assess the efficiency of interaction (samhandling)&#xD;in organizations and preparedness for the unforeseen. The second aim is to examine&#xD;how these factors vary according to professional experience. A survey questionnaire&#xD;was completed during winter 2016/2017. All 624 respondents were male or female&#xD;employees of the Norwegian Armed Forces, based in different units, with different&#xD;levels of competence, and included commissioned and non-commissioned officers,&#xD;officer cadets and conscripts. The response rate was 77 percent, and a total of 810&#xD;personnel were approached. This study incorporates central concepts of individual&#xD;and social resources that could permit the prediction and understanding of resilient&#xD;behaviors in complex and demanding situations. Interaction was found to be the&#xD;most important predictor of preparedness for the unforeseen. This study also shows&#xD;that interaction combined with general self-efficacy and social support can account&#xD;for a considerable proportion of the variance in preparedness for the unforeseen. The&#xD;results indicate that it is possible to prepare for unforeseen events by implementing&#xD;measures that improve social factors in particular."&#xD;

13 Interaction and Risk Management in Shared Leadership (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 18 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch13 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"The chapter presents a case from a government agency in Norway, where&#xD;two assistant directors share a leadership position and must interact extensively. The&#xD;main purpose is to highlight some benefits and challenges related to shared leadership&#xD;when it comes to risk prevention and handling unforeseen events. The analysis&#xD;is based on a relational perspective that emphasizes that successful interaction between&#xD;people requires complementary skills, conceptualized as relational skills. The&#xD;chapter concludes that the patterns of interaction and relational skills that develop&#xD;during shared leadership can help prevent undesirable events. This is partly because&#xD;shared leadership can provide increased capacity in identifying risks. Common&#xD;experiences in handling risks and unforeseen events may contribute to learning&#xD;that in turn provides the potential for further development of the interactional and&#xD;relational skills in shared leadership. At the same time, shared leadership entails&#xD;some risks that may impact on the prevention and handling of such events. For&#xD;instance, interactional challenges that may arise in a shared leadership may prevent&#xD;leaders from discovering potential hazards."&#xD;

7 Leading and Managing Interaction Under Risk in the Police (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 14 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch7 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"Leading interaction under risk is one of the aspects of being a leader in&#xD;the police. After the 22nd of July 2011 Norwegian terror attacks it has been pointed&#xD;out that the main explanatory factors as to why interaction under risk turned out&#xD;as it did not necessarily was due to the lack of resources, previous evaluations or&#xD;government plans but rather the lack of living up to these. In organisation theory, -&#xD;psychology and management literature, it is customary to distinguish between&#xD;expressed and actual ways to manage and lead, as well as between the structuralinstrumental&#xD;and the institutional perspective. These strands of research address&#xD;how the difference between general and overarching political aims and the execution&#xD;of the same aims in practice neither may be neither uncommon nor unexpected.&#xD;However, is it possible to expect more agreement between aims and actual&#xD;behaviour? If so, what may some of the underlying conditions for leading learning&#xD;from experience be? This chapter discusses what some of the underlying conditions&#xD;for leading and managing learning from experience in the case of interaction under&#xD;risk in the police may be. Specifically, conditions of learning located between the&#xD;expressed and executed, that is, between the institutional and cultural."&#xD;

