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Pathogen and Toxin Entry - How Pathogens and Toxins Induce and Harness Endocytotic Mechanisms (Book chapter)

Book title: Molecular Regulation of Endocytosis

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9789535106623 Year: DOI: 10.5772/45946 Language: English
Publisher: InTechOpen Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 282105
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:47:59
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Humans have been exposed to a plethora of pathogens (bacteria, viruses) ever since. Infectious diseases are among the leading causes of death worldwide. For example, in 2011, 1.34 million people died of tuberculosis, which is caused by an infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Even more died of an infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; 1.78 million) or lower respiratory tract infection (3.46 million) [1]. In addition, recurring pandemic outbreaks of the influenza A virus, as in 2009, or an epidemic outbreak of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) in Germany in 2011, show quite plainly that pathogens in the 21th century still are a severe health problem, not only in developing countries.

Keywords

toxin --- pathogen

The Global Challenge Posed by the Multiresistant International Clones of Bacterial Pathogens

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452170 Year: Pages: 291 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-217-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Multiresistant bacterial pathogens pose a serious problem worldwide making the appropriate treatment of patients with healthcare-associated infections a challenge. The spread of antibiotic resistance is either mediated by mobile genetic elements (MGEs) or the dissemination of genetically-related groups of pathogens, “high-risk clonal complexes”. Interestingly most multiresistant healthcare-associated bacteria command just a few dominant international clonal complexes causing infections in various geographical areas. It is of utmost importance to identify the determinants associated with and promoting the spread of antibiotic resistance and the dissemination of these multiresistant pathogens. The Topic comprises mostly of population and epidemiological studies investigating antibiotic resistance mechanisms, MGEs and the impact of antibiotic resistance, and the production of virulence factors on the clonal dynamics of a diverse range of bacterial species. Though, the exploration of the mechanisms governing clonal dynamics and the dissemination of antibiotic resistance will remain a salient issue for a considerable time to come we believe that the papers published in the Topic have usefully contributed to the better understanding of some of the processes involved and supplement papers investigating the “non-bacterial” constituents of clonal mobility, like proper medical practice and compliance with hygienic standards.

Metal economy in host-microbe interactions

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194971 Year: Pages: 215 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-497-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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From simple inorganic catalysts to vital biological cofactors, divalent transition metals are instrumental to electron transfers, catalysis and signaling. Their natural ability to bind, exchange and react with organic molecules including oxygen requires from living cells to regulate uptake with metabolic activities, sensing and chaperoning, distributing and storing, or excreting excess to prevent detrimental biochemical reactions. Since transition metal deficiency and overload both limit cell growth it is no surprise that the immune system evolved a dual strategy, of metal starvation or intoxication, to thwart microbial invasions. Like environmental metal availability determined biological use it also shaped host-microbe metal economy: Fe and Mn, available early in evolution and still required rather ubiquitously, are generally withheld by host in response to infection; Zn and Cu, which became bioavailable later, essentially to eukaryotic cells may be bombarded toward invaders. Successful microbial pathogens have evolved elaborate counter-measures to cope with host metal defenses. This research topic aims to review and discuss metal currencies in host-microbe interactions focusing on new findings about micro-organism pathogenesis determinants in the face of host innate strategies to interfere with microbial physiology.

Keywords

metal --- Virulence --- host --- pathogen --- transporter --- exporter --- regulation

Biology and Pathogenesis of Legionella

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456611 Year: Pages: 181 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-661-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Legionella pneumophila was first isolated as the causative agent of a deadly infectious pneumonia at a convention of the American Legion forty years ago. Since then, Legionnaires’ disease continues to be a significant public health concern. Today, our understanding of the Legionella genus, comprising environmental bacteria and opportunistic human pathogens, has dramatically increased. The study of how pathogenic Legionella interact with host cells, both protozoan and mammalian, has not only taught us about host-pathogen interactions but has revealed novel and unexpected insights into human cell biology and immunology. The capacity of pathogenic Legionella to commandeer cellular processes such as eukaryotic vesicular trafficking to establish an ER-like replicative niche, reflects the exquisite ability of this pathogen to manipulate eukaryotic cell biology in order to replicate in an intracellular compartment. This requires the specific and targeted action of a cohort of translocated bacterial effector proteins. In addition, we have learnt much about cell autonomous innate immune sensing of intracellular bacteria through the inability of L. pneumophila to avoid intracellular mammalian defense mechanisms.Now, in the age of large-scale comparative “omics”, it is clear that different Legionella species utilize different cohorts of effectors to replicate inside eukaryotic cells. While we understand some of the strategies employed by L. pneumophila and L. longbeachae to replicate within eukaryotic cells, there is still much to learn about many aspects of the Legionella life cycle.This Research Topic highlights the latest findings regarding the biology of Legionella species, their interactions with eukaryotic host cells, and how the application of various technologies has increased our understanding of this important pathogen.

