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A Time Travel Dialogue

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ISBN: 9781783740383 9781783740390 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0043 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Physics (General) --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2014-09-12 12:15:27
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Is time travel just a confusing plot device deployed by science fiction authors and Hollywood filmmakers to amaze and amuse? Or might empirical data prompt a scientific hypothesis of time travel? Structured on a fascinating dialogue involving a distinguished physicist, Dr. Rufus, a physics graduate student and a computer scientist this book probes an experimentally supported hypothesis of backwards time travel – and in so doing addresses key metaphysical issues, such as causation, identity over time and free will.The setting is the Jefferson National Laboratory during a period of five days in 2010. Dr. Rufus’s experimental search for the psi-lepton and the resulting intractable data spurs the discussion on time travel. She and her two colleagues are pushed by their observations to address the grandfather paradox and other puzzles about backwards causation, with attention also given to causal loops, multi-dimensional time, and the prospect that only the present exists. Sensible solutions to the main puzzles emerge, ultimately advancing the case for time travel really being possible.A Time Travel Dialogue addresses the possibility of time travel, approaching familiar paradoxes in a rigorous, engaging, and fun manner. It follows in the long philosophical tradition of using dialogue to present philosophical ideas and arguments, but is ground breaking in its use of the dialogue format to introduce readers to the metaphysics of time travel, and is also distinctive in its use of lab results to drive philosophical analysis. The discussion of data that might decide whether time is one-dimensional (one timeline) or multi-dimensional (branching time) is especially novel.

The Experiment in the History of Economics

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Book Series: Routledge Studies in the History of Economics ISBN: 9780203023594 9780415344296 9780415649230 9781134287604 9781134287598 9781134287550 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203023594 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:08
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Throughout the history of economic ideas, it has often been asserted that experimentation is impossible, yet, in fact, history shows that the idea of ‘experimentation’ has always been important, and as such has been interpreted and put to use in many ways. Rich in historical detail, the essays in this topical volume deal with such issues as laboratory experimentation, the observed transition from a post-war economics to a contemporary discipline, the contrasting positions of Friedrich Hayek and Oskar Morgenstern, the socio-economic experiments proposed by Ernest Solvay and Knut Wicksell, and a rigorous examination of the way in which economic models can or cannot be construed as valid experiments producing useful knowledge. A testament to the variety of ways in which experimentation has been of importance in the creation of economic knowledge, these wide-ranging essays will interest those seeking to expand their historical understanding of the discipline, be they theorists, historians, philosophers, advanced students or researchers.

Keywords

allais --- paradox --- von --- neumann --- oskar --- morgenstern --- experimental --- general --- equilibrium --- theory

If I say If: The Poems and Short Stories of Boris Vian

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781922064622 Year: Pages: 412 DOI: 10.20851/vian-if Language: English
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2014-06-23 06:27:57
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Boris Vian is a rare phenomenon. Nothing short of a national treasure in France, he is hardly known overseas. In his lifetime, he divided literary opinion with masterpieces that failed to sell and best sellers that caused outrage, trials and even deaths, including his own. As an impresario, he became the figurehead of the jazz scene that marked the French left bank at the end of the Second World War and was responsible for bringing Duke Ellington and Miles Davis to France. As a musician, he played his trumpet against the advice of cardiologists, sang pacifist songs before audiences of outraged patriots and, in passing, created French rock ‘n’ roll. Posthumously, he became known for his theatre, film scripts and poetry as well as for his novels. And in May ’68 he became a revolutionary icon.

Elements of Causal Inference

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Adaptive Computation and Machine Learning series ISBN: 9780262344296 9780262037310 Year: Pages: 288 Language: English
Publisher: The MIT Press
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:41:31
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A concise and self-contained introduction to causal inference, increasingly important in data science and machine learning.The mathematization of causality is a relatively recent development, and has become increasingly important in data science and machine learning. This book offers a self-contained and concise introduction to causal models and how to learn them from data. After explaining the need for causal models and discussing some of the principles underlying causal inference, the book teaches readers how to use causal models: how to compute intervention distributions, how to infer causal models from observational and interventional data, and how causal ideas could be exploited for classical machine learning problems. All of these topics are discussed first in terms of two variables and then in the more general multivariate case. The bivariate case turns out to be a particularly hard problem for causal learning because there are no conditional independences as used by classical methods for solving multivariate cases. The authors consider analyzing statistical asymmetries between cause and effect to be highly instructive, and they report on their decade of intensive research into this problem. The book is accessible to readers with a background in machine learning or statistics, and can be used in graduate courses or as a reference for researchers. The text includes code snippets that can be copied and pasted, exercises, and an appendix with a summary of the most important technical concepts.

Philosophical Issues in Sport Science

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ISBN: 9783039218882 9783039218899 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-889-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Sports Science
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The role and value of science within sport increases with ever greater professionalization and commercialization. Scientific and technological innovations are devised to increase performance, ensure greater accuracy of measurement and officiating, reduce risks of harm, enhance spectatorship, and raise revenues. However, such innovations inevitably come up against epistemological and metaphysical problems related to the nature of sport and physical competition. This Special Issue identifies and explores key and contemporary philosophical issues in relation to the science of sport and exercise. It is divided into three sections: 1. Scientific evidence, causation, and sport; 2. Science technology and sport officiating; and 3. Scientific influences on the construction of sport. It brings together scholars working on philosophical problems in sport to examine issues related to the values and assumptions behind sport and exercise science and key problems resulting from these and to provide recommendations for improving its practice.

