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Obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194285 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-428-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Immune response and metabolic regulation are highly integrated and this interface maintains a central homeostatic system, dysfunction of which can cause obesity-associated metabolic disorder such as type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance is an underlying basis for the pathogenesis of these metabolic diseases. Overnutrition or obesity activates the innate immune system with subsequent recruitment of immune cells such as macrophages and T cells, which contributes to the development of insulin resistance. In particular, a significant advance in our understanding of obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance has been recognition of the critical role of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). ATMs are a prominent source of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-a and IL-6, that can block insulin action in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver autocrine/paracrine signaling and cause systemic insulin resistance via endocrine signaling, providing a potential link between inflammation and insulin resistance. All articles in this topic highlight the interconnection between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance in all its diversity to the mechanisms of obesity-induced inflammation and role of immune system in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and diabetes.

Computing Characterizations of Drugs for Ion Channels and Receptors Using Markov Models

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Book Series: Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering ISSN: 1439-7358 ISBN: 9783319300290 9783319300306 Year: Volume: 111 Pages: 261 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-30030-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Business and Management --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Computer Science --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- Biotechnology --- Internal medicine --- Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-15 18:39:18
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Flow of ions through voltage gated channels can be represented theoretically using stochastic differential equations where the gating mechanism is represented by a Markov model. The flow through a channel can be manipulated using various drugs, and the effect of a given drug can be reflected by changing the Markov model. These lecture notes provide an accessible introduction to the mathematical methods needed to deal with these models. They emphasize the use of numerical methods and provide sufficient details for the reader to implement the models and thereby study the effect of various drugs. Examples in the text include stochastic calcium release from internal storage systems in cells, as well as stochastic models of the transmembrane potential. Well known Markov models are studied and a systematic approach to including the effect of mutations is presented. Lastly, the book shows how to derive the optimal properties of a theoretical model of a drug for a given mutation defined in terms of a Markov model.

The Cognition of Sequences

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453986 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-398-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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It is impossible to perceive the innumerable stimuli impinging on our senses, all at once. Out of the myriad stimuli, external and internal, a few are selected for further processing; and even among these, we try to put each in some sort of relation with the others, to be able to make some sense about them all. Time, of course, is an elementary dimension we use to organize our experiences. Thus, the perception of sequences is basic to human cognition. Nevertheless, research addressing sequences is rather sparse. Partly, this is due to difficulty in designing experiments in this area due to huge individual differences. Then, there is the assumption that temporal order has more to do with memory than perception. Another problem is that sequences seem endemic to the auditory world. So much so that some researchers have suggested that sound provides the ‘auditory scaffolding’ for sequencing behavior. Little wonder that research studies addressing sequences in modalities other than audition are extremely rare.This research topic aimed to gather a holistic picture of sequencing behaviour among humans by collecting snapshots of the current research on the topic of sequencing. We particularly sought contributions which addressed sequences beyond the auditory modality. The single unifying criteria for these diverse contributions was that they shed new light on previously unexplored empirical relationships and/or provoked new lines of research with incisive ideas regarding sequencing behavior. Seasoned researchers contributed their views on perception, memory, and production of sequences.

Über lernende optische Inspektion am Beispiel der Schüttgutsortierung

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe Automatische Sichtprüfung und Bildverarbeitung ISSN: 18665934 ISBN: 9783731508427 Year: Volume: 13 Pages: XVI, 283 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000085620 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-28 18:15:09
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Automated visual inspection is an integral part in industrial manufacturing processes, but development and setup of such systems is very costly. Machine learning significantly reduces the effort of and speeds up both tasks. This work develops several machine learning methods suitable for automated visual inspection. The methods augment each other and can be used for a wide range of products.

Recent Developments in Smart Healthcare

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ISBN: 9783038426448 9783038426455 Year: Pages: 362 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-12 11:34:38
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Medicine is undergoing a sector-wide transformation thanks to the advances in computing and networking technologies. Healthcare is changing from reactive and hospital-centered to preventive and personalized, from disease focused to well-being centered. In essence, the healthcare systems, as well as fundamental medicine research, are becoming smarter. We anticipate significant improvements in areas ranging from molecular genomics and proteomics to decision support for healthcare professionals through big data analytics, to support behavior changes through technology-enabled self-management, and social and motivational support. Furthermore, with smart technologies, healthcare delivery could also be made more efficient, higher quality, and lower cost. In this special issue, we received a total 45 submissions and accepted 19 outstanding papers that roughly span across several interesting topics on smart healthcare, including public health, health information technology (Health IT), and smart medicine.

