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Field Guide for the Identification of Damage on Woody Sentinel Plants

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ISBN: 9781786394408; 9781786394415 Year: Pages: 292 Language: English
Publisher: CABI
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Forestry --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2020-10-16 15:03:26
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This guide is intended as an aid for managers of sentinel plantings, botanical gardens or arboreta, as well as phytosanitary inspectors, who may have knowledge of common pests and diseases of woody plants, but may not know the likely cause of damage that they have not encountered before. It aims to provide a tentative identification of relatively broad groups of organisms and not definitive identification of the causal agents. Hence, the pictures in this guide need to be regarded as typical examples of the described symptoms. There are chapters that explain how to use the guide, followed by keys (for different organs of conifer and broadleaf species) to guide the user to the relevant sections of the book, based on the questions entomologists and pathologists ask themselves when looking at a damaged or diseased tree in a fashion similar to how a doctor interrogates a patient to arrive at a diagnosis. The largest part of the book is devoted to the description and illustration of damage types and typical causes of the observed damage. The last chapters provide instructions for taking and preserving samples for further identification by an expert, notification of relevant authorities, and a glossary.

Review of Invertebrate Biological Control Agents Introduced into Europe

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ISBN: 9781786390790; 9781786390806; 9781786390813 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.1079/9781786390790.0000 Language: English
Publisher: CABI
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Plant Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-10-16 16:28:31
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This review provides an overview of all documented releases of exotic (non-European) invertebrate biological control agents (IBCAs) into the environment in Europe and summarizes key information on the target species as well as on the biological control agent released. It is an update of A Review of Biological Control in Western and Southern Europe edited by Greathead (1976) and covers the period from 1897, when the beetle Rodolia cardinalis was introduced into Portugal against the invasive cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi, until the end of 2009. This review is based largely on the BIOCAT database (Greathead and Greathead 1992), which contains records of the introduction of insect natural enemies, namely parasitoids and predators, for the control of insect pests worldwide. This review may not provide the complete list of BC agents introduced into Europe. Nevertheless, the report includes a vast majority of the introductions, and hence provides a representative picture of the history of releases of exotic BC agents into the environment in Europe.

Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781786394118; 9781786394118 Year: Pages: 332 DOI: 10.1079/9781786394118.0000 Language: English
Publisher: CABI
Subject: Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-10-16 16:13:23
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This proceedings contains papers dealing with issues affecting biological control, particularly pertaining to the use of parasitoids and predators as biological control agents. This includes all approaches to biological control: conservation, augmentation, and importation of natural enemy species for the control of arthropod targets, as well as other transversal issues related to its implementation. It has 14 sessions addressing the most relevant and current topics in the field of biological control of arthropods: (i) Accidental introductions of biocontrol agens: positive and negative aspects; (ii) The importance of pre and post release genetics in biological control; (iii) How well do we understand non-target impacts in arthropod biological control; (iv) Regulation and access and benefit sharing policies relevant for classical biological control approaches; (v) The role of native and alien natural enemy diversity in biological control; (vi) Frontiers in forest insect control; (vii) Biocontrol marketplace I; (viii) Weed and arthropod biological control: mutual benefits and challenges; (ix) Maximizing opportunities for biological control in Asia's rapidly changing agro-environments; (x) Biological control based integrated pest management: does it work?; (xi) Exploring the compatibility of arthropod biological control and pesticides: models and data; (xii) Successes and uptake of arthropod biological control in developing countries; (xiii) Socio-economic impacts of biological control; (xiv) Biocontrol marketplace II.