Keywords

elite sports --- sport nutrition --- standards of evidence --- evidence-based practices --- randomized controlled trials --- philosophy of medicine --- casuistry --- umpiring and refereeing --- technological assistance to match officials --- justice and continuity in match officiating --- ball trackers --- goal-line technology --- football --- cricket --- tennis --- transgender --- trans women --- sport --- testosterone --- gender --- gender binary --- sports tournaments --- team rankings --- intransitive dominance --- win-loops --- social choice theory --- Condorcet’s paradox --- championship pluralism --- technology --- running --- fairness --- competition --- accuracy --- officiating --- justice --- the human element --- technology --- Hawk-Eye --- aesthetics of sports --- counterfactuals --- absence causation --- causal necessity --- causal contingency --- david kellogg lewis --- prelusory goal --- possible sport worlds --- metaphysics of sport --- causation in sport --- sport ethics --- technology --- the spirit of sport --- excellence --- anti-doping --- nature --- governance --- ethics --- testosterone --- discrimination --- integrity --- science --- fair-play --- sport --- athletics --- exercise science --- philosophy --- sport psychology --- materialism --- Aristotle --- causation and nature --- exercise professional --- professional knowledge --- health --- wellbeing --- philosophy --- medicalization --- scientism --- biomedicine --- sport science --- epistemology --- ontology --- causation --- technology --- evidence

Big Data Research for Social Sciences and Social Impact

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039282203 9783039282210 Year: Pages: 416 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-221-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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A new era of innovation is enabled by the integration of social sciences and information systems research. In this context, the adoption of Big Data and analytics technology brings new insight to the social sciences. It also delivers new, flexible responses to crucial social problems and challenges. We are proud to deliver this edited volume on the social impact of big data research. It is one of the first initiatives worldwide analyzing of the impact of this kind of research on individuals and social issues. The organization of the relevant debate is arranged around three pillars: Section A: Big Data Research for Social Impact: • Big Data and Their Social Impact; • (Smart) Citizens from Data Providers to Decision-Makers; • Towards Sustainable Development of Online Communities; • Sentiment from Online Social Networks; • Big Data for Innovation. Section B. Techniques and Methods for Big Data driven research for Social Sciences and Social Impact: • Opinion Mining on Social Media; • Sentiment Analysis of User Preferences; • Sustainable Urban Communities; • Gender Based Check-In Behavior by Using Social Media Big Data; • Web Data-Mining Techniques; • Semantic Network Analysis of Legacy News Media Perception. Section C. Big Data Research Strategies: • Skill Needs for Early Career Researchers—A Text Mining Approach; • Pattern Recognition through Bibliometric Analysis; • Assessing an Organization’s Readiness to Adopt Big Data; • Machine Learning for Predicting Performance; • Analyzing Online Reviews Using Text Mining; • Context–Problem Network and Quantitative Method of Patent Analysis. Complementary social and technological factors including: • Big Social Networks on Sustainable Economic Development; Business Intelligence.

Keywords

big data --- illegal accommodation --- institutional innovation --- transaction costs --- housing problem --- building stock management --- Hong Kong --- information diffusion --- community detection --- topic analysis --- sentiment analysis --- social networks --- Social network --- sustainable development --- review voting --- online community --- paradox --- smart citizens --- experimental cities --- smart cities --- technopolitics --- big data --- Barcelona --- data commons --- decision-makers --- policy --- GDPR --- big data --- social sciences --- decision-making --- data analyst --- filtering --- framing --- big data --- maturity model --- temporal analytics --- advanced business analytics --- big data analytic methods --- semantic network analysis --- framings --- NodeXL --- promising technology --- research frontier --- bibliometric analysis --- hype cycle --- technology platforms --- sustainable agri-food systems --- innovation in sustainable agriculture --- online data --- data mining --- TP organics --- big data research --- point of interests (POI) --- sustainability development --- spatial accessibility of residential public services --- Xiamen City --- big data --- sales prediction --- online word-of-mouth --- dynamic topic model --- product attributes --- back-propagation neural network --- systematic and replicable patent analysis method --- problem-solved concept --- context–problem network --- network data analysis --- sustainable wireless energy transmission technology --- big data analytics --- text mining --- association rule --- car review --- skills --- researchers --- early career --- text mining --- social media big data --- lbsn --- check-in density --- spatiotemporal analysis --- KDE --- GWR --- SDE --- Guangzhou --- educational data mining --- learning analytics --- machine learning --- big data --- prediction grades --- destination image --- user-generated content --- online travel review --- big data analytics --- opinion mining --- sentiment analysis --- resource optimisation --- place sustainability --- TripAdvisor --- Greek Attica --- opinion mining --- social media --- social networks --- sentiment analysis --- sentiment polarity classification --- social impact --- big data research --- information systems --- analytics --- decision making --- social sciences --- big data research --- social and humanistic computing --- social sciences --- social good --- social impact --- machine learning --- knowledge management --- web science --- data science --- social inclusive economic growth --- sustainability --- innovation --- innovation networks

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