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Personalized Medicine and Neurosurgery

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453368 Year: Pages: 133 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-336-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Surgery
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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The Precision Medicine Initiative, which was instituted by President Barack Obama on January 20, 2015, highlighted the importance that advances in genomics and related “-omic” approaches have made to science and medicine, and it set the stage for their federally funded and mandated integration into the delivery of health care. Whether these advances comprise large-scale approaches, such as The Cancer Genome Atlas, which provides a modern classification of cancers based on molecular profiles, or genealogy initiatives, which seek to trace the movement of our early ancestors out of Africa, genomic technology has taken us closer to developing targeted therapies and a refined understanding of our evolutionary journey. It is against this backdrop that we summarized some of the recent advances in the field of precision medicine, or personalized medicine, as they pertain to neurosurgery. In this e-Book collection provided by Frontiers in Surgery: Neurosurgery, we present a collection of articles by leaders in the field of neurosurgery that highlight domains using a personalized approach for the treatment of patients or avenues when personalization is possible and when it will likely alter the care of patients with neurological diseases.

Drug-Diagnostics Co-Development in Oncology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193325 Year: Pages: 111 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-332-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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The idea of combining drugs and diagnostics in oncology is not new. When the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen was developed in the 1970’s for the treatment of breast cancer a positive correlation between receptor status and treatment outcome was found. As a result of this research, it was suggested to use the estrogen-receptor assay as a diagnostic test for selection of patients for tamoxifen treatment. Despite this suggestion was put forward nearly 40 years ago the adaptation of the drug-diagnostic co-development model has been relatively slow and it is only within the last decade that it has gained more widespread acceptance. The parallel development of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin®, Roche/Genentech) and the immunohistochemistry assay for HER2 protein overexpression (HercepTest™, Dako) seems to have served as an inspiration to a number of stakeholders such as pharma and diagnostic companies, regulatory agencies, and academia. In recent years we have seen an increasing number of oncology drug development projects that have taken advantage of the drug-diagnostic co-development model, as outline below. Most of the new targeted anti-cancer drugs that have been introduced in recent years, such as BRAF-, ALK-, EGFR- and HER2-inhibitors, are more or less all a product of the drugdiagnostic co-development model. These drugs have shown remarkable high response rates in selected groups of patients within cancer diseases with great unmet medical needs. This Research Topic on Drug-Diagnostic Co-Development in Oncology aims to provide you with an insight into some of the diverse activities that constitute this new research area.

Innovative Radiopharmaceuticals in Oncology and Neurology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451746 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-174-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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The aim of this Research Topic was to assemble a series of articles describing basic, preclinical and clinical research studies on radiopharmaceuticals and nuclear medicine. The articles were written by attendees of the third Nuclear Technologies for Health Symposium (NTHS, 10th-11th March 2015, Nantes, Frances) under the auspices of the IRON LabEx (Innovative Radiopharmaceuticals for Oncology and Neurology Laboratory of Excellence). This French network, gathering approximately 160 scientists from 12 academic research teams (Funded by “investissements d’Avenir”), fosters transdisciplinary projects between teams with expertise in chemistry, radiochemistry, radiopharmacy, formulation, biology, nuclear medicine and medical physics. The 12 articles within this resulting eBook present a series of comprehensive reviews and original research papers on multimodality imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy; illustrating the different facets of studies currently conducted in these domains.

Machine Learning With Radiation Oncology Big Data

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457304 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-730-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Radiation oncology is uniquely positioned to harness the power of big data as vast amounts of data are generated at an unprecedented pace for individual patients in imaging studies and radiation treatments worldwide. The big data encountered in the radiotherapy clinic may include patient demographics stored in the electronic medical record (EMR) systems, plan settings and dose volumetric information of the tumors and normal tissues generated by treatment planning systems (TPS), anatomical and functional information from diagnostic and therapeutic imaging modalities (e.g., CT, PET, MRI and kVCBCT) stored in picture archiving and communication systems (PACS), as well as the genomics, proteomics and metabolomics information derived from blood and tissue specimens. Yet, the great potential of big data in radiation oncology has not been fully exploited for the benefits of cancer patients due to a variety of technical hurdles and hardware limitations.With recent development in computer technology, there have been increasing and promising applications of machine learning algorithms involving the big data in radiation oncology. This research topic is intended to present novel technological breakthroughs and state-of-the-art developments in machine learning and data mining in radiation oncology in recent years.

The Treatment of Metastatic Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) in New Era of Personalised Medicine

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195435 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-543-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related mortality in Canada and USA. Majority of the patients present in advanced stage of the disease and of these only about 2% will be alive at 5 years. NSCLC is the most common form of lung cancer, accounting for approximately 87% of cases. Systemic chemotherapies have been used to treat metastatic NSCLC for decades, but the improvements of outcomes have reached a plateau. Recent advances in understanding signalling pathways for malignant cells, their interconections,the importance of various receptors and biomarkers and the interplay between various oncogenes have led to the development of targeted treatments that are improving both efficacy and safety of the treatments. Knowledge about the advantages of treatments with the targeted agents in metastatic NSCLC is growing rapidly. Combining various targeted agents or sequencing them properly will be important in the era of personalised medicine and overcoming development of the resistence to various targeted agents will be challenging. The importance of a team work,from the diagnosis through various treatments, to supportive care, from the interventional radiologists, pneumologists or surgeons, who have to obtain a satisfactory tumor tissue specimen, to pathologists, radiation and medical oncologists, to supportive care specialists, will be described in our publications. We will cover completely present and future approaches to personalised medicine in this rapidly evolving field of metastatic NSCLC.

Qatar Foundation Annual Research Conference Proceedings

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ISBN: 9789927118050 Year: Volume: Qatar Foundation Annual Resear Language: English
Publisher: Bloomsbury Qatar Foundation Journals
Subject: Anthropology
Added to DOAB on : 2014-11-17 13:18:29
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The Qatar Foundation Annual Research Conference (QF ARC) builds on nationwide efforts to advance Qatar’s ambitious research agenda. It provides a unique platform to activate multidisciplinary knowledge sharing and collaboration needed to tackle the most pressing national challenges in research, as well as bolster Qatar’s research and development sector.

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