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Formula Funding of Public Services

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Book Series: Routledge Studies in Business Organizations and Networks ISBN: 9780203013021 9780415362894 9780415511520 9780415654890 9781134229857 9781134229840 9781134229802 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203013021 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:24
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The use of formulae has become widespread in recent years across most developed countries. In the UK, a conservative estimate is that annually £150 billion of public service expenditure is distributed using formulae, in services such as health care, local government, social security and higher education. This book offers a comprehensive introduction to the theory and practice underlying the use of such formulae as a basis for funding public services. The philosophy, design and economic consequences of funding formulae have become key policy issues worldwide. However, till now, there has been no text which brings together the economic, statistical and political issues underlying formula funding. This key book fills that gap. Written by a leading international expert on the design of funding formulae, this important book includes empirical evidence from a range of countries and will be a valuable resource for all those involved in this field.

Keywords

risk --- adjustment --- case --- payment --- capitation --- payments --- mechanism --- mechanisms --- cream --- skimming

Claim Models: Granular Forms and Machine Learning Forms

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ISBN: 9783039286645 / 9783039286652 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-665-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Mechanical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This collection of articles addresses the most modern forms of loss reserving methodology: granular models and machine learning models. New methodologies come with questions about their applicability. These questions are discussed in one article, which focuses on the relative merits of granular and machine learning models. Others illustrate applications with real-world data. The examples include neural networks, which, though well known in some disciplines, have previously been limited in the actuarial literature. This volume expands on that literature, with specific attention to their application to loss reserving. For example, one of the articles introduces the application of neural networks of the gated recurrent unit form to the actuarial literature, whereas another uses a penalized neural network. Neural networks are not the only form of machine learning, and two other papers outline applications of gradient boosting and regression trees respectively. Both articles construct loss reserves at the individual claim level so that these models resemble granular models. One of these articles provides a practical application of the model to claim watching, the action of monitoring claim development and anticipating major features. Such watching can be used as an early warning system or for other administrative purposes. Overall, this volume is an extremely useful addition to the libraries of those working at the loss reserving frontier.

Applied Econometrics

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ISBN: 9783038979265 9783038979272 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-927-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Although the theme of the monograph is primarily related to “Applied Econometrics”, there are several theoretical contributions that are associated with empirical examples, or directions in which the novel theoretical ideas might be applied. The monograph is associated with significant and novel contributions in theoretical and applied econometrics; economics; theoretical and applied financial econometrics; quantitative finance; risk; financial modeling; portfolio management; optimal hedging strategies; theoretical and applied statistics; applied time series analysis; forecasting; applied mathematics; energy economics; energy finance; tourism research; tourism finance; agricultural economics; informatics; data mining; bibliometrics; and international rankings of journals and academics.

Keywords

inflation --- postage stamps --- price recovery --- historical time series --- EGARCH --- FHA loan --- home mortgage --- foreclosure --- default and prepayment --- unobserved heterogeneity --- duration models --- competing risks --- earnings forecasts --- earnings announcements --- financial markets --- financial analysts --- nonparametric time series modeling --- nonlinearity --- unified time series algorithm --- exploratory diagnostics --- control environment --- budgetary system and strategies --- operational control --- company performance --- economic growth --- economic freedom --- foreign direct investment --- panel data --- cash payments --- efficiency --- denomination range --- JEL Classification --- E42 --- E58 --- managing of financial health --- risk of bankruptcy --- prediction methods --- post-communist countries --- Misery Index --- inflation --- unemployment --- Probit and Logit models --- Okun’s law --- multivariate regression models --- heavy-tailed data --- Mahalanobis distances --- maximum likelihood estimator --- independent multivariate Student distribution --- uncorrelated multivariate Student distribution --- derivatives market --- economic development --- Granger-causality tests --- vector error correction model (VECM) --- DOLS --- FMOLS --- income inequality --- economic growth --- middle income countries --- Granger causality test --- system GMM --- oil price --- exchange rate --- trade balance --- cointegration --- frequency domain causality --- Nigeria --- Fama-French factor model --- market microstructure --- trading behavior --- panel data factor model --- social network model --- risk spillover --- abnormal returns