6 Apprenticeship Learning in Preparation for Meeting the Unforeseen (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 34 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch6 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"The chapter analyzes teaching where the goal is to enable students at the&#xD;Armed Forces Staff College to master unforeseen events. The students are all participants&#xD;in a program for joint operations in which different military branches are placed&#xD;together to solve complex tasks. How can the supervisor contribute to increased&#xD;samhandling when facing the unforeseen? The goal is for students to be able to cope&#xD;with the roles that exist in a normal NATO headquarters and to learn how to use&#xD;NATO’s operational planning strategy. The group supervisor becomes a form of&#xD;master who greatly influences the approach of students to the training community.&#xD;From a sample of one hundred students, five groups consisting of four to five students&#xD;of both sexes, with varied defense-force affiliations, backgrounds and experience&#xD;were selected to be interviewed. A total of 23 informants participated in the&#xD;interviews. In addition, observations were carried out. Apprenticeship Learning as a&#xD;method is appropriate to prepare the students better for samhandling in anticipation&#xD;of the unforeseen. The way the supervisor manages his or her role has a great deal of&#xD;impact on samhandling and learning outcomes. The supervisor’s insight and expertise&#xD;in what is needed to make groups work together is decisive. Strengthening and&#xD;developing samhandling in exercises is a suitable educational method for military&#xD;forces in meeting unforeseen events, provided that it is done properly."&#xD;

1 Samhandling Under Risk (SUR) (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 20 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch1 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"The main objective of this chapter is to clarify some key and overall theoretical&#xD;and conceptual frameworks underlying the research project “Samhandling&#xD;Under Risk” (SUR), as discussed in the various chapters of this anthology. The overall&#xD;research question is: What are the basic structures of the concept of samhandling under&#xD;risk and how can samhandling be created when the conditions are unpredictable?&#xD;This chapter explains in particular the terms “samhandling” (SAM), “the Unforeseen”&#xD;(UN), “Risk” and “SUR structures”. Furthermore, these concepts are explored more&#xD;deeply in relation to each other, which also frames the main approach of the anthology.&#xD;As a basis, a specific understanding of “The Nature of the Unforeseen”, an expanded&#xD;and customized Bow-tie Model, as well as a clarification of the boundaries&#xD;enclosing the research field are compared to traditional risk analysis and training in&#xD;what is already known and in dealing with probable threats. Although the individual&#xD;studies reported in this anthology also have their own specific angles regarding these&#xD;concepts and models, they have nevertheless been based on these. The core focus is&#xD;also on learning in the light of organizational learning and SUR. The boundaries, challenges&#xD;and the anthology’s focus on learning are also expressed in the more general&#xD;and overall question: How can we as a society prepare ourselves for the unforeseen,&#xD;the events and threats at the outer reaches of what we have trained for? A more indepth&#xD;explanation about the background of this research project is also given in the&#xD;preface of the anthology."&#xD;

28 Basic Structures for a New Theory of Samhandling Under Risk (SUR) (Book chapter)

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 22 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch28 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:07
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"This final chapter aggregates experiences and findings from the other&#xD;chapters of the book. The book’s overall research question is as follows: What are&#xD;the basic structures of the concept of samhandling under risk and how can samhandling&#xD;be created when the conditions are unpredictable? A number of SUR (Samhandling&#xD;Under Risk) structures are derived based on semantic theory construction,&#xD;and these are described in an overall definition and visualized in a model, which&#xD;in turn can form the basis of a SUR theory. These are organized under educational,&#xD;organizational and operational structures, as three superior competencies needed&#xD;to facilitate effective SUR. The essence is that there is a different basis for this type&#xD;of assessment than with traditional risk analysis, in order to achieve good samhandling&#xD;under risk and unforeseen conditions. This is concerned with what is needed&#xD;when little or nothing goes according to plan. It is then necessary to emphasize&#xD;on such matters more in depth and addition address other factors to achieve SUR&#xD;through samhandling where the conditions are predictable - where completed plans&#xD;and clear objectives work. For the learning level, valuation of inaccurate knowledge&#xD;and qualities is required to extract information from the disorder. For the&#xD;organizational level, it is important to create and/or maintain shared leadership&#xD;and at the operative level, improvisation is essential. When working with a SUR&#xD;paradigm, one must be able to accept unclear goals, be prepared to lose control&#xD;and create room for surprises. Leaders with SUR skills will be required to prepare organizations for this. Training and SUR should be incorporated into strategic&#xD;plans, management training and leadership development. An expansion of established&#xD;pedagogical models is also needed to achieve this aim. Invisible learning is&#xD;one approach. Samhandling does not simply happen in a vacuum, and the chapter&#xD;encourages further SUR research in a global perspective, where different languages&#xD;and cultures can contribute to enhanced understanding of SUR issues. As a starting&#xD;point for such an approach, we explore how the term is expressed in the Japanese&#xD;language. A more global approach to SUR structures can contribute to a deeper&#xD;understanding of what is needed, to avoid unwanted misunderstandings and crises,&#xD;learn from each other and solve complex and unforeseen situations through&#xD;samhandling."&#xD;