Biopesticides Manual Guidelines for Selecting, Sourcing, Producing and Using Biopesticides for Key Pests of Tobacco

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9781789242010; 9781789242027 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.1079/9781789242027.0000 Language: English
Publisher: CABI
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Plant Sciences --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-10-16 14:35:07
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This manual aims to make information resources and technical advice available in order to support the deployment of biopesticides, which include microbials (e.g. bacteria, algae, protozoa, viruses and fungi), macrobials (e.g. predatory insects, parasitoids and beneficial nematodes), botanicals, and semiochemicals. It is intended to be a one-stop shop to address the information needs of the key groups who are responsible for selecting, sourcing and using biopesticides in the tobacco production system. Chapter 2 provides information for decision makers to support selection of biopesticide active substances. It also provides guidelines for trial managers on experimental design, data collection and reporting. Chapter 3 provides guidance for sourcing biopesticides. It also includes manuals for the local production of three types of biopesticide: Trichogramma; neem [Azadirachta indica]; and fungal biopesticides such as Trichoderma. Chapter 4 presents training materials to provide an overview of biopesticides in general together with detailed information on how to work with the key biopesticides that have already been used successfully to manage key pests in tobacco.

Organic Food Systems: Meeting the Needs of Southern Africa

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ISBN: 9781786399601; 9781786399625; 9781786399618 Year: Pages: 365 DOI: 10.1079/9781786399601.0000 Language: English
Publisher: CABI
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Plant Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-10-16 15:57:49
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This book reports on long-term comparative organic farming systems' research trials carried out over the last 5 years in the Southern Cape of South Africa, as well as research into the successes and failures of the organic sector and the technical tools required for sustainable development in South Africa, Zambia, Uganda and Tanzania. It includes 24 chapters organized into 4 parts. Part 1 (Chapters 1-6) discusses the historical development of organic farming systems, examines the global issues which confront us, and develops some concepts showing a progression in small-scale farmer development and how this can be supported with appropriate training and policy. The difference between national food self-sufficiency and household food security is examined, and the organic sector is introduced. Part 2 (Chapters 7-14) deals with capacity building and climate change. Holistic systems, inclusive participatory approaches, institution building and experiential learning are examined. Organic food production, farmer training, value chains, impact of drought on food prices and food availability, and urban water and energy use efficiency are described. Part 3 (Chapters 15-22) presents evidence on how to support organic farmers. It starts with 2 case studies on the well-developed organic sector in Uganda and the developing one in Zambia. The following chapters discuss soil carbon determination, comparison of organic and conventional farming systems, pest and disease control (e.g., chemical, holistic and biological control), soil fumigation, soil microbiology in organic and conventional systems, soil fertility changes and crop yield. Part 4 (Chapters 23-24) makes strategic suggestions about how to upscale organic farming and organic food systems in Southern Africa. This book is a vital resource for all stakeholders in organic agriculture.

Biological Invasions in South Africa

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Invading Nature - Springer Series in Invasion Ecology ISBN: 9783030323943 Year: Pages: 975 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-32394-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Ecology --- Zoology --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-16 23:59:34
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This open access volume presents a comprehensive account of all aspects of biological invasions in South Africa, where research has been conducted over more than three decades, and where bold initiatives have been implemented in attempts to control invasions and to reduce their ecological, economic and social effects. It covers a broad range of themes, including history, policy development and implementation, the status of invasions of animals and plants in terrestrial, marine and freshwater environments, the development of a robust ecological theory around biological invasions, the effectiveness of management interventions, and scenarios for the future. The South African situation stands out because of the remarkable diversity of the country, and the wide range of problems encountered in its varied ecosystems, which has resulted in a disproportionate investment into both research and management. The South African experience holds many lessons for other parts of the world, and this book should be of immense value to researchers, students, managers, and policy-makers who deal with biological invasions and ecosystem management and conservation in most other regions.

