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Plasticity of primary afferent neurons and sensory processing after spinal cord injury

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193967 Year: Pages: 221 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-396-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Traumatic injury of the spinal cord affects the entire organism directly and indirectly. Primary injury destroys neurons and severs axons which participate in neural circuits. Secondary injuries and pathologies arise from numerous sources including systemic inflammation, consequential damage of cutaneous, muscular, and visceral tissues, and dysregulation of autonomic, endocrine and sensory- motor functions. Evidence is mounting that spinal cord injury (SCI) affects regions of the nervous system spatially remote from the injury site, as well as peripheral tissues, and alters some basic characteristics of primary afferent cell biology and physiology (cell number, size/frequency, electrophysiology, other). The degree of afferent input and processing above the lesion is generally intact, while that in the peri-lesion area is highly variable, though pathologies emerge in both regions, including a variety of pain syndromes. Primary afferent input to spinal regions below the injury and the processing of this information becomes even more important in the face of complete or partial loss of descending input because such spared sensory processing can lead to both adaptive and pathological outcomes. This issue hosts review and research articles considering mechanisms of plasticity of primary afferent neurons and sensory processing after SCI, and how such plasticity contributes to sparing and/or recovery of functions, as well as exacerbation of existing and/or emergent pathologies. A critical issue for the majority of the SCI community is chronic above-, peri-, and below-level neuropathic pain, much of which may arise, at least in part, from plasticity of afferent fibers and nociceptive circuitry. For example, autonomic dysreflexia is common hypertensive syndrome that often develops after SCI that is highly reliant on maladaptive nociceptive sensory input and processing below the lesion. Moreover, the loss of descending input leaves the reflexive components of bladder/bowel/sexual function uncoordinated and susceptible to a variety of effects through afferent fiber plasticity. Finally, proper afferent feedback is vital for the effectiveness of activity-dependent rehabilitative therapies, but aberrant nociceptive input may interfere with these approaches since they are often unchecked due to loss of descending modulation.

Norge i Latin-Amerika

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ISBN: 9788202548483 Year: Pages: 349 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.27 Language: Uncoded
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing) Grant: University of Oslo, Stiftelsen Fritt Ord
Subject: Political Science --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-29 13:32:10
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Despite long traditions for contact with Latin America, increasing trade and investments in the region and important contributions to the recent peace process in Colombia, Latin America is often depicted as a "forgotten region" in Norway. Through a series of thematic analyses of the extent of Norway's contacts with Latin America, the authors of this anthology seeks to correct this perceived image of a "forgotten region".

Fishing for Human Perceptions in Coastal and Island Marine Resource Use Systems

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454594 Year: Pages: 175 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-459-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Human perceptions, decision-making and (pro-) environmental behaviour are closely connected. This Research Topic focuses on bringing together perceptions and behaviour for sustainable coastal and island marine resource use systems. Management and governance of (large and small-scale) coastal marine resource use systems function in highly complex social and ecological environments, which are culturally embedded, economically interest-led and politically biased. Management processes therefore have to integrate multiple perspectives as well as perception-driven standpoints on the individual as well as the decision-makers’ levels. Consequently, the analysis of perceptions has developed not only as part of philosophy and psychology but also of environmental science, anthropology and human geography. It encompasses intuitions, values, attitudes, thoughts, mind-sets, place attachments and sense of place. All of these influence human behavior and action, and are collected or are available within the respective marine resource use system, which may support the livelihood of a large part of the local population. Management and governance are not only about mediating between resource use conflicts or establishing marine protected areas, they deal with people and their ideas and perceptions. Understanding the related decision-making processes on multiple scales and levels hence means much more than economically assessing the available marine resources or existing threats to the associated system. Over the past decade, there has been a growing inter- and transdisciplinary international community becoming interested in research which integrates perceptions of coastal and inland residents, local and regional stakeholder groups, as well as resource and environmental managers and decision-makers. By acknowledging the importance of the individual perspective and interest-led personal views, it became obvious how valuable and important these sources of information are for coastal research. An increase of research effort spent on the link between perceptions and behaviour in marine resource use systems is thus both timely and needed. By offering a diversity of inspiring and comprehensive contributions on the link between perceptions and behaviour, this Research Topic aspires to critically enlighten the discourse and applicability of such research for finding sustainable, locally identified, anchored and integrated marine resource use pathways.