19 Samhandling During Crisis Work (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch19 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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"Samhandling is considered as a key solution when asymmetry occurs. An&#xD;expectation of seamless samhandling can be a special challenge to High Reliability&#xD;Organizations&#xD;which have mechanistic traditions in common, i.e. an assumption of&#xD;linearity and routine-based work. In this chapter, a model to operationalize samhandling&#xD;is presented. This conceptual study is based on observational data from an&#xD;inter-organizational exercise. A full-scale exercise of a train accident on the Öresund&#xD;Bridge between Sweden and Denmark was observed. The overall goal of the exercise&#xD;was to effectively solve the situation. However, different routines contributed to&#xD;confusion and misunderstandings in the meeting on how to act. The exercise was&#xD;dominated by a focus on linearity within the internal organizations, which hindered&#xD;samhandling. In order to conceptualize samhandling, a three-level model is presented.&#xD;It consists of “sequential samhandling”, i.e. a simplified, assembly-line type work&#xD;process, “parallel samhandling”, i.e. carrying out tasks simultaneously, and “synchronous&#xD;samhandling”, i.e. tasks performed at the same time in a spontaneous and natural&#xD;way. A three-level samhandling model such as the one presented can be a useful&#xD;tool for managing disasters."&#xD;

14 Samhandling Under Risk (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 17 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch14 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"This chapter aims to examine how samhandling and concurrent learning&#xD;work together. “Concurrent learning” is a form of simultaneous learning, where&#xD;many learning processes related to samhandling take place at the same time. Samhandling&#xD;and concurrent learning are also functional processes, in the sense that&#xD;learning also occurs through daily interaction activities or actions. At the same time,&#xD;concurrent learning and samhandling are interdependent and they are, therefore, in&#xD;a sense part of the same process (hence concurrent learning). The chapter identifies&#xD;five factors identified as important to samhandling and concurrent learning. These&#xD;are: (1) Awareness of basic assumptions regarding people; relations and teamwork&#xD;are essential; (2) Space, (3) Giving of themselves, (4) Making processes transparent&#xD;and addressing problems as early as possible, and (5) Reflection as a key to samhandling&#xD;and concurrent learning. Samhandling and concurrent learning represent a&#xD;mindset, a way of working and a form of learning, which together help to meet and/&#xD;or develop the skills needed to tackle the challenges of flexible organizations."&#xD;

12 Social Innovation and Collaboration (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 20 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch12 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"This chapter explores the link between social innovation and collaboration&#xD;among change agents and stakeholders. Social innovation is a field on the rise,&#xD;both practically and theoretically (Cajaiba-Santana, 2014), and involves new ideas&#xD;for tackling unmet social needs and solving current social problems (Mulgan et al.,&#xD;2007). Even though social innovation has great potential, confronting uncertainties,&#xD;risks and resistance are inevitable when engaging in this type of endeavor. Consequently,&#xD;it may be challenging to mobilize key stakeholders to commit to and engage&#xD;in relevant&#xD;actions and collaborative processes (Marcy, 2015). The problem that will&#xD;be addressed in this chapter concerns how to identify, target and mobilize key stakeholders&#xD;to collaborate in social innovation initiatives. It is viewed from the vantage&#xD;point of those initiating and leading social innovation efforts and aims to point&#xD;out some factors that must be overcome and others that may foster constructive&#xD;collaborative processes among change agents and stakeholders."&#xD;

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