Addressing Food and Nutrition Security in Developed Countries

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039212811 9783039212828 Year: Pages: 427 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-282-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The Addressing Food and Nutrition Security in Developed Countries Special Issue is a collection of papers from researchers in counties with developed economies who are responding to increasing prevalence of food insecurity. Food insecurity is relatively hidden, and the real extent of the problem is likely to be underestimated in many of these countries. Novel methods to estimate the prevalence of food insecurity in the face of no routine measurement are presented. Population surveys highlight adverse mental health outcomes and new and emerging subgroups that are experiencing food insecurity. Understanding the factors associated with food insecurity and how people cope is extremely important when considering how best to address the problem. Readers can become familiar with the lived experience of food insecurity in some countries—essential intelligence for effective policy and interventions. The extent of food banking operations and the nature of the charitable response in some countries is also described. Country-specific research highlights the importance of understanding the cultural and external environmental context. The influence the cost of food and budgetary tools on diet and food insecurity suggests opportunities for intervention. Researchers calls for social protection and high-quality dignified responses to address this complex public health problem.

Keywords

food insecurity --- charitable food services --- food charity --- food system --- nutrition --- voluntary failure --- INFORMAS --- diet prices --- food affordability --- Pacific diets --- M?ori diets --- food security --- food insecurity --- mental health --- depression --- women --- scoping review --- food bank --- food insecurity --- welfare recipients --- poverty --- food supply --- food aid --- food insecurity --- disaster --- family health --- Hurricane Katrina --- mental health --- physical health --- social support --- Asian Americans --- California Health Interview Survey --- food security --- Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) --- acculturation --- English language use --- food insecurity --- food security --- Indigenous population --- ageing --- Indigenous --- food assistance --- food insecurity --- food charity --- food service --- social enterprise models --- food insecurity --- low-to-middle income --- experience --- mixed methodology research --- rural --- food supply --- food security --- obesity --- food insecurity --- stressors --- stressful life events --- access to food --- food equality --- Healthy Diets ASAP tool --- food security --- food prices --- diet affordability --- rural communities --- INFORMAS --- food insecurity --- monitoring --- surveillance --- determinants --- path diagram --- food security --- food insecurity --- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population --- children --- urban --- experiences --- coping strategies --- household food insecurity --- food poverty --- Scotland --- low income --- families --- children --- women --- older people --- qualitative --- food aid --- charity --- Finland --- welfare state --- food aid recipient --- deservingness --- disadvantages --- inequality --- food security --- diet-related chronic disease --- policy --- food pricing --- food security --- diet price --- food price --- affordability --- food policy --- nutrition policy --- fiscal policy --- obesity prevention --- non-communicable disease --- monitoring and surveillance --- INFORMAS --- reference budgets --- food insecurity --- cost of a healthy diet --- Food-based dietary guidelines --- food insecurity --- food stress --- food affordability --- food insecurity --- food poverty --- prevalence --- household --- food surveys --- secondary data --- Scotland --- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander --- remote --- community store --- fruit and vegetables --- incentive --- subsidy --- food security --- nutrition --- diet --- household food insecurity --- mental health --- sex --- Canadian adults --- food insecurity --- access to food --- social assistance payments --- social security --- Newstart allowance --- food and nutrition security --- research --- values --- co-creation --- trauma-informed --- food insecurity --- hunger --- developed countries --- Sustainable Development Goals --- social determinants --- inequality --- food banks --- food security --- food insecurity --- social assistance --- poverty --- homeless --- nutrition environment --- food stress --- food affordability --- policy --- intervention --- determinants --- food banks --- developed countries

