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Host-adapted metabolism and its regulation in Bacterial Pathogens

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195381 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-538-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Pathogens adapt their metabolism rapidly to the host. Our topic covers these phenomenon regarding extracellular and intracellular pathogens as well as general methods to elucidate different metabolic adaptation processes - an essential guide for any scientist wanting to keep abreast of recent developments in infection biology.

The biology and ecology of ticks shape the potential for the transmission of zoonotic pathogens

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194063 Year: Pages: 179 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-406-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Ticks are noticeable by the high diversity of pathogens they can transmit, most of them with implications in human and animal health. Ticks are arachnids, meaning that they do not share the biological and ecological features of the mosquitoes and other parasitic Diptera. The natural foci of tick-borne pathogens may be as large as a continent, or be restricted to small portions of a country, without apparently too many similar features. The life cycle of the ticks involved three developing instars. The precise relationships of ticks and their hosts, the specific seasonal pattern of activity of ticks, and the still poorly known molecular relationships between ticks and the pathogens they can transmit, make these vectors a specially fecund field of research. Importantly, extensive studies on the biological and ecological relationships of ticks and abiotic (climate and vegetation) conditions have revealed the fine-tuning of the ticks and the pathogens they transmit, together with the biological effects of host and the driving features by the climate. The studies on tick-transmitted pathogens have been on the rise in the last years. There is a growing interest in understand the somewhat complex relationships between the landscape, the climate, the vectors and the pathogens, because the concerns of spread, probably driven by subtle changes in climate and man made alterations of the landscape. Studies on Lyme borreliosis are addressing the interesting issue of the relationships between the climate, the tick activity patterns, and the selection of strains according to the reservoir availability. Furthermore, the expanding field of habitat suitability modeling has been applied with different degrees of success to evaluate and quantify the risk of disease transmission. In such exponentially growing field, revisionary books are clearly welcome additions to the bibliographical tools of researchers. It is however necessary the compilation of works devoted to explore the tip of the iceberg in the field of research. In this Research Topic, we wish to summarize and review the studies on ecology, molecular biology, and tick-host-pathogens interactions, provided to resolve the important issues of ticks and pathogens. We want not only the results obtained by newly developed molecular tools, but rigorous reviews of the most recent advances in these issues. This Topic will cover aspects of both human and animal health, with special interest on zoonoses. Aspects of the biology of the ticks, as affecting the transmission of pathogens, are of special interest in this Topic. Studies on ticks of the poorly known family Argasidae, as related to their involvement on pathogen transmission, are especially welcome. We also wish to describe the perspective of the field in the future. Finally, the presentation of ongoing original works is greatly encouraged.

Mechanisms of Persistence, Survival, and Transmission of Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens in Production Animals

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455454 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-545-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Foodborne illness resulting from food production animals is a global health concern, and the Centers for Disease Control estimate that one in six Americans will become sick with a foodborne illness each year. Of course there are numerous causes for these outbreaks, but contamination from a food production animal is certainly one source. Understanding the host-pathogen interaction and how foodborne bacterial pathogens establish a persistent infection and evade host immune responses will be pivotal in reducing the instance of foodborne illness traced back to a food production animal source.In this volume, we bring together original research and review articles covering some of the key issues surrounding the mechanisms of persistence, survival, and transmission of bacterial foodborne pathogens in production animals. The research focused on poultry and specifically addressed antibiotic resistance, Salmonella colonization, pathogen reduction strategies using pre- or probiotics, pathogen evasion, and post-harvest intervention and pathogen testing. The following 11 articles are fine examples of the multidisciplinary approaches that will be required to address and understand the complex interplay between food safety and animal production.