Urban and Periurban Forest Diversity and Ecosystem Service

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ISBN: 9783038424116 9783038424109 Year: Pages: XII, 272 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-16 08:16:02
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Recent special issues in various journals have focused on “urban ecosystem services”. There is also an increasing amount of studies on “urban ecology”, “urban tree management”, “arboriculture”, “urban biodiversity”, and “ecosystem services” from wildland forests. This Special Issue aims to fill a void and focus on the socio-ecological diversity and the economic value of the ecosystem services from urban and peri-urban forests. Urban and peri-urban forests are tree dominated ecosystems in and near human settlements, while ecosystem services are the direct economic, social, and environmental benefits provided by their structural components and ecological functions.

Discovery and Empire: the French in the South Seas

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ISBN: 9781922064523 Year: Pages: 302 DOI: 10.20851/discovery Language: English
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2013-09-10 08:55:12
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The French connection with the South Seas stretches back at least as far as the voyage of Binot Paulmier de Gonneville (1503-1505), who believed he had discovered the fabled great south land after being blown off course during a storm near the Cape of Good Hope. (...) It was not until the eighteenth century, however, that France began sending mariners to the southern oceans on a regular basis, and by that time a new maritime power had begun to emerge: Great Britain. Together, these two nations would play a decisive role in determining the configuration of these little known parts of the globe, and particularly of the Pacific, which had for so long been the almost exclusive preserve of Spain.

Young People's Perceptions of Europe in a Time of Change: IEA International Civic and Citizenship Education Study 2016 European Report

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ISBN: 9783319739595 9783319739601 Year: Pages: 72 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73960-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA)
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-27 15:54:12
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The IEA’s International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) investigates the ways in which young people are prepared to undertake their roles as citizens in a range of countries in the second decade of the 21st century. ICCS 2016 is the second cycle of a study initiated in 2009.This report from ICCS focuses on data collected in the 15 countries that participated in the study’s 2016 European regional questionnaire. It reveals lower secondary school students’ views on European identity, their perceptions of freedom of movement and immigration, and their opinions of Europe and its future. It also, for the 12 European countries that participated in both ICCS 2009 and ICCS 2016, looks at changes across this time period, in young people’s perceptions of immigration and European identity. Comparison with the complete international study will enable readers to review the extent to which region-specific perceptions are related to other factors, such as students’ level of civic knowledge and social or educational contexts. Over the past 50 years, the IEA has conducted comparative research studies in a range ofdomains focusing on educational policies, practices, and outcomes in many countries around the world. The association conducted its first survey of civic education in 1971. The reliable comparative data collected by ICCS 2016 will allow education systems to evaluate the strengths of educational policies, both internationally and within a regional context, and to measure their progress toward achieving critical components of the United Nations’ 2030 agenda for sustainable development.

Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying

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ISBN: 9783039210800 / 9783039210817 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-081-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Education
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Despite the significant decrease in bullying that has been reported in many countries during the last two decades, bullying continues to be a significant problem among young people. Given the increase of internet use among youth, researchers have started to pay attention to cyberspace, understanding that it may be a fertile ground for bullying behaviors, specifically, what is known as cyberbullying. “Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying” examines the association of several family variables with bullying in offline and online environments during childhood and adolescence. Contributors from the Americas, Canada, Asia, and Europe offer cutting-edge research on family dynamics, bystander behaviors, parents’ and educators’ perceptions, and bullying and cyberbullying prevention and intervention strategies of bullying for school and home. This book also provides an analysis of the current research on the influence of family in the electronic bullying. Research topics included in the book: 1) Parental education and bullying and cyberbullying; 2) Parental monitoring and cyberbullying; 3) Parental communication and feelings of affiliation; 4) Student and educator perspective on cyberbullying; 5) Parents’ responses to bullying; 6) Parental mediation and bystander behaviors; 7) Development of scales to measure cyberbullying and high internet risks. “Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying” is an essential resource for researchers, graduate students, families, and practitioners in social education, social work, teacher education, and psychology.

