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Vibrio ecology, pathogenesis and evolution

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192892 Year: Pages: 239 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-289-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Oceanography --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:07
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Vibrios are Gram-negative bacilli that occur naturally in marine, estuarine, and freshwater systems. Some species include human and animal pathogens capable of causing gastroenteritis, wound infections, cholera, and fatal septicemia. Over the past decades, cutting edge research on Vibrio genomics has promoted a tremendous advance in our knowledge of these pathogens. Significant developments include the discovery of emerging epidemic clones, tracking the spread of new strain variants, and an intensified appreciation of the role of mobile genetic elements in antibiotic resistance spread as well as pathogenesis. Furthermore, improved understanding of the interaction of Vibrios with a variety of living organisms in the aquatic environment has documented the significant role of environmental reservoirs in their seasonal cycle favoring persistence of the pathogen during inter-epidemic periods and enhancing disease transmission. This Research Topic is dedicated to our current understanding in these areas and will bring together leading experts in the field to provide a deep overview of Vibrios ecology and evolution, and will suggest the pathway of future research in this field.

Keywords

Vibrio --- Ecology --- Genome --- evolution --- Pathogenesis

Biofilm formation by staphylococci and streptococci: Structural, functional and regulatory aspects and implications for pathogenesis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195633 Year: Pages: 111 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-563-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Members of the genus Staphylococcus and Streptococcus are the causative agnets of many human and animal diseases. Over the past decade the complete sequencing of many staphylococcal and streptococcal genomes has promoted a significant advance in our knowledge of these important pathogens. The pathogenicity of these bacteria is due to the expression of a large variety of virulence factors. Such determinants, which are cell wall-associated and secreted proteins, include adhesins that confer to the pathogen the ability to attach to extracellular matrix/plasma and host cell surfaces, proteins that contribute to host cell invasion and intracellular survival and soluble factors that decrease phagocytosis and modulate the immune response. Furthermore, these Gram-positive cocci in many natural environments (heart valve, lung, oral cavity, throat) and infections on implanted devices live in matrix-encased groups known as biofilms. Biofilms are specialized bacterial communities with high order organization analogous to that of a tissue in multicellular organism that adhere to abiotic or biological substrata and produce an exopolymeric matrix composed of polysaccarides, proteins, DNA or combination thereof. Bacteria within a biofilm persist in adverse conditions, show resistance to killing by antibiotics and to host immune defences and are difficult to eradicate and treat clinically. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of biofilm development will allow us to effectively combat staphylococcal/streptococcal biofilm-based infections. This Research Topic will focus on the molecular components involved in biofilm formation by staphylococci and streptococci, the role they play in the development, maturation and dispersal of biofilm and on the regulatory aspects of such complex processes. The implication for the pathogenesis of infective diseases and potential therapeutic strategies against biofilm-based infections will be also discussed. The articles will highlight both the recent advances and future challenges inherent in this rapidly evolving area.

New Approaches to the Pathogenesis of Sudden Intrauterine Unexplained Death and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453016 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-301-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the leading cause of death among infants in the first year of age. The more known definition of SIDS is the sudden unexpected death of an infant less than 1 year of age, with onset of the fatal episode apparently occurring during sleep, that remains unexplained after a thorough investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy and review of the circumstances of death and the clinical history. Despite the success of the “Back to Sleep” campaigns to reduce the risks introduced worldwide, the frequency of SIDS (striking one infant every 750-1,000 live births) has not significantly declined in the last years. Sudden Intrauterine Unexplained Death Syndrome (SIUDS), referring to fetuses that die unexpectedly, particularly in the last weeks of gestation, without any cause even after a complete autopsy, including examination of the placental disk, umbilical cord and fetal membranes, has a six-eightfold greater incidence than that of SIDS. Even if the pathogenetic mechanism of these deaths has not yet been determined, the neuropathology seems to be a consistent substrate in both SIUDS and SIDS. Subtle common developmental abnormalities of brainstem nuclei checking the vital functions have been highlighted, frequently related to environmental risk factors, such as cigarette smoke, air and water pollution, pesticides, food contamination, etc. Exogenous toxic factors can in fact interact in complex ways with the genetic constitution of the infant leading to polymorphisms and/or mutations of specific genes (as polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter gene 5-HTT, the regulator of the synaptic serotonin concentration, and of the PHOX2B, the key gene in the Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome). These interactions can directly injure the development of the autonomic nervous system, frequently resulting in hypoplasia of the vital brainstem centers, and consequently in sudden death. It is very important to continue studying these syndromes and in particular identify all possible congenital alterations and their correlation with the exposure to environmental risk factors, in order to reduce their incidence and mitigate the surrounding social concern. The goal of this research topic is to propose new approaches to explain the pathogenesis of both SIUDS and SIDS and consequently new prevention strategies to decrease the incidence of these unexpected and very devastating events for families. Expert authors in the Topic field are encouraged to submit original research articles aimed to widen the current knowledge on the pathological substrates of these deaths, also considering the correlations with possible risk factors. Submissions of hypotheses, opinions and commentaries are also welcome. This Research Topic would lead to development of targeted risk-lowering strategies to reduce the incidence of both SIUDS and SIDS. Furthermore, the adoption of appropriate preventive measures could also lead to improve the quality of life in adults, promoting active and healthy aging.

