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Brain Connectivity in Autism

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192823 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-282-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Abstract

The brain's ability to process information crucially relies on connectivity. Understanding how the brain processes complex information and how such abilities are disrupted in individuals with neuropsychological disorders will require an improved understanding of brain connectivity. Autism is an intriguingly complex neurodevelopmental disorder with multidimensional symptoms and cognitive characteristics. A biological origin for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) had been proposed even in the earliest published accounts (Kanner, 1943; Asperger, 1944). Despite decades of research, a focal neurobiological marker for autism has been elusive. Nevertheless, disruptions in interregional and functional and anatomical connectivity have been a hallmark of neural functioning in ASD. Theoretical accounts of connectivity perceive ASD as a cognitive and neurobiological disorder associated with altered functioning of integrative circuitry. Neuroimaging studies have reported disruptions in functional connectivity (synchronization of activated brain areas) during cognitive tasks and during task-free resting states. While these insights are valuable, they do not address the time-lagged causality and directionality of such correlations. Despite the general promise of the connectivity account of ASD, inconsistencies and methodological differences among studies call for more thorough investigations. A comprehensive neurological account of ASD should incorporate functional, effective, and anatomical connectivity measures and test the diagnostic utility of such measures. In addition, questions pertaining to how cognitive and behavioral intervention can target connection abnormalities in ASD should be addressed. This research topic of the Frontiers in Human Neuroscience addresses “Brain Connectivity in Autism” primarily from cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging perspectives.

Molecular Computing and Bioinformatics

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039211951 / 9783039211968 Year: Pages: 390 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-196-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This text will provide the most recent knowledge and advances in the area of molecular computing and bioinformatics. Molecular computing and bioinformatics have a close relationship, paying attention to the same object but working towards different orientations. The articles will range from topics such as DNA computing and membrane computing to specific biomedical applications, including drug R&D and disease analysis.

Keywords

prostate cancer --- Mycoplasma hominis --- endoplasmic reticulum --- systems biology --- protein targeting --- biomedical text mining --- big data --- Tianhe-2 --- parallel computing --- load balancing --- bacterial computing --- bacteria and plasmid system --- Turing universality --- recursively enumerable function --- miRNA biogenesis --- structural patterns --- DCL1 --- protein–protein interaction (PPI) --- clustering --- protein complex --- penalized matrix decomposition --- avian influenza virus --- interspecies transmission --- amino acid mutation --- machine learning --- Bayesian causal model --- causal direction learning --- K2 --- brain storm optimization --- line graph --- Cartesian product graph --- join graph --- atom-bond connectivity index --- geometric arithmetic index --- P-glycoprotein --- efflux ratio --- in silico --- machine learning --- hierarchical support vector regression --- absorption --- distribution --- metabolism --- excretion --- toxicity --- image encryption --- chaotic map --- DNA coding --- Hamming distance --- Stenotrophomonas maltophilia --- iron acquisition systems --- iron-depleted --- RAST server --- NanoString Technologies --- siderophores --- gene fusion data --- gene susceptibility prioritization --- evaluating driver partner --- gene networks --- drug-target interaction prediction --- machine learning --- drug discovery --- microRNA --- environmental factor --- structure information --- similarity network --- bioinformatics --- identification of Chinese herbal medicines --- biochip technology --- DNA barcoding technology --- DNA strand displacement --- cascade --- 8-bit adder/subtractor --- domain label --- Alzheimer’s disease --- gene coding protein --- sequence information --- support vector machine --- classification --- adverse drug reaction prediction --- heterogeneous information network embedding --- stacking denoising auto-encoder --- meta-path-based proximity --- Panax ginseng --- oligopeptide transporter --- flowering plant --- phylogeny --- transcription factor --- multiple interaction networks --- function prediction --- multinetwork integration --- low-dimensional representation --- dihydrouridine --- nucleotide physicochemical property --- pseudo dinucleotide composition --- RNA secondary structure --- ensemble classifier --- diabetes mellitus --- hypoxia-inducible factor-1? --- angiogenesis --- bone formation --- osteogenesis --- protein transduction domain --- membrane computing --- edge detection --- enzymatic numerical P system --- resolution free --- molecular computing --- molecular learning --- DNA computing --- self-organizing systems --- pattern classification --- machine learning --- laccase --- Brassica napus --- lignification --- stress --- molecular computing --- bioinformatics --- machine learning --- protein --- DNA --- RNA --- drug --- bio-inspired

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