Application of Optimization in Production, Logistics, Inventory, Supply Chain Management and Block Chain

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039285228 / 9783039285235 Year: Pages: 618 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-523-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The evolution of industrial development since the 18th century is now experiencing the fourth industrial revolution. The effect of the development has propagated into almost every sector of the industry. From inventory to the circular economy, the effectiveness of technology has been fruitful for industry. The recent trends in research, with new ideas and methodologies, are included in this book. Several new ideas and business strategies are developed in the area of the supply chain management, logistics, optimization, and forecasting for the improvement of the economy of the society and the environment. The proposed technologies and ideas are either novel or help modify several other new ideas. Different real life problems with different dimensions are discussed in the book so that readers may connect with the recent issues in society and industry. The collection of the articles provides a glimpse into the new research trends in technology, business, and the environment.

Keywords

inventory --- defectives --- inspection errors --- full trade credit --- partial trade credit --- supplier selection process --- multicriteria decision making (MCDM) --- edible oil --- fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) --- green data envelopment analysis (GDEA) --- optimization --- integer linear programming --- sustainable --- supplier selection --- order allocation --- supply chain management --- e-commerce --- O2O channel --- customer acquisition cost --- transshipments --- electric power distribution --- Lean manufacturing --- multi-stage production system --- fuzzy demand --- imperfect products --- reworking --- lean manufacturing --- sustainability --- process imperfection --- uncertain information --- decomposition principle --- triangular fuzzy number --- human-based production system --- offline inspection --- optimization --- inspection cost --- outgoing quality --- learning behavior --- transport infrastructure --- develop strategies --- optimal algorithms --- business performance --- resilient supply chain --- supplier selection --- fuzzy optimization --- disruption risks --- preservation technology investment --- refrigerated trucks --- waste reduction --- controllable probabilistic deterioration rate --- supply chain management --- supply chain inventory --- imperfect quality --- inspection --- carbon emission --- deteriorating items --- industry 4.0 --- dynamic job-shop scheduling --- simulation --- decision support systems --- internet of things --- four-dimensional transportation problem --- fixed charge --- space constraint --- budget constraint --- substitute and complimentary items --- rough interval --- lead-time reduction --- production modelling --- optimization --- inventory control --- backorder --- imperfect manufacturing system --- backordering --- defective products --- rework --- inspection --- inventory --- smart production --- variable demand --- advertisement --- energy --- rework --- system reliability --- airborne particulate matter --- Bayesian approach --- change point detection --- likelihood ratio test --- time series analysis --- air quality --- supply chain management --- inventory control --- distribution-free approach --- revenue sharing --- radio frequency identification --- information asymmetry --- CLSC management --- O2O channel --- random defective rate --- hybrid manufacturing- remanufacturing strategy --- stochastic-petri net modeling --- sustainable healthcare system --- staff absenteeism --- patient’s queue --- mixed integer nonlinear programming --- data envelopment analysis --- benchmarking --- petrochemical industries --- technical and super-efficiencies --- multidimensional scaling --- efficiency and scatter plots --- price discounts --- stochastic-price dependent demand --- newsvendor --- pricing policy --- scheduling --- evolutionary algorithm --- robustness --- multi-objective --- machine breakdown --- inventory --- pricing --- complementary products --- substitutable products --- deterioration --- inventory modelling and optimization --- Trade-credit financing --- Cash discounts --- permissible delays in payments --- Supply chain management --- economic order quantity (EOQ) --- mathematical solution procedure --- deteriorating items --- mathematical analytic tools and techniques --- managerial considerations and managerial decisions --- production --- imperfect production --- defective rate --- workplace stress --- workers’ efficiency --- quality control --- targeting model --- process mean --- strict quasi-concavity --- recurrent states --- optimized limits --- preventive maintenance --- imperfect repair --- optimization --- reliability threshold --- repairable system --- distributed development --- agile development --- application program interfaces in agile distributed projects --- framework for agile distributed development

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