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Autism: The Movement Perspective

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195091 Year: Pages: 374 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-509-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is portrayed as cognitive and social disorders. Undoubtedly, impairments in communication and restricted-repetitive behaviors that now define the disorders have a profound impact on social interactions. But can we go beyond the descriptive, observational nature of this definition and objectively measure that amalgamate of motions and sensations that we call behavior?In this Research Topic we bring movement and its sensation to the forefront of autism research, diagnosis, and treatment. We gather researchers across disciplines with the unifying goal of recognizing movement and sensory disturbances as core symptoms of the disorder. We also hear confirmation from the perspective of autism self-advocates and parents. Those important sources of evidence along with the research presented in this topic demonstrate without a doubt that profound movement and sensory differences do exist in ASD and that they are quantifiable.The work presented in this Research Topic shows us that quantifiable differences in movements have a better chance than current observational techniques to help us uncover subtle solutions that the nervous system with autism has already spontaneously self-discovered and utilized in daily living. Where the naked eye would miss the unique subtleties that help each individual cope, instrumentation and fine kinematic analyses of motions help us uncover inherent capacities and predispositions of the person with autism. The work presented in this topic helps us better articulate through the voices of parents and self-advocates those sensory motor differences that current inventories could not possibly uncover. These differences are seldom perceived as they take place at timescales and frequencies that fall largely beneath our conscious awareness. To the person in the spectrum living with this disorder and to the caregiver creating accommodations to help the affected loved one, these subtleties are very familiar though. Indeed they are often used in clever ways to facilitate daily routines. We have waited much too long in science to listen to the very people that we are trying to define, understand and help.Being autism a social problem by definition, it is remarkable that not a single diagnosis inventory measures the dyadic social interaction that takes place between the examiner and the examinees. Indeed we have conceived the autistic person within a social context where we are incapable - by definition - of accepting those differences. The burden is rather placed on the affected person to whom much too often we refer to in the third person as “non-verbal, without intentionality, without empathy or emotions, without a theory of mind”, among other purely psychological guesses. It is then too easy and shockingly allowed to “reshape” that person, to mold that person to better conform to our social expectations and to extinguish “behaviors” that are socially unacceptable, even through the use of aversive punishing reinforcement techniques if need be. And yet none of those techniques have had a single shred of objective scientific evidence of their effectiveness. We have not objectively measured once, nor have we physiologically characterized once any of those perceived features that we so often use to observationally define what we may think the autistic phenotype may be. We have not properly quantified, beyond paper-and-pencil methods, the effectiveness of interventions in autism.

The Trigemino-Cardiac Reflex: Beyond the Diving Reflex

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454006 Year: Pages: 58 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-400-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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The trigemino-cardiac reflex (TCR) is a well established brain-stem reflex and commonly manifests as bradycardia, asystole, hypotension and / or apnea. This phenomenon was extensively explored in the recent past. However, the area related to its exact bio-physiological mechanism, neuro-anatomical linkages, clinical implications, its role in non neurological events and future directions should need to be further investigated. Therefore, this present research topic on TCR would mainly focus on various aspects of TCR and present a comprehensive and exhaustive overview about a phenomena that gains more and more interest during the last few years. Our goal is to present models about the different aspects of the TCR to develop in-depth understanding of TCR.

Improving outcomes in cerebral palsy with early intervention: new translational approaches

