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Major Topics in Type 1 Diabetes

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ISBN: 9789535122043 9789535142140 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.5772/59335 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Type 1 diabetes (TD1) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in children and can occur at any age. Incidences of T1D have steadily increased worldwide, and it is largely considered an autoimmune disorder resulting from the specific destruction of pancreatic beta-cells producing insulin. However, T1D pathophysiology is still not completely understood, and although insulin and other therapies ameliorate the manifestations of the disease, no cure is currently available. This book has been written by widely acknowledged experts, with each chapter providing unique information on emerging aspects of T1D. Because a large body of information has been available regarding T1D, this book highlights lesser explored topics linked to the subject using important and recent knowledge that presages directions for further research. Current possibilities to forestall diabetic complications are also explored.

Advances in Common Eye Infections

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ISBN: 9789535128090 9789535128106 9789535141426 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.5772/60585 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Ophthalmology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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This book is a new addition for a broad-spectrum library in ophthalmology and other specialties in medicine of ""InTech."" It addresses ocular infections. These infections may result in blindness if not correctly diagnosed and promptly treated. Therefore, it is essential to be fully aware and knowledgeable about the manifestations of these diseases, and this book covers some of the different aspects of them. The chapters were written by experts from around the globe and these reflect the importance of the subject. The book is aimed for ophthalmologists, residents in ophthalmology and infectious diseases, general practitioners, and researchers in hope to advance the knowledge for the benefit of the world habitants wherever they are.

Adiposity - Omics and Molecular Understanding

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ISBN: 9789535129974 9789535129981 Year: Pages: 296 DOI: 10.5772/67422 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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This book is the second in a series of two, featuring the Adiposity - Omics and Molecular Understanding, serving as an introduction to modern views on how the adipocytes are reciprocally interacting with organ systems in order to explain the biology of the body's fat cells and how they are integrated with other organ systems, like muscle cells and the liver, in order to control the lipid metabolism in our bodies, to finally preserve a positive balance between white and brown/beige adipocyte tissues (WAT and BAT). The understanding of the ""omics"" of obesity will therefore enable clinicians and researchers to better pursue the untoward incidents of metabolic deviations from a defined and health-bringing homeostasis, with fully responding WAT and BAT, being able to preserve a healthy balance between fat-producing and fat-metabolizing tissues for the benefit of the host, and thus longevity (optimal health with healthy, well-functioning organ systems) throughout a lifetime.

Pediatric Cancer Survivors

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789535132196 9789535132202 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.5772/63327 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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Pediatric cancer develops in 1 to 500 children. Typically, the type of cancers that develop in children is different than those that develop in adults, in that they are often the result of a DNA mutation rather than environmental or lifestyle risk factors. Leukemia, brain and central nervous system tumors, and neuroblastomas are the most common cancer types in child populations. Children tend to respond better to anticancer treatments, including chemotherapy and radiation. However, long-term side effects are common in children, often requiring follow-up care and lifestyle intervention for the rest of their lives. The percentage of 5-year survivors was over 50% for the most common cancers. This suggests that a majority of cancers in this population are highly survivable. As such, research should focus on aspects of survivorship for these individuals. This book will explore issues related to pediatric cancer and their associated treatments.

Microcirculation Revisited - From Molecules to Clinical Practice

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ISBN: 9789535127307 9789535127314 9789535141624 Year: Pages: 286 DOI: 10.5772/61893 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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The book provides a comprehensive overview of selected topics in microcirculation, from physiology to pathophysiology including molecular mechanisms and clinical aspects. It contains 10 chapters written by reputed authors, which comprehensively sum up the current knowledge and some interesting new insights in the field of microcirculation. It will be useful to a broad range of audience, from students to highly profiled experts, helping them to expand their knowledge on microcirculation and opening up additional questions for further investigation.

Contemporary Challenges in Endocarditis

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ISBN: 9789535127697 9789535127703 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.5772/62550 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Endocarditis remains an elusive challenge for clinicians to master. As the population ages and their comorbidities increase, the risk of infecting cardiac structures - both native and, the ever-increasing use of, prosthetic support technology - also increases. In addition, the global epidemic of intravenous substance abuse has also resulted in a substantial increase in the number of infected patients. Fortunately, advances in the diagnostic testing, imaging, and recognition of the importance of a multidisciplinary management team have also contributed to advances in the care of these critically ill patients. Nevertheless, optimal therapies need to be individualized and considered in the ever-increasing body of scientific literature on this complex and difficult problem.

Aortic Aneurysm

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ISBN: 9789535129332 9789535129349 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.5772/62928 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Pediatrics
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Aortic aneurysms are very silent, insidious, and sudden complicated pathologies with high incidence of sudden death. The aorta has several different parts, which are affected by aneurysmal pathology independently and separately or conjointly. Preventive medicine and determinative genetic heritage are the first steps during diagnosis and precaution. Preventive screening of the general population seems the best way for diagnosing early asymptomatic aneurysms with increased health cost. Because sudden death is the first symptom of aortic aneurysms, early interventional treatment is essential to protect fatal complications. In spite of open surgical repair which is the standard procedure, isolated or hybrid endovascular approaches are used widespread in the last decade due to reduction of procedural complications. This book is composed of the main topics on aortic aneurysms and surgical treatments to extend scientific and therapeutic perspective and vision of cardiac teams.

