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Pathophysiology - Altered Physiological States

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ISBN: 9781789231809 9781789231816 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.5772/65994 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Pathophysiology is the convergence of pathology (the discipline of observed changes in a diseased state) with physiology (the mechanisms of systems operation). It represents the functional changes that occur because of injury or disease. This volume provides state-of-the-art up-to-date literature reviews on pathophysiological processes in a number of disease states. The book is organised methodically in a head-to-toe systems approach examining aspects of neuropathophysiology, endocrine pathophysiology, structural biology, renal pathophysiology and genitourinary pathophysiology. This short volume on pathophysiology is intended for general medical and biomedical students at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. In addition, it is a useful short update of recent advances in research and translational biology to those working in academia or healthcare science.

Hypoxia and Anoxia

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ISBN: 9781789848281 9781789848298 Year: Pages: 144 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73765 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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The molecular deprivation of oxygen is manifested by hypoxia, a deficiency of oxygen and anoxia, or the absence of oxygen supply to the tissues. This book entitled Hypoxia and Anoxia will cover a broad range of understanding on hypoxia and anoxia from molecular mechanisms to pathophysiology. Hypoxia and anoxia stimulate multiple systems through specific cell signal transduction pathways and regulate several transcriptional factors like HIF-1, REST to encode genes for VEGF, Epo, etc. This book will also highlight different types of hypoxia and anoxia along with their impact on apoptosis, cardiovascular pathophysiology, and glucose regulatory mechanisms. This book will be a ready reckoner to give a deep understanding of the oxygen-sensing environment in vivo for researchers, academicians, and clinicians throughout the world.

Vestibular Contributions to Health and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455201 Year: Pages: 243 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-520-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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This eBook reviews recent developments in vestibular physiology and pathophysiology and covers a range of topics, including diagnostic tests, treatment approaches, central and peripheral vestibular mechanisms, and vestibulo-automonic interactions.

Physiology and Pathophysiology of Musculoskeletal Aging

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193905 Year: Pages: 87 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-390-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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We live in a world with an ever-increasing aging population. This aging population is predicted to place a huge financial burden on healthcare systems around the world. Understanding healthy ageing is a key research priority, along with a better understanding of the pathophysiology of ageing that occurs in a number of age related diseases, such as arthritis. By gaining a better understanding of healthy musculoskeletal ageing we can provide better care and new therapies for common musculoskeletal problems. This Research Topic is intended to bring together basic researchers and clinicians working in the broad area of musculoskeletal ageing. The topic includes mechanisms of healthy ageing in the musculoskeletal system, which we define as skeletal muscle and the synovial joint, particularly constituent structures including articular cartilage, subchondral bone tendon and ligament. A particular focus of this Research Topic is dietary modulation of musculoskeletal ageing.

Bridging Music Informatics with Music Cognition

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455713 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-571-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Music informatics is an interdisciplinary research area that encompasses data driven approaches to the analysis, generation, and retrieval of music. In the era of big data, two goals weigh heavily on many research agendas in this area: (a) the identification of better features and (b) the acquisition of better training data. To this end, researchers have started to incorporate findings and methods from music cognition, a related but historically distinct research area that is concerned with elucidating the underlying mental processes involved in music-related behavior.

Antioxidants and Second Messengers of Free Radicals

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ISBN: 9783038975335 / 9783038975342 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-534-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Medicine (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 09:35:49
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The history of science can teach modern men that our understanding of life is to a great extent based on the accuracy of the analytical methods that we use and, on our readiness to oppose dogmatic opinions, which are based on outdated methods and black/white approaches to the major questions raised by mankind in the past. The recent decades have brought a lot of new insights into the fundamentals of the active principles of reactive oxygen species that are necessary for living cells, but which also cause dangerous pathophysiological processes. Accordingly, although they were previously considered to be the most undesired toxic compounds generated as the final products of the oxidative degradation of lipids, reactive aldehydes are now considered to play important roles both in health and in major diseases. Represented mostly by 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a substance discovered only fifty years ago, reactive aldehydes are the focus of research not only because of their toxicity but also because of their positive effects regulating the most important metabolic processes such as growth of living cells or the death of cells. Better understanding the interactions between reactive aldehydes and natural or synthetic antioxidant substances might eventually help us to better monitor, prevent and control modern diseases, thus building pillars for the development of the modern, multidisciplinary life sciences and integrative medicine of the 21st century.