Pathogenesis of Leptospira

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456499 Year: Pages: 103 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-649-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The present eBook, consisting of a compilation of research and review articles, focuses on the features and mechanisms adopted and explored by pathogenic leptospires to successfully establish infection in the host. Additionally, this eBook provides information to support future work focused on the development of new prevention approaches against this important yet neglected zoonotic disease.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae Clinical Manifestations, Microbiology, and Immunology

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453627 Year: Pages: 175 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-362-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) is a major human pathogen that causes both upper and lower respiratory infections, and is one of the leading causes of community acquired pneumonia (CAP), accounting for 11–15% of CAP throughout the world. Additionally it is known to induce an inflammatory process which depends on several mechanisms such as virulence of Mp (lipoproteins, community acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin, oxidative products) and host defenses (cellular immunity and humoral immunity). Although it is a common pathogen, the pathogenesis for Mp infections is not yet fully understood. From the clinical point of view, since the pioneer studies in the 1960s and 1970s on the clinical presentation of Mp associated disease, the diagnostics approaches have changed dramatically leading to a better understanding of the clinical presentation and new issues have emerged - such as antibiotics resistance. The purpose of this Frontiers ebook is to thoroughly review and discuss the clinical presentation in view of the improved diagnostics, microbiological and immunological analysis of Mp infections, with focus on the history of Mp, clinical features of disease, bacterial structure of Mp and mechanism of gliding, clinical and laboratory diagnostics, the role of lipoproteins and Toll-like receptor, CARDS toxin, subtyping of Mp isolates and genome analysis, macrolide resistance and treatment.

The Role of Iron in Bacterial Pathogenesis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456628 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-662-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The collection of articles published in this eBook represent different facets of the interactions between pathogens and their host concerning the battle for iron. Pathogens have developed different strategies to acquire iron from their host. These include the production of siderophores, heme acquisition and ferrous iron uptake.

The unfolded protein response in virus infections

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193974 Year: Pages: 129 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-397-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cellular adaptive response for restoring endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis in response to ER stress. Perturbation of the UPR and failure to restore ER homeostasis inevitably leads to diseases. It has now become evident that perturbation of the UPR is the cause of many important human diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, cystic fibrosis, diabetes and cancer. It has recently emerged that virus infections can trigger the UPR but the relationship between virus infections and host UPR is intriguing. On one hand, UPR is harmful to the virus and virus has developed means to subvert the UPR. On the other hand, virus exploits the host UPR to assist in its own infection, gene expression, establishment of persistence, reactivation from latency and to evade the immune response. When this delicate balance of virus-host UPR interaction is broken down, it may cause diseases. This is particularly challenging for viruses that establish a chronic infection to maintain this balance. Each virus interacts with the host UPR in a different way to suit their life style and how the virus interacts with the host UPR can define the characteristic of a particular virus infection. Understanding how a particular virus interacts with the host UPR may pave the way to the design of a new class of anti-viral that targets this particular pathway to skew the response towards anti-virus. This knowledge can also be translated into the clinics to help re-design oncolytic virotherapy and gene therapy. In this research topic we aimed to compile a collection of focused review articles, original research articles, commentary, opinion, hypothesis and methods to highlight the current advances in this burgeoning area of research, in an attempt to provide an in-depth understanding of how viruses interact with the host UPR, which may be beneficial to the future combat of viral and human diseases.

Vascular Inflammation in Systemic Autoimmunity

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450909 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-090-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Plasticity and dynamism characterize the immune system as a tissue-integrating network with defensive functions. Blood and lymphatic vessel trees constitute the most evident and intuitive physical platform for the development of the net of interactions between immune cells, body tissues and foreign agents. Moreover vessel repair and immune patrolling are intimately linked physiological functions with common evolutionary roots. Not surprisingly variable degrees of vascular inflammation are often detectable in the setting of systemic inflammation and autoimmunity, whereas research in the field of cardiovascular pathology is progressively converging towards the identification of a common inflammatory background. The definition of the role of vascular inflammation in causing, sustaining and/or predicting the development of systemic autoimmunity constitute a challenging, unexplored frontier towards the development of a new generation of treatments and a better patient care.

Molecular Pathogenesis of Pneumococcus

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452781 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-278-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Streptococcus pneumoniae has been for decades the number one bacterial killer of children in the world. Although vaccination with pneumococcal vaccines [PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13 (children) or PPSV23 (adults)] has helped decrease the burden of pneumococcal disease (PD), mortality remains high. Therefore, pathogenesis studies are still key toward our understanding of PD and its control. The introduction of pneumococcal vaccines has also created a niche for vaccine-escape clones. Moreover, the rise of multi-drug resistant clones around the world has also posed a serious threat in recent years. The proposed special issue of Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology highlights many of the recent advances that have been made in pneumococcal pathogenesis, colonization and antibiotic resistance by groups in Latino America, Europe, and the USA.

Expert Views on HPV Infection

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ISBN: 9783038428374 9783038428381 Year: Pages: X, 384 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-04 12:00:02
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections cause approximately 5% of all human cancers. While there are efficacious prophylactic vaccines that prevent infections with the most common cancer-associated HPVs, these vaccines are not widely available in low-resource settings and in many countries, including the US, HPV vaccination rates have remained disappointingly low. Moreover, vaccination does not modify existing HPV infections and the incidence of HPV-associated anal and oropharyngeal cancers has steadily increased and is projected to overtake the caseload of cervical cancer in the next two years. Hence, infections with cancer-associated HPVs will remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality, worldwide. This book provides state-of-the-art summaries and expert viewpoints on unresolved, controversial or emerging topics related to the natural history, evolution, biology, and disease association of papillomavirus infection. The individual chapters cover a wide range of thought provoking topics.

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