Computer Science and Engineering Education for Pre-collegiate Students and Teachers

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ISBN: 9783038979401 / 9783038979418 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-941-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Education
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Now more than ever, as a worldwide STEM community, we need to know what pre-collegiate teachers and students explore, learn, and implement in relation to computer science and engineering education. As computer science and engineering education are not always “stand-alone” courses in pre-collegiate schools, how are pre-collegiate teachers and students learning about these topics? How can these subjects be integrated? Explore six articles in this book that directly relate to the currently hot topics of computer science and engineering education as they tie into pre-collegiate science, technology, and mathematics realms. There is a systematic review article to set the stage of the problem. Following this overview are two teacher-focused articles on professional development in computer science and entrepreneurship venture training. The final three articles focus on varying levels of student work including pre-collegiate secondary students’ exploration of engineering design technology, future science teachers’ (collegiate students) perceptions of engineering, and pre-collegiate future engineers’ exploration of environmental radioactivity. All six articles speak to computer science and engineering education in pre-collegiate forums, but blend into the collegiate world for a look at what all audiences can bring to the conversation about these topics.

Planning, Development and Management of Sustainable Cities

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ISBN: 9783038979067 9783038979074 Year: Pages: 440 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-907-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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The concept of ‘sustainable urban development’ has been pushed to the forefront of policymaking and politics as the world wakes up to the impacts of climate change and the destructive effects of the Anthropocene. Climate change has emerged to be one of the biggest challenges faced by our planet today, threatening both built and natural systems with long-term consequences, which may be irreversible. While there is a vast body of literature on sustainability and sustainable urban development, there is currently limited focus on how to cohesively bring together the vital issues of the planning, development, and management of sustainable cities. Moreover, it has been widely stated that current practices and lifestyles cannot continue if we are to leave a healthy living planet to not only the next generation, but also to the generations beyond. The current global school strikes for climate action (known as Fridays for Future) evidences this. The book advocates the view that the focus needs to rest on ways in which our cities and industries can become green enough to avoid urban ecocide. This book fills a gap in the literature by bringing together issues related to the planning, development, and management of cities and focusing on a triple-bottom-line approach to sustainability.

Keywords

spatial decision support systems --- urban planning --- sustainability indicators --- urban metabolism --- sustainable regional development --- land use governance --- regional stakeholder involvement --- precision farming (PF) --- wood fuel --- technology roadmapping (TRM) --- open innovation (OI) --- Germany --- sustainability assessment --- sustainable urban development --- neighborhood sustainability --- neighborhood sustainability assessment index --- sustainable city --- Ipoh --- Malaysia --- scaling-up strategy --- sustainable development --- local new town --- neoliberal capitalism --- Wujin --- China --- low-energy transport --- carbon --- energy consumption --- sociotechnical transition --- innovation --- cities --- United Kingdom --- sustainability --- tree --- urban forest --- forest values --- urban transport --- sustainable transport --- developing cities --- medium-sized cities --- infrastructure --- transport projects --- sustainability --- knowledge management --- practitioner perceptions --- frames --- framing processes --- low carbon cities --- visioning --- urban resilience --- sustainability --- sustainability literacy --- urban development --- public participation --- urban planning --- civic engagement --- green economy --- built environment sector --- eco-cities --- sustainable urban development --- green innovation --- low carbon economy --- socio-technical transition --- urban fire --- spatio-temporal features --- SDM, humidity --- GDP --- the fire assimilation effect --- fire inertia effect --- fire caution effect --- urban land development --- natural environmental impact --- driving forces-pressure-state-impact-policy and pattern (DPSIP) --- water supply --- demand --- time-series forecasting --- ARIMA --- urban water sustainability --- Istanbul --- ecosystem approach --- urban ecology --- eco-cities --- process-function ecology --- heat island mitigation --- urban forestry --- green infrastructure --- ecological landscape management --- sustainability index --- mixed land-use --- neighbourhood --- travel behaviour --- perception --- indicator --- stakeholder --- megacity --- co-design --- co-production --- bottom-up --- anthropogenic impact --- environmental threshold --- road grades --- heavy-duty vehicles --- emissions --- sustainable transportation --- China --- water asset management --- Gap analysis --- LOS (level of service) --- PIs (performance indicators) --- customer value --- noise pollution --- low-frequency noise --- DEFRA --- human well-being --- sustainability --- power poles --- City Biodiversity Index --- Satoyama Index --- land use mixture --- land cover --- GIS --- sustainability --- sustainable development --- sustainable urban development --- sustainable city --- sustainable urban ecosystems --- sustainability assessment --- smart cities

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