TRP Channels in Health and Disease

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ISBN: 9783039210824 / 9783039210831 Year: Pages: 266 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-083-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:07
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Almost 25 years ago, the first mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel was cloned and published. TRP channels now represent an extended family of 28 members fulfilling multiple roles in the living organism. Identified functions include control of body temperature, transmitter release, mineral homeostasis, chemical sensing, and survival mechanisms in a challenging environment. The TRP channel superfamily covers six families: TRPC with C for “canonical”, TRPA with A for “ankyrin”, TRPM with M for “melastatin”, TRPML with ML for “mucolipidin”, TRPP with P for “polycystin”, and TRPV with V for “vanilloid”. Over the last few years, new findings on TRP channels have confirmed their exceptional function as cellular sensors and effectors. This Special Book features a collection of 8 reviews and 7 original articles published in “Cells” summarizing the current state-of-the-art on TRP channel research, with a main focus on TRP channel activation, their physiological and pathophysiological function, and their roles as pharmacological targets for future therapeutic options.

Keywords

ion channel --- TRPC --- small molecules --- calcium --- chemical probes --- TRPV1 --- TRPV2 --- TRPV3 --- TRPV4 --- mucosal epithelium --- ulcerative colitis --- inflammatory bowel disease --- TRPM4 channel --- cardiovascular system --- physiology --- pathophysiology --- TRPC6 --- elementary immunology --- inflammation --- calcium --- sodium --- neutrophils --- lymphocytes --- endothelium --- platelets --- human medulla oblongata --- cuneate nucleus --- dorsal column nuclei --- TRPV1 --- calcitonin gene-related peptide --- substance P --- TRP channels --- calcium signaling --- salivary glands --- xerostomia --- radiation --- inflammation --- transient receptor potential channels --- TRPC3 pharmacology --- channel structure --- lipid mediators --- photochromic ligands --- transient receptor potential --- TRPC3 --- mGluR1 --- GABAB --- EPSC --- Purkinje cell --- cerebellum --- toxicology --- TRP channels --- organ toxicity --- chemicals --- pollutants --- chemosensor --- TRPM7 --- kinase --- inflammation --- lymphocytes --- calcium signalling --- SMAD --- TH17 --- hypersensitivity --- regulatory T cells --- thrombosis --- graft versus host disease --- 2D gel electrophoresis --- AP18 --- HEK293 --- HSP70 --- MALDI-TOF MS(/MS) --- nanoHPLC-ESI MS/MS --- proteomics --- sulfur mustard --- TRPA1 --- TRPC channels --- diacylglycerol --- TRPC4 --- TRPC5 --- NHERF --- TRP channel --- TRPY1 --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae --- calcium --- manganese --- oxidative stress --- ion channels --- overproduction --- production platform --- protein purification --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae --- sensors --- transient receptor potential (TRP) channels --- yeast --- adipose tissue --- bioavailable --- menthol --- topical --- TRPM8 --- n/a

Newborn Screening for Sickle Cell Disease and other Haemoglobinopathies

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039216147 / 9783039216154 Year: Pages: 162 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-615-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Newborn Screening for Sickle Cell Disease and other Haemoglobinopathies is a Special Issue of the International Journal of Neonatal Screening. Sickle cell disease is one of the most common inherited blood disorders, with a huge impact on health care systems due to high morbidity and high mortality associated with the undiagnosed disease. Newborn screening helps to make the diagnosis early and to prevent fatal complications and diagnostic odysseys. This book gives an overview of diagnostic standards in newborn screening for sickle cell disease and examples of existing newborn screening programs.