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195121 Year: Pages: 155 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-512-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Pediatrics --- Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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The aim of this Research Topic was to collate articles describing prediction of outcomes of pre- and perinatal lesions leading to cerebral palsy, basic research in animal models and human subjects, and ideas for, and trials of, interventions in the first two years of life.CP arises from insults to the sensorimotor cortex, subcortical axon tracts and subplate. The aetiology is complex and often multifactorial. The outcome is not simply a loss of voluntary control due to disruption of descending pathways, but also involves abnormal development of reflex and corticospinal circuitry. CP may be viewed as aberrant plasticity in response to a lesion, indeed, abnormalities in movement are subtle at first but develop subsequently. It is misleading to suppose that developmental mechanisms are self-reparative. The challenge is to understand activitydependent fine tuning of neural circuitry during normal development and to find how to promote desirable plasticity whilst limiting undesirable effects following developmental lesions. However, before proposing interventions, we have to develop our ability to predict the severity of neonatal insults.We solicited a variety of articles, including long and short reviews, original research and opinion pieces, from both basic scientists and clinicians. Likewise we, as editors, have complementary knowledge and experience in this area. Anna Basu is an academic pediatric neurologist and Gavin Clowry is a developmental neuroscientist.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae Clinical Manifestations, Microbiology, and Immunology

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453627 Year: Pages: 175 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-362-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) is a major human pathogen that causes both upper and lower respiratory infections, and is one of the leading causes of community acquired pneumonia (CAP), accounting for 11–15% of CAP throughout the world. Additionally it is known to induce an inflammatory process which depends on several mechanisms such as virulence of Mp (lipoproteins, community acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin, oxidative products) and host defenses (cellular immunity and humoral immunity). Although it is a common pathogen, the pathogenesis for Mp infections is not yet fully understood. From the clinical point of view, since the pioneer studies in the 1960s and 1970s on the clinical presentation of Mp associated disease, the diagnostics approaches have changed dramatically leading to a better understanding of the clinical presentation and new issues have emerged - such as antibiotics resistance. The purpose of this Frontiers ebook is to thoroughly review and discuss the clinical presentation in view of the improved diagnostics, microbiological and immunological analysis of Mp infections, with focus on the history of Mp, clinical features of disease, bacterial structure of Mp and mechanism of gliding, clinical and laboratory diagnostics, the role of lipoproteins and Toll-like receptor, CARDS toxin, subtyping of Mp isolates and genome analysis, macrolide resistance and treatment.

Dynamic systems theory and embodiment in psychotherapy research. A new look at process and outcome

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197804 Year: Pages: 151 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-780-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-03 17:04:57
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In an attempt to cease from reducing the world and its phenomena to linear modeling and analytic dissection, Dynamic Systems Theories (DST) and Embodiment theories and methods aim to account for the complex, dynamic, and non-linear phenomena that we constantly deal with in psychology. For instance, a DST and Embodiment perspective can enrich psychology’s understanding of communicative processes both in clinical and non-clinical settings. In psychotherapy, research has shown that there are a number of common factors contributing to psychotherapy outcome, of which the therapeutic relationship is the most important one. These findings give communication a central role in the psychotherapy process. In the traditional view, the underlying model of understanding psychotherapy processes is that of a number of components summatively coming together enabling us to make a linear causal prediction. Yet, communication is inherently dynamic. A shift to viewing the communication process in psychotherapy as a field dynamic phenomenon helps us to take into account nonlinear phenomena, such as feedback processes within and between persons. We thus propose an embodied enactive dynamic systems view as a new theoretical and methodological perspective that can more realistically capture what happens among and between two persons in psychotherapy. This view is broader than that of most current models in psychotherapy research. DST and Embodied Enactive Approaches can offer solutions to the prevailing neglect of non-linear phenomena in Western science, to better account for the complex dynamics of reality, and to move to a more holistic level of analysis. DST and Embodied Enactive Approaches have developed not in a single discipline but in a joined movement based on various fields such as physics, biology, robotics, anthropology, philosophy, linguistics, neuroscience, and psychology, and have only recently entered clinical theorizing. The two new paradigms are presently triggering a rethinking of the therapeutic process by recognizing the embodied nature of psychological and communicative phenomena. Their integration opens up a promising scenario in the field of psychotherapy research, developing new, profoundly transdisciplinary, theoretical concepts, methodologies, and standards of knowledge. The notion of field dynamics enables us to account for the role of the communicational context in the regulation of intra-psychological processes, while at the same time avoiding the pitfalls of an ontologization of the hierarchy of systemic organization. Moreover, the new approach implements methodological strategies that can transcend the conventional opposition between idiographic and nomothetic sciences.