Forest and Rangeland Soils of the United States Under Changing Conditions

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783030452162 Year: Pages: 289 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-45216-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Ecology --- Agriculture (General) --- Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-23 00:04:47
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This open access book synthesizes leading-edge science and management information about forest and rangeland soils of the United States. It offers ways to better understand changing conditions and their impacts on soils, and explores directions that positively affect the future of forest and rangeland soil health. This book outlines soil processes and identifies the research needed to manage forest and rangeland soils in the United States. Chapters give an overview of the state of forest and rangeland soils research in the Nation, including multi-decadal programs (chapter 1), then summarizes various human-caused and natural impacts and their effects on soil carbon, hydrology, biogeochemistry, and biological diversity (chapters 2–5). Other chapters look at the effects of changing conditions on forest soils in wetland and urban settings (chapters 6–7). Impacts include: climate change, severe wildfires, invasive species, pests and diseases, pollution, and land use change. Chapter 8 considers approaches to maintaining or regaining forest and rangeland soil health in the face of these varied impacts. Mapping, monitoring, and data sharing are discussed in chapter 9 as ways to leverage scientific and human resources to address soil health at scales from the landscape to the individual parcel (monitoring networks, data sharing Web sites, and educational soils-centered programs are tabulated in appendix B). Chapter 10 highlights opportunities for deepening our understanding of soils and for sustaining long-term ecosystem health and appendix C summarizes research needs. Nine regional summaries (appendix A) offer a more detailed look at forest and rangeland soils in the United States and its Affiliates.

Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials

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ISBN: 9783039217861 9783039217878 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-787-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Nanomaterials possess astonishing physical and chemical properties. They play a key role in the development of novel and effective drugs, catalysts, sensors, and pesticides, to cite just a few examples. Notably, the synthesis of nanomaterials is usually achieved with chemical and physical methods needing the use of extremely toxic chemicals or high-energy inputs. To move towards more eco-friendly processes, researchers have recently focused on so-called “green synthesis”, where microbial, animal-, and plant-borne compounds can be used as cheap reducing and stabilizing agents to fabricate nanomaterials. Green synthesis routes are cheap, environmentally sustainable, and can lead to the fabrication of nano-objects with controlled sizes and shapes—two key features determining their bioactivity.

Impacts, Monitoring and Management of Forest Pests and Diseases

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039281664 9783039281671 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-167-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Forest pests have diverse negative impacts on forestry economy, ecosystem services, biodiversity, and sustainable ecosystem management. The first step towards effectively managing forest pests would be to monitor their occurrence and assess their impact on forest ecosystems. The monitoring results can provide basic information for effective management strategies. The data from monitoring programs can result in the development of new methods for monitoring, assessing impact, and developing management techniques. This special issue aims to share information to assist in the effective management of forest pests, by understanding the responses of forest pests to natural and anthropogenic changes, and discussing new studies on the monitoring, assessment, and management of forest pests. The fourteen papers included in this issue focus on monitoring, assessing, and managing forest pests, including one editorial providing an overall idea of the monitoring, assessment and management of forest pests, two articles reviewing long-term changes in forest pests and forests, four papers focusing on the monitoring of forest pests, three papers on the assessment of forest pests, and four papers on the management of forest pests. These papers provide a better understanding of the structures and processes in forest ecosystems and fundamental information for the effective management of forest pests.

Pesticidal Plants: From Smallholder Use to Commercialisation

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039287888 / 9783039287895 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-789-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Plant Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The global biodiversity and climate emergencies demand transformative changes to human activities. For example, food production relies on synthetic, industrial and non-sustainable products for managing pests, weeds and diseases of crops. Sustainable farming requires approaches to managing these agricultural constraints that are more environmentally benign and work with rather than against nature. Increasing pressure on synthetic products has reinvigorated efforts to identify alternative pest management options, including plant-based solutions that are environmentally benign and can be tailored to different farmers’ needs, from commercial to small holder and subsistence farming. Botanical insecticides and pesticidal plants can offer a novel, effective and more sustainable alternative to synthetic products for controlling pests, diseases and weeds. This Special Issue reviews and reports the latest developments in plant-based pesticides from identification of bioactive plant chemicals, mechanisms of activity and validation of their use in horticulture and disease vector control. Other work reports applications in rice weeds, combination biopesticides and how chemistry varies spatially and influences the effectiveness of botanicals in different locations. Three reviews assess wider questions around the potential of plant-based pest management to address the global challenges of new, invasive and established crop pests and as-yet underexploited pesticidal plants.

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