Cerebral Palsy - Clinical and Therapeutic Aspects

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ISBN: 9781789848304 9781789848311 Year: Pages: 164 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73842 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Psychiatry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Cerebral palsy is a common pediatric problem and is the leading cause of childhood disability. It occurs at a rate of 3.6 cases per 1000 children, and represents a major social and psychological impact on both family and society. It is a group of disorders with movement difficulties being common for all affected patients. Its severity and extent are variable from one patient to another. Additionally, the impacts of cerebral palsy on daily activities, communications, and requirements are also variable. Recent advances in clinical research increase our knowledge and understanding of causal pathways, possible preventive measures, specific intervention strategies, and the value of new treatment modalities such as botulinum toxin and intrathecal baclofen in the management of cerebral palsy.

The Safety and Efficacy of Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Development and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196999 Year: Pages: 68 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-699-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Noninvasive brain stimulation (including Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and Transcranial Current Brain Stimulation (TCS)) can be used both experimentally and therapeutically. In the experimental domain TMS can be applied in single pulses to depolarize a small population of neurons in a targeted brain region. This protocol can be used, for example, to map cortical motor outputs, study central motor conduction time, or evaluate the cortical silent period (a measure of intracortical inhibition) all of which are relevant to neurodevelopment. TMS can also be applied in pairs of pulses (paired pulse stimulation, ppTMS) where two pulses are presented in rapid succession to study intracortical inhibition and facilitation. Trains of repeated TMS (rTMS) pulses can be applied at various stimulation frequencies and patterns to modulate local cortical excitability beyond the duration of the stimulation itself. Depending on the parameters of stimulation the excitability can be either facilitated or suppressed. TCS (including Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), alternating current (tACS), and random noise current stimulation (tRNS) also have the potential to modulate cortical excitability and have also been used to study and modulate cortical activity in healthy and patient populations. The after-effects of rTMS and TCS are thought to be related to changes in efficacy (in either the positive or negative direction) of synaptic connections of the neurons being stimulated, thus these techniques have been used to study and modulate cortical plasticity mechanisms in a number of populations. Recently, researchers have begun to apply these techniques to the study of neurodevelopmental mechanisms as well as the pathophysiology and development of novel treatments for neurodevelopmental disorders. Though there is much promise, caution is warranted given the vulnerability of pediatric and clinical populations and the potential that these techniques have to modify circuit development in a cortex that is in a very dynamic state. This Research Topic hopes to provide an opportunity to share ideas across areas (human and animal researchers, clinicians and basic scientists). We are particularly interested in papers that address issues of choosing a protocol (intensity, frequency, location, coil geometry etc.), populations where noninvasive brain stimulation may have direct impact on diagnostics and treatment, as well as the safety and ethics of applying these techniques in pediatric populations. As many may not be aware of the potential and limitations of noninvasive brain stimulation and its use for research and treatment in this area, this Research Topic promises to have broad appeal. Submissions for all Frontiers article types are encouraged.

Biology-Driven Targeted Therapy of Pediatric Soft-Tissue and Bone Tumors: Current Opportunities and Future Challenges

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198191 Year: Pages: 147 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-819-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Recent advances in the understanding of the biological basis of pediatric soft-tissue and bone tumors, especially owing to the advent of “omics” technologies, have led to an exponential increase in the current knowledge on the genetic and cellular patho-mechanisms that drive these diseases. This offers the unprecedented opportunity to develop and implement targeted therapies such as monoclonal antibodies, small molecules, oncolytic viruses, and immunotherapies in standard and/or personalized treatment regimens. However, to date only a few examples document a successful translation of discoveries from the bench to the bedside. Recent international expert congresses such as the “Pediatric Cancer Translational Genomics” conference (Phoenix, Arizona, 2012), the ESF-EMBO workshop on “Molecular Biology and Innovative Therapies in Sarcomas” (Pultusk, Poland, 2012), and the AACR special meeting on “Pediatric Cancer at the Crossroads – Translating Discovery into Improved Outcomes” (San Diego, California, 2013) further emphasize the urgent need for a more rapid and especially more successful translational process. Hence, we strongly believe that a Frontiers Research Topic aiming at this aspect would fit just in time and that it would have great potential to receive numerous contributions of outstanding experts of the field. The proposed Frontiers Research Topic shall provide a platform for active and interdisciplinary discussion, summarize current state-of-the-art knowledge on all basic research and translational aspects in pediatric soft-tissue and bone tumors, and offer new perspectives of how to further promote and accelerate the translational process. We welcome high-quality original research articles, brief reports, as well as opinion, hypothesis, and review articles, and especially encourage submissions from early-career scientists.

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