Parenthood From Biology to Relation. Prevention, Assessment and Interventions for Developmental and Clinical Issues

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456642 Year: Pages: 330 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-664-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Parenthood represents a fundamental construct that identifies the quality of early adult-infant interactions. In both short and long period, relationships, as primary interactional experiences, have an essential role in influencing individual’s adjustment and psychopathology development during in lifetime. In this scenario, the most important areas of interest and innovation are (a) parents’ representation of themselves, both in relation to the child and to their care-giving role; (b) the quality of couple relationship, in terms of both conjugal and co-parental bounds, and its influence on the quality of early mother-father-child interactions; (c) the early models of caregiver-baby interaction; (d) the recent approach to the “maternal brain”, that represents the contribution coming from neurosciences, linked to the adult’s activation and cerebral functioning processes, in association with the parental role. These data are a starting point for the individuation of functioning mechanisms and developmental trajectories of parenting in groups of adults and babies, belonging to normative populations. At the same time, those studies may provide an important introduction to the detection of critical and/or dysfunctional aspects in populations of babies and adults at risk (e.g. preterm babies, adopted children, etc.) or in adults’ clinical group (e.g. a depressed parents, addicted parents, etc.) or in children with one or more impaired characteristic (e.g. children with organic diseases, with autistic disorders, etc.).. The present Research Topic puts the attention on these themes, particularly, considering the possible aftermaths that empirical research may have on planning and realizing interventional models to support the parental functioning. We will consider papers focused on the individuation of methods of observation and assessment, which allow to plan and realize prevention programs and/or interventions, primarily focused on parental support, both in the early stadium of the child’s development and in the long-term period. Thus, the focus is both on the prevention and sustenance sphere and, also, on specific manners of taking on the therapeutic responsibility of the adult-infant relationship.

Protest Movements in Asylum and Deportation

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: IMISCOE Research Series ISSN: 2364-4087 ISBN: 9783319746951 9783319746968 Year: Pages: 294 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-74696-8 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: Fonds zur Förderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung (FWF); IMISCOE
Subject: History --- Migration
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-29 15:18:10
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This open access book deals with contestations “from below” of legal policies and implementation practices in asylum and deportation. Consequently, it covers three types of mobilization: solidarity protests against the deportation of refused asylum seekers, refugee activism campaigning for residence rights and inclusion, and restrictive protests against the reception of asylum seekers. By applying both a longitudinal analysis of protest events and a series of in-depth case studies in three immigration countries, this edited volume provides comparative insights into these three types of movement in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland over a time span of twenty-five years. Embedded in concepts of political change, limited state sovereignty, and migration control, the findings shed light on actors, repertoires, and the effects of protest activities. The contributions illustrate how local contexts, national political settings, issue specifics, and social ties lead to distinctly different forms of protest emergence, dynamics, and strategies. Additionally, they give a profound understanding of the mechanisms and constellations that contribute to protest success, both in terms of preventing deportations of individuals as well as changing policies. In sum, this book constitutes a major contribution to empirically informed theoretical reflections on collective contestation in the fields of refugee studies and social protest movements.

Teenage Reproductive Health: Pregnancy, Contraception, Unsafe Abortion, Fertility

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ISBN: 9783038970613 9783038970620 Year: Pages: X, 190 Language: Englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Gynecology and Obstetrics --- Sociology --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-15 10:23:33
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Maternal mortality is still globally high and reducing it is a top priority. Teenage pregnancies have more complications and are also unwanted in many cases. This contributes to the high maternal mortality with both obstetric complications and burden of unsafe abortion. Additionally, many teenagers live in areas with heavy pollution that affects the mother and the unborn child. Global public health is a very important issue that aims to prevent disease, prolong life, and promote physical, mental and social well-being. Teenagers are the future, and maternal death is a disaster that should be prevented. Hence, research should aim to improve teenage reproductive health and influence policy makers. There are a variety of topics in this issue, with some conclusions and ways forward as described in different papers in this book.