Remote Sensing and Geosciences for Archaeology

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ISBN: 9783038427636 9783038427644 Year: Pages: X, 436 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Archaeology --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-27 11:48:55
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This book collects more than 20 papers, written by renowned experts and scientists from across the globe, that showcase the state-of-the-art and forefront research in archaeological remote sensing and the use of geoscientific techniques to investigate archaeological records and cultural heritage.Very high resolution satellite images from optical and radar space-borne sensors, airborne multi-spectral images, ground penetrating radar, terrestrial laser scanning, 3D modelling, Geographyc Information Systems (GIS) are among the techniques used in the archaeological studies published in this book. The reader can learn how to use these instruments and sensors, also in combination, to investigate cultural landscapes, discover new sites, reconstruct paleo-landscapes, augment the knowledge of monuments, and assess the condition of heritage at risk. Case studies scattered across Europe, Asia and America are presented: from the World UNESCO World Heritage Site of Lines and Geoglyphs of Nasca and Palpa to heritage under threat in the Middle East and North Africa, from coastal heritage in the intertidal flats of the German North Sea to Early and Neolithic settlements in Thessaly.Beginners will learn robust research methodologies and take inspiration; mature scholars will for sure derive inputs for new research and applications.

Macromolecular Structure Underlying Recognition in Innate Immunity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455270 Year: Pages: 151 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-527-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Immune molecules have evolved to distinguish “self “molecules from “non-self”, “altered self” and “danger” molecules. Recognition is mediated via interactions between pattern recognition receptor molecules (PPRs) and their ligands, which include hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions between amino acid residues on the PPRs and uncharged or charged groups on amino acid residues, sugar rings or DNA/RNA molecules. Recognition in innate immunity range from cases (C1q, mannin-binding protein etc) where recognition is orchestrated by interaction between many ligands with one receptor molecule, and density of interaction is necessary for strong specific recognition, distinct from weak non-specific binding, and cases such as TLRs and NLRs where recognition involves complexation of single receptor and ligand, followed by oligomerisation of the receptor molecule. The majority of PPR molecules bind and recognise a wide variety of ligands, e.g TLR4 recognises LPS (gram negative bacteria), Lipotechoic acid (gram positive bacteria), heat shock protein hsp60, respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein etc, molecules that are structurally dissimilar to each other. This indicates considerable flexibility in their binding domains (amino acid residue variations) and modes (hydrophobic and charged, direct or mediated via an adaptor molecule). However, in many cases there is a dearth of structural and molecular data available, required to delineate the mechanism of ligand binding underlining recognition in pathogen receptors in innate immunity. Insights into requirements of conformation, charge, surface etc in the recognition and function of innate immunity receptors and their activation pathways, based on current data can suggest valuable avenues for future work.

Bisociative Knowledge Discovery: An Introduction to Concept, Algorithms, Tools, and Applications

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Book Series: Lecture Notes in Computer Science ISSN: 0302-9743 ISBN: 9783642318290 9783642318306 Year: Volume: 7250 Pages: 485 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-31830-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Information theory --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- Business and Management --- Computer Science --- Media and communication --- Biotechnology --- Chemical Engineering --- Pharmacy and materia medica --- General and Civil Engineering --- Manufactures --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2012-08-16 16:43:16
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Modern knowledge discovery methods enable users to discover complex patterns of various types in large information repositories. However, the underlying assumption has always been that the data to which the methods are applied to originates from one domain. The focus of this book, and the BISON project from which the contributions are originating, is a network based integration of various types of data repositories and the development of new ways to analyse and explore the resulting gigantic information networks. Instead of finding well defined global or local patterns they wanted to find domain bridging associations which are, by definition, not well defined since they will be especially interesting if they are sparse and have not been encountered before. The 32 contributions presented in this state-of-the-art volume together with a detailed introduction to the book are organized in topical sections on bisociation; representation and network creation; network analysis; exploration; and applications and evaluation.

Glycan Diversity in Fungi, Bacteria and Sea Organisms

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199426 Year: Pages: 85 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-942-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The cell surface of fungi, bacteria and sea organisms is highly glycosylated. These glycans are oligo- or polysaccharide molecules that can be secreted or attached to protein or lipids forming glycoconjugates. They present extraordinary structural diversity that could explain their involvement in many fundamental cellular processes, including growth, differentiation and morphogenesis. Considerable advances have been made on the structural elucidation of these glycans. Their primary structures were determined based on a combination of mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy techniques. The combination of these sensitive and powerful techniques has allowed us to increase our structural knowledge of a wide variety of glycans expressed by different fungi, bacteria and sea organisms.

Pattern recognition receptors and cancer

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196746 Year: Pages: 201 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-674-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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The group of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) includes families of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), NOD-like receptors (NLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), and AIM-2-like receptors (ALRs). Conceptually, receptors constituting these families are united by two general features. Firstly, they directly recognize common antigen determinants of virtually all classes of pathogens (so-called pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or simply PAMPs) and initiate immune response against them via specific intracellular signaling pathways. Secondly, they recognize endogenous ligands (since they are usually released during cell stress, they are called damage-associated molecular patterns, DAMPs), and, hence, PRR-mediated immune response can be activated without an influence of infectious agents. So, pattern recognition receptors play the key role performing the innate and adaptive immune response. In addition, many PRRs have a number of other vital functions apart from participation in immune response realization. The fundamental character and diversity of PRR functions have led to amazingly rapid research in this field. Such investigations are very promising for medicine as immune system plays a key role in vast majority if not all human diseases, and the process of discovering the new aspects of the immune system functioning is rapidly ongoing. The role of Toll-like receptors in cancer was analyzed in certain reviews but the data are still scattered. This collection of reviews systematizes the key information in the field.

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