Host-adapted metabolism and its regulation in Bacterial Pathogens

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195381 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-538-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Pathogens adapt their metabolism rapidly to the host. Our topic covers these phenomenon regarding extracellular and intracellular pathogens as well as general methods to elucidate different metabolic adaptation processes - an essential guide for any scientist wanting to keep abreast of recent developments in infection biology.

Applications of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) Tools in Microbiology of Infectious Diseases

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451838 Year: Pages: 223 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-183-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Epidemiology is a discipline intended to systematically investigate, and ideally quantify, disease dynamics in populations (Perez, 2015). Epidemiological assessmentsmay be divided into four large areas, namely, (a) identification and characterization of a pathogen, (b) development of systems for detection of cases, (c) descriptive epidemiology and quantification of disease patterns, and (d) advanced analytical methods to design intervention strategies. Briefly, there is an initial need for understanding the pathogeny of a disease and condition, which may also include experimental studies and development of new models of infection and proliferation under different conditions. Subsequently, such knowledgemay be applied to support the identification of cases, which typically includes the design, evaluation, and validation of diagnostic tests. Diseasemay then be quantified in a population, leading to the identification of patterns and application of molecular characterization techniques to understand disease spread, and ultimately to identify factors preventing or promoting disease. Finally, those factors may be incorporated into advanced quantitative methods and epidemiological models, which are used to design and evaluate strategies aimed at preventing, controlling, or eliminating disease in the population.Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in the application of science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) tools and approaches intended to enhance such analytical epidemiology process, with the ultimate goal of supporting disease prevention, control, and eradication. This eBook comprises a series of research articles that, through current state-of-the-art scientific knowledge on the application of STEM tools to the microbiology of infectious diseases, demonstrate their usefulness at the various components of an integral epidemiological approach, divided into the four large components of (a) experimental studies, (b) novel diagnostic techniques, (c) epidemiological characterization, and (d) population modeling and intervention.

Plant Microbe Interaction 2017

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038973287 9783038973294 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-329-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Plant Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-14 11:21:52
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.[Plants interact with microbes in many different ways and on many different levels. The most obvious interaction results in plant disease, which can be a severe threat to the global food supply. Therefore, research strives to uncover the mechanisms of host plant invasion, learn about the weapons used by pathogenic microbes, and understand the defense strategies of the affected plants. On the other hand, many interactions with the plant are indeed beneficial for the plant, increasing its ability to recruit limiting nutrients from the soil, preventing the growth of more detrimental microbes, or making the plant more resistant to abiotic stresses. Plants also serve as habitats for microbes that may colonize apoplastic spaces within leaves, may live on plant surfaces, or may prosper in the immediate vicinity of plant organs (e.g., in the rhizosoil). In this book, one editorial, two review articles, and twelve original research articles highlight the newest research endeavors on plants interacting with beneficial microbes, having to cope with detrimental microbes, or hosting complete microbiomes. Together, these articles contribute to the knowledge essential for the development of strategies that will prepare our plants to withstand the increasingly harsh conditions they will be exposed to in the coming years of climate change.]

Epigenetics as a Deep Intimate Dialogue between Host and Symbionts

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198757 Year: Pages: 98 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-875-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Symbiosis is an intimate relationship between different living entities and is widespread in virtually all organisms. It was critical for the origin and diversification of Eukaryotes and represents a major driving force in evolution. Indeed, symbiosis may support a wide range of biological processes, including those underlying the physiology, development, reproduction, health, behavior, ecology and evolution of the organisms involved in the relationship. Although often confused with mutualism, when both organisms benefit from the association, symbiosis actually encompasses several and variable relationships. Among them is parasitism, when one organism benefits but the other is harmed, and commensalism, when one organism benefits and the other remains unaffected. Even if many symbiotic lifestyles do exist in nature, in many cases the intimacy between the partners is so deep that the “symbiont” (sensu strictu) resides into the tissues and/or cells of the other partner. Since the partners frequently belong to different kingdoms, e.g. bacteria, fungi, protists and viruses living in association with animal and plant hosts, their shared “language” should be a basic and ancient form of communication able to effectively blur the boundaries between extremely different living entities. In recent years studies on the role of epigenetics in shaping host-symbiont interactions have been flourishing. Epigenetic changes include, but are not limited to, DNA methylation, remodelling of chromatin structure through histone chemical modifications and RNA interference. In this E-book we present a series of papers exploring the fascinating developmental and evolutionary relationship between symbionts and hosts, by focusing on the mediating epigenetic processes that enable the communication to be effective and robust at both the individual, the ecological and the evolutionary time scales. In particular, the papers consider the role of epigenetic factors and mechanisms in the interactions among different species, comprising the holobiont and host-parasite relationships. On the whole, since epigenetics is fast-acting and reversible, enabling dynamic developmental communication between hosts and symbionts at several different time scale, we argue that it could account for the enormous plasticity that characterizes the interactions between all the organisms living symbiotically on our planet.