Wirkungsorientiertes Controlling im politisch-administrativen System

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Book Series: Beitraege zum Controlling ISBN: 9783631560686 Year: Pages: 311 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:28
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In der Arbeit wird ein wirkungsorientierter Controlling-Bezugsrahmen für das politisch-administrative System entwickelt. Über diesen kann es gelingen, öffentliches Handeln bzw. den öffentlichen Aufgabenvollzug – mittels einer Integration von Wirkungs- und Ressourcenbetrachtung – im Sinne einer gesellschaftlichen Wertschöpfung interpretierbar und im Idealfall steuerbar zu machen. Ein derart verstandenes Controlling kann dazu beitragen, eine bislang fehlende Übersetzungsfunktion zwischen Politik und öffentlicher Verwaltung «auszufüllen» und damit das Zusammenspiel von Verwaltung und Politik im Sinne des Bürgers zu verbessern.

Antibody Repertoire and Graft Outcome Following Solid Organ Transplantation

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452415 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-241-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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The first real major breakthrough that laid the basis of HLA antibody detection in the field of solid organ transplantation, came with the introduction of the complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) test in 1964 by Terasaki and McClelland. Since then, methods for antibody detection have evolved remarkably from conventional cell-based assays to the current advanced solid phase systems on the Luminex platform, with increasing degree of sensitivity and specificity. The latter have been indispensable for more accurate identification of donor specific HLA antibodies in broadly reactive allo antisera, and to guide donor selection and kidney paired exchange programs through virtual crossmatching, in addition to serving as excellent tools for initiating pre-transplant desensitization and post- transplant antibody monitoring. Consensus is evolving on the optimal routine employment of these methods in donor selection strategies along with an understanding of the clinical relevance of antibodies detected by each of them. The immunoassays based on the Luminex platform and flow cytometric beads are however unable to discriminate complement fixing from non-complement fixing HLA antibodies. This is important because the former are considered clinically more pertinent in the peri-transplant period. The C1q assay which is a modification of the solid phase assay based on Luminex single antigen beads, which can be used effectively to monitor high dose IVIG desensitization is essentially a surrogate complement fixing assay, retaining the exquisite sensitivity and specificity of the Luminex platform. Currently, information obtained from these assays is preliminary and much needs to be done to standardize technologies and set a consensus ‘MFI cut off’ for antibody positivity. Besides the overriding influence of anti-HLA antibodies on overall solid organ graft survival, immune response to non-HLA antigens has become a topic of substantial interest in recent years. An ever expanding list of non-HLA antigens has been implicated in graft rejection for various organs, of which the most noted are the Major Histocompatibility Complex class I chain-related molecule A (MICA), Vimentin, Myosin, Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), Tubulin and Collagen. MICA is one of the most polymorphic and extensively studied non-HLA antigenic targets especially in renal transplantation. Although there are clear indications of MICA antibodies being associated with adverse graft outcome, to date a definitive consensus on this relationship has not been agreed. Because MICA molecules are not expressed constitutively on immunocompetent cells such as T and B lymphocytes, it is of utmost importance to address the impact of MICA donor specific antibodies (DSA) as compared to those that are non- donor specific (NDSA) on graft outcome. The soluble isoform of MICA molecule (sMICA) that is derived from the proteolytic shedding of membrane bound molecules has the potential to engage the NK-cell activating receptor NKG2D and down-regulate its expression. Consequent to the interaction of NKG2D by sMICA, the receptor ligand complex is endocytosed and degraded and thus suppresses NKG2D mediated lysis of the target by NK cells. Thus interaction between NKG2D and sMICA leads to expansion of immunosuppressive/anergic T cells thereby resulting in suppression of NKG2D mediated host innate immunity. These concept support the possible involvement of an immunosuppressive role for sMICA during allotransplantation as shown recently for heart transplantation. This research topic focuses on the clinical utility of investigating the complete antibody repertoire in solid organ transplantation.

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