Diverse functions of mucosal resident memory T cells

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195398 Year: Pages: 86 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-539-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Early studies recognized the unique phenotype and attributes of T cells found in mucosal tissues, such as the intestines, skin, lung and female reproductive tract. This special topic issue will cover many aspects of mucosal-resident T cell biology during infection and disease and is dedicated to Leo Lefrancois, a pioneer in this field who recently passed away. A major proportion of these mucosal T cells are memory T cells, now recognized as a major constituent of memory T cells referred to as tissue-resident memory T cells. Unlike central and effector memory T cell subsets, tissue-resident memory T cells exhibit tissue specificity with minimal systemic migration. Nonetheless, tissue-resident memory T cells share a similar origin and display some overlapping phenotypes with their other memory T cell counterparts. Articles in this issue will describe the different types of memory T cells residing in mucosal tissues, their origins and functions as well as how they vary among discrete mucosal sites. Manuscripts will consider the unique physiological environments and cellular constituents which facilitate tissue residency while preserving tissue function. Additionally, there will be descriptions of the various mechanisms responsible for the migration and segregation of tissue resident memory CD8 T cells from the peripheral T cell pool. Although the mechanisms facilitating the sequestration of tissue-resident memory T cells within a respective tissue has not well characterized, various theories will also be discussed. Lastly, how these T cells contribute to immunity to pathogens, cancer, and autoimmunity and could be modified through vaccination or therapeutic intervention will be described. As mucosal tissues are the major portals of pathogen entry and frequent transformation, the activities and persistence of tissue resident memory T cells is crucial for mediating protection at these sites.

Roles and mechanisms of parasitism in aquatic microbial communities

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195886 Year: Pages: 153 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-588-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Next Generation Sequencing technologies are increasingly revealing that microbial taxa likely to be parasites or symbionts are probably much more prevalent and diverse than previously thought. Every well studied free-living species has parasites; parasites themselves can be parasitized. As a rule of thumb, there is an estimated 4 parasitic species for any given host, and the better a host is studied the more parasites are known to infect it. Therefore, parasites and other symbionts should represent a very large number of species and may far outnumber those with 'free-living' lifestyles. Paradoxically, free-living hosts, which form the bulk of our knowledge of biology, may be a minority! Microbial parasites typically are characterized by their small size, short generation time, and high rates of reproduction, with simple life cycle occurring generally within a single host. They are diverse and ubiquitous in the environment, comprising viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This Frontiers Research Topic sought to provide a broad overview but concise, comprehensive, well referenced and up-to-date state of the art for everyone involved with microbial parasites in aquatic microbial ecology.

Manipulation of the cellular microbicidal response and endocytic dynamic by pathogens membrane factors

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196098 Year: Pages: 81 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-609-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Intracellular pathogens, such as bacteria and parasites, have evolved specialized mechanisms to survive and replicate in their host, leading to disorders and diseases. The principle of these mechanisms is to reprogram the microbicidal cell function in order to disable the host cells defence that aims to control and eliminate foreign invaders. Devoid of their defence, cells become permissive to pathogens invasion. The aim of this Research Topic is to highlight and cover recent understanding of mechanisms and molecules used by pathogens to interfere with the microbicidal function of cells. This Research Topic will focus on the reprogramming of the cellular dynamics, the immune response, the phagolysosome biogenesis and the signal transduction pathways bypathogens. Special attention will be made on non-proteic virulence factors, however this Research Topic is not restricted to non-proteic virulence factors.

NLR-protein functions in immunity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196210 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-621-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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The Nod-like receptor (NLR) family of proteins are evolutionary conserved molecules that in plants and mammals have been implicated in innate immune sensing of microbes and infection-associated physiological changes, contributing to immune protection of the challenged host organism through the instruction of inflammatory responses, antimicrobial defense and adaptive immunity. Recent data however suggests that the biological roles of NLR go beyond the function of classical pattern recognition molecules (PRM) as they have been implicated in essential cellular processes including autophagy, apoptosis, modification of signal transduction and gene transcription as well as reproductive biology. In this research topic, we aim to provide a comprehensive state-of the art overview of the emerging functions of NLR in plant and mammalian immunity, cell biology and reproductive biology. Potential topics may include, but are not limited to the following areas: • Functions of NLRs as PRMs in infection • Cross-talk of NLRs with other PRMs • Signal transduction pathways of NLRs • New functions of NLRs other than pattern recognition • Structural aspects of NLR activation • Mechanisms of NLRs in cell biological processes • Aspects of NLRs in reproductive biology • Functions of NLRs in plant immune responses

Keywords

Adaptive Immunity --- Bacteria --- virus --- pathogens --- Sensing --- DAMP --- MAMP --- PAMP --- innate immunity --- LRR