Keywords

newborn screening --- sickle cell disease --- India --- tribal --- non-tribal --- Guthrie spots --- cord blood --- automated HPLC --- (recommended) screening panel --- policy making --- harmonisation --- patient advocacy --- Sickle Cell Disease --- ‘Getting to Outcomes’ --- newborn screening) --- sub-Saharan Africa --- Nigeria --- Kaduna State --- implementation science --- public health engagement --- glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase --- G6PD deficiency --- point-of-care --- diagnostics --- malaria --- Plasmodium vivax --- screening --- sickle cell disease --- newborn --- mass spectrometry --- hemoglobinopathies --- newborn screening --- methods --- review --- sickle cell disease --- neonatal screening program --- registry --- birth prevalence --- newborn screening --- sickle cell disease --- hemoglobinopathy --- laboratory methods --- neonatal screening --- hemoglobin pattern --- HPLC --- IEF --- capillary electrophoresis --- sickle cell disease --- high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) --- ?-globin gene --- sickle cell disease --- newborn screening --- Caribbean --- newborn screening --- sickle cell disease --- MALDI-TOF --- mass spectrometry --- thalassemia --- prevention --- neonatal screening --- sickle cell disease --- hemoglobinopathies --- sickle cell disorder --- patient organisations --- patient representatives --- service users --- sickle cell and thalassaemia screening programme --- health policy --- screening --- sickle cell disease --- newborn --- thalassemia --- burden of disease --- newborn screening --- hemoglobinopathies --- sickle cell disease (SCD) --- pathophysiology --- hydroxyurea/hydroxycarbamide --- haemolysis --- vaso-occlusive crisis --- acute chest syndrome --- end-organ damage --- bone marrow transplant --- anaemia --- foetal haemoglobin --- gene therapy for haemoglobinopathies --- n/a

Links between Fibrogenesis and Cancer: Mechanistic and Therapeutic Challenges: Mechanistic and Therapeutic Challenges

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ISBN: 9783039217069 / 9783039217076 Year: Pages: 348 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-707-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Tissue fibrosis may occur for unknown causes or be the consequence of many pathological conditions including chronic inflammatory or infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, graft rejection, or malignancy. On the other hand, malignant tumors have been identified in fibrotic tissues decades ago, and now accumulating evidence suggests that fibrotic lesions enhance the risk of cancer in several organs such as liver, lungs, and breast. Disruption of an organ parenchymal cells and of its normal structural scaffold during tissue fibrogenesis appears to induce loss of cell polarity, promoting uncontrolled cell proliferation that may eventually lead to cancer development. Many cellular and molecular abnormalities including aberrant expression of microRNAs, genetic and epigenetic alterations, evasion or delayed apoptosis, unregulated intracellular signal pathways, and dysregulation or defective intercellular communications have been proposed to explain this link between fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis. However, the precise mechanisms of this fibrosis-to-cancer transition remain unclear. This book presents a collection of reviews and original articles summarizing recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of cancer development in fibrotic organs.

Keywords

lung cancer --- renal injury --- fibrosis --- crizotinib --- anaplastic lymphoma kinase --- cystic formation --- pulmonary fibrosis --- butylidenephthalide --- SOX2 --- type I collagen --- bleomycin --- YAP --- TAZ --- Hippo pathway --- fibrosis --- cancer --- mechanotransduction --- TGF-? --- Wnt --- uterine fibroid --- leiomyoma --- tumor --- tumor necrosis factor ? --- cytokine --- growth factor --- inflammation --- clinical symptoms --- pathophysiology --- therapy --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- cirrhosis --- regeneration --- inflammation --- cytokines --- genetic instability --- reactive oxygen species --- idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) --- lung cancer (LC) --- non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) --- acute lung injury --- protein S --- apoptosis --- signal pathway --- Erk1/2 --- lipopolysaccharide --- uterine fibroid --- leiomyoma --- smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential --- leiomyosarcoma --- myometrium --- immunohistochemistry --- marker --- pathology --- tumor --- diagnosis --- cancer-associated fibroblasts --- tumor microenvironment --- nanoparticles --- breast cancer --- antitumor efficacy --- cirrhosis --- HBV --- HCV --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis --- lung cancer --- pathogenesis --- common pathways --- hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) --- fibrosis --- cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) --- hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) --- tumor microenvironment --- hepatocellular carcinoma --- non-alcoholic steatohepatitis --- fibrosis --- hepatic stellate cells --- extracellular matrix --- carcinogenesis --- angiogenesis --- cancer-associated fibroblasts --- extracellular matrix --- fibrosis --- heterogeneity --- interstitial fluid pressure --- metabolic reprogramming --- transforming growth factor-? --- tumor stiffness --- GPR40 --- GPR120 --- DHA --- omega-3 fatty acid --- SREBP-1 --- hepatocytes --- EMT --- lncRNA --- metastasis --- miRNA --- SMAD --- TGF-? --- targeted therapy --- tumor microenvironment --- n/a