Proteomics of Microbial Human Pathogens

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450886 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-088-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in 2012 infectious diseases and related conditions account for more than 70% of premature deaths across 22 African countries and estimated 450 000 people worldwide developed multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. This alarming situation, of great public health concern, calls for the urgent development of novel and efficient responding strategies. The employment of important research platforms, such as genomics and proteomics, has contributed significant insight into the mechanisms underlying microbial infection and microbe-host interaction. In this Frontiers Research Topic, we aim to produce a timely and pertinent discussion regarding the current status of “Proteomics of microbial Human pathogens” and the role of proteomics in combating the challenges posed by microbial infection and indeed acquired anti-microbial resistance. As the field of proteomics progressed from 2-DE gel based approaches to modern LC-MS/MS based workflows, remarkable advances have been reported in terms of data quantity and quality. Given the immediate and enormous advantages that high resolution and accurate mass spectrometers have brought to the field, proteomics has now evolved into a robust platform capable of generating large amounts of comprehensive data comparable to that reported previously in genomics studies. For example, detection of the complete yeast proteome has been reported and other small proteomes, such as those of bacteria, are within reach. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has become an essential tool for biologists and biochemists, and is now considered by many as an essential component of modern structural biology. Additionally, the introduction of high-resolution mass spectrometers has driven the development of various different strategies aimed at accurate quantification of absolute and relative amount of protein(s) of interest. Emerging targeted mass spectrometry methodologies such as; Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM), Parallel Reaction Monitoring (PRM) and SWATH, are perhaps the latest breakthrough within the proteomics community. Indeed, through a label free approach, targeted mass spectrometry offers an unequalled capability to characterize and quantify a specific set of proteins reproducibility, in any biological sample. Usefully, Aebersold and colleagues have recently generated and validated a number of assays to quantify 97% of the 4,012 annotated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteins by SRM. As such, the Mtb Proteome library represents a valuable experimental resource that will undoubtedly bring new insight to the complex life cycle of Mtb. Finally, as reviewed recently in Frontiers Research Topic, mass spectrometry-based proteomics has had a tremendous impact on our current understanding of post translational modification (PTM) in bacteria including the key role of PTMs during interaction of pathogenic bacteria and host interactions. We believe that our understanding of microbial Human pathogens has benefited enormously from both 2-DE gel and modern LC-MS/MS based proteomics. It is our wish to produce an integrated discussion surrounding this topic to highlight the existing synergy between these research fields. We envisage this Research Topic as a window to expert opinions and perspectives on the realistic practicalities of proteomics as an important tool to address healthcare problems caused by microbial pathogens.

Crop Traits for Defense against Pests and Disease: Durability, Breakdown and Future Prospects

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451562 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-156-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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With global populations expected to exceed 9.2 billion by 2050 and available land and water resources devoted to crop production dwindling, we face significant challenges to secure global food security. Only 12 plant species feed 80% of the world’s population, with just three crop species (wheat, rice and maize) accounting for food consumed by 50% of the global population. Annual losses to crop pests and pathogens are significant, thought to be equivalent to that required to feed a billion people, at a time when crop productivity has plateaued. With pesticide applications becoming increasingly unfeasible on cost, efficacy and environmental grounds, there is growing interest in exploiting plant resistance and tolerance traits for crop protection. Indeed, mankind has been selectively breeding plants for desirable traits for thousands of years. However, resistance and tolerance traits have not always been those most desired, and in many cases have been inadvertently lost during the domestication process: crops have been effectively ‘disarmed by domestication’. Moreover, mechanistic understanding of how resistance and tolerance traits operate is often incomplete, which makes identifying the right combination for crop protection difficult. We aimed to address this Research Topic by inviting authors to contribute their knowledge of appropriate resistance and tolerance traits, explore what is known about durability and breakdown of defensive traits and, finally, asking what are the prospects for exploiting these traits for crop protection. The research topic summarised in this book addresses some of the most important issues in the future sustainability of global crop production.

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