Biological Hazards in Food

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451135 Year: Pages: 277 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-113-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The ingestion of food containing pathogenic microorganisms (i.e. bacteria and their toxins, fungi, viruses) and parasites can cause food-borne diseases in humans. A growing number of emerging pathogens, changes of virulence of known pathogens and appearance of antibiotic resistance has recently exposed consumers to a major risk of illness. Also infected people and the environment can spread microorganisms on raw or processed food. Outbreaks of food-borne diseases are often unrecognized, unreported, or not investigated and particularly in developing countries their agents and sources are mostly unknown. Surveillance and analytical methods aiming at their detection are to be hoped, as well as good strategies to struggle against these threats. This E-book is subdivided in chapters regarding to pathogenic and spoiling microorganisms, chemical hazards produced by biological agents and food safety management systems.

Surveying Antimicrobial Resistance: Approaches, Issues, and Challenges to Overcome

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451418 Year: Pages: 419 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-141-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Why Antibiotic Resistance? The use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine may have consequences beyond their intended applications. The “One Health” concept recognizes that the health of humans is connected to the health of animals and the environment. Progress in molecular genetics is facilitating the rapid evaluation of the essentiality of these targets on a genomic scale. In 2015, a group of researchers established the International Conference on Antibiotic Resistance (IC2AR).The primary objective of this meeting is to bring together scientists involved in antibiotic resistance prevention and control. The IC2AR conducted its inaugural world congress in January 2015 at Caparica (Portugal). Antimicrobial resistance presents a significant challenge to scientists in the field of infectious diseases. The full knowledge of how antibiotics resistance is evolving and being transmitted between hosts in different ecosystems is taking on great importance. Necessary action includes research to define the scope of the problem including its various sources. This eBook comprises a series of original research and review articles dealing with the epidemiology of resistance in animal and zoonotic pathogens, mobile elements containing resistance genes, the omics of antimicrobial resistance, emerging antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, control of resistant infections, establishing antimicrobial use and resistance surveillance systems, and alternatives strategies to overcome the problem of antimicrobial resistance worldwide. Gilberto Igrejas, José Luis Capelo and Patrícia Poeta Scientific Committee of IC2AR, February 20th, 2017Why Antibiotic Resistance? The use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine may have consequences beyond their intended applications. The “One Health” concept recognizes that the health of humans is connected to the health of animals and the environment. Progress in molecular genetics is facilitating the rapid evaluation of the essentiality of these targets on a genomic scale. In 2015, a group of researchers established the International Conference on Antibiotic Resistance (IC2AR).The primary objective of this meeting is to bring together scientists involved in antibiotic resistance prevention and control. The IC2AR conducted its inaugural world congress in January 2015 at Caparica (Portugal). Antimicrobial resistance presents a significant challenge to scientists in the field of infectious diseases. The full knowledge of how antibiotics resistance is evolving and being transmitted between hosts in different ecosystems is taking on great importance. Necessary action includes research to define the scope of the problem including its various sources. This eBook comprises a series of original research and review articles dealing with the epidemiology of resistance in animal and zoonotic pathogens, mobile elements containing resistance genes, the omics of antimicrobial resistance, emerging antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, control of resistant infections, establishing antimicrobial use and resistance surveillance systems, and alternatives strategies to overcome the problem of antimicrobial resistance worldwide. Gilberto Igrejas, José Luis Capelo and Patrícia Poeta Scientific Committee of IC2AR, February 20th, 2017

Forest Pathology and Plant Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038426714 9783038426721 Year: Pages: VIII, 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-672-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-24 13:57:31
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Every year, a number of new forest pathosystems are discovered as the result of introduction of alien pathogens, host shifts and jumps, hybridization and recombination among pathogens, etc. Disease outbreaks may also be favored by climate change and forest management. The mechanisms driving the resurgence of native pathogens and the invasion of alien ones need to be better understood in order to draft sustainable control strategies. For this Special Issue, we welcome population biology studies providing insights on the epidemiology and invasiveness of emergent forest pathogens possibly by contrasting different scenarios varying in pathogen and host populations size, genetics, phenotype and phenology, landscape fragmentation, occurrence of disturbances, management practices, etc. Both experimental and monitoring approaches are welcome. In summary, this special issue focuses on how variability in hosts, pathogens, or ecology may affect the emergence of new threats to plant species.

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