Application of Bioinformatics in Cancers

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ISBN: 9783039217885 / 9783039217892 Year: Pages: 418 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-789-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This collection of 25 research papers comprised of 22 original articles and 3 reviews is brought together from international leaders in bioinformatics and biostatistics. The collection highlights recent computational advances that improve the ability to analyze highly complex data sets to identify factors critical to cancer biology. Novel deep learning algorithms represent an emerging and highly valuable approach for collecting, characterizing and predicting clinical outcomes data. The collection highlights several of these approaches that are likely to become the foundation of research and clinical practice in the future. In fact, many of these technologies reveal new insights about basic cancer mechanisms by integrating data sets and structures that were previously immiscible.

Keywords

comorbidity score --- mortality --- locoregionally advanced --- HNSCC --- curative surgery --- traditional Chinese medicine --- health strengthening herb --- cancer treatment --- network pharmacology --- network target --- high-throughput analysis --- brain metastases --- colorectal cancer --- KRAS mutation --- PD-L1 --- tumor infiltrating lymphocytes --- drug resistance --- gefitinib --- erlotinib --- biostatistics --- bioinformatics --- Bufadienolide-like chemicals --- molecular mechanism --- anti-cancer --- bioinformatics --- cancer --- brain --- pathophysiology --- imaging --- machine learning --- extreme learning --- deep learning --- neurological disorders --- pancreatic cancer --- TCGA --- curation --- DNA --- RNA --- protein --- single-biomarkers --- multiple-biomarkers --- cancer-related pathways --- colorectal cancer --- DNA sequence profile --- Monte Carlo --- mixture of normal distributions --- somatic mutation --- tumor --- mutable motif --- activation induced deaminase --- AID/APOBEC --- transcriptional signatures --- copy number variation --- copy number aberration --- TCGA mining --- cancer CRISPR --- firehose --- gene signature extraction --- gene loss biomarkers --- gene inactivation biomarkers --- biomarker discovery --- chemotherapy --- microarray --- ovarian cancer --- predictive model --- machine learning --- overall survival --- observed survival interval --- skin cutaneous melanoma --- The Cancer Genome Atlas --- omics --- breast cancer prognosis --- artificial intelligence --- machine learning --- decision support systems --- cancer prognosis --- independent prognostic power --- omics profiles --- histopathological imaging features --- cancer --- intratumor heterogeneity --- genomic instability --- epigenetics --- mitochondrial metabolism --- miRNAs --- cancer biomarkers --- breast cancer detection --- machine learning --- feature selection --- classification --- denoising autoencoders --- breast cancer --- feature extraction and interpretation --- concatenated deep feature --- cancer modeling --- interaction --- histopathological imaging --- clinical/environmental factors --- oral cancer --- miRNA --- bioinformatics --- datasets --- biomarkers --- TCGA --- GEO DataSets --- hormone sensitive cancers --- breast cancer --- StAR --- estrogen --- steroidogenic enzymes --- hTERT --- telomerase --- telomeres --- alternative splicing --- network analysis --- hierarchical clustering analysis --- differential gene expression analysis --- cancer biomarker --- diseases genes --- variable selection --- false discovery rate --- knockoffs --- bioinformatics --- copy number variation --- cell-free DNA --- methylation --- mutation --- next generation sequencing --- self-organizing map --- head and neck cancer --- treatment de-escalation --- HP --- molecular subtypes --- tumor microenvironment --- Bioinformatics tool --- R package --- machine learning --- meta-analysis --- biomarker signature --- gene expression analysis --- survival analysis --- functional analysis --- bioinformatics --- machine learning --- artificial intelligence --- Network Analysis --- single-cell sequencing --- circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) --- Neoantigen Prediction --- precision medicine --- Computational Immunology

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