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Gram-positive phages: From isolation to application

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194933 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-493-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Phage biology is one of the most significant and fundamental aspects of biological research and is often used as a platform for model studies relating to more complex biological entities. For this reason, phage biology has enjoyed focused attention and significant advances have been made in the areas of phage genomics, transcriptomics and the development and characterisation of phage-resistance mechanisms. In recent years, considerable research has been performed to increase our understanding of the interactions of these phages with their hosts using genomic, biochemical and structural approaches. Such multidisciplinary approaches are core to developing a full understanding of the processes that govern phage infection, information that may be harnessed to develop anti-phage strategies that may be applied in food fermentations or applied in a positive sense in phage therapy applications. The co-evolutionary processes of these phages and their hosts have also been a considerable focus of research in recent years. Such data has promoted a deeper understanding of the means by which these phages attach to and infect their hosts and permitted the development of effective anti-phage strategies. Furthermore, the presence and activity of host-encoded phage-resistance systems that operate at various stages of the phage cycle and the potential for the application of such systems consolidates the value of research in this area. Conversely, phages and their components have been applied as therapeutic agents against a number of pathogens including, among others, Clostridium difficile, Lactococcus garviae, Mycobacterium spp., Listeria spp. and the possibilities and limitations of these systems will be explored in this topic. Additionally, phage therapeutic approaches have been applied to the prevention of development of food spoilage organisms in the brewing and beverage sectors and exhonorate the positive applications of phages in the industrial setting. This research topic is aimed to address the most current issues as well as the most recent advances in the research of phages infecting Gram-positive bacteria covering areas such as phages in food fermentations, their impact in industry, phage ecology, genomics, evolution, structural analysis, phage-host interactions and the application of phages and components thereof as therapeutic agents against human and animal pathogens.

Virus Ecology and Disturbances: Impact of Environmental Disruption on the Viruses of Microorganisms

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194483 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-448-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Viruses infect numerous microorganisms including, predominantly, Bacteria (bacteriophages or phages) but also Archaea, Protists, and Fungi. They are the most abundant and ubiquitous biological entities on Earth and are important drivers of ecosystem functioning. Little is known, however, about the vast majority of these viruses of microorganisms, or VoMs. Modern techniques such as metagenomics have enabled the discovery and description of more presumptive VoMs than ever before, but also have exposed gaps in our understanding of VoM ecology. Exploring the ecology of these viruses – which is how they interact with host organisms, the abiotic environment, larger organisms, and even other viruses across a variety of environments and conditions – is the next frontier. Integration of a growing molecular understanding of VoMs with ecological studies will expand our knowledge of ecosystem dynamics. Ecology can be studied at multiple levels including individual organisms, populations, communities, whole ecosystems, and the entire biosphere. Ecology additionally can consider normal, equilibrium conditions or instead perturbations. Perturbations are of particular interest because measuring the effect of disturbances on VoM-associated communities provides important windows into how VoMs contribute to ecosystem dynamics. These disturbances in turn can be studied through in vitro, in vivo, and in situ experimentation, measuring responses by VoM-associated communities to changes in nutrient availability, stress, physical disruption, seasonality, etc., and could apply to studies at all ecological levels. These are considered here across diverse systems and environments.

Hurdles for Phage Therapy (PT) to Become a Reality

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ISBN: 9783039213917 / 9783039213924 Year: Pages: 484 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-392-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Alternative treatment modes for antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens have become a public health priority. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that infect and lyse bacterial cells. Since bacteriophages are frequently bacterial host species-specific and can often also infect antibiotic-resistant bacterial cells, they could represent ideal antimicrobials for fighting the antibiotic resistance crisis. The medical use of bacteriophages has become known as phage therapy. It is widely used in Russia, where phage cocktails are sold in pharmacies as an over-the-counter drug. However, no phage product has been registered for medical purposes outside of the former Soviet Union. The current Special Issue of Viruses contains a collection of papers from opinion leaders in the field who explore hurdles to the introduction of phage therapy in western countries. The articles cover diverse topics ranging from patent to regulatory issues, the targeting of suitable bacterial infections, and the selection and characterization of safe and efficient phage cocktails. Phage resistance is discussed, and gaps in our knowledge of phage–bacterium interactions in the mammalian body are revealed, while other articles explore the use of phages in food production and processing.

Keywords

Staphylococcus aureus --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- vB_SauM-fRuSau02 --- Twortlikevirus --- antibiotic --- antimicrobial resistance --- magistral preparation --- compounding pharmacy --- phage therapy --- regulatory framework --- personalized medicine --- bacteriophage --- phage --- horizontal gene transfer --- co-evolution --- phage therapy --- industrial phage application --- antimicrobial resistance (AMR) --- Germany --- pH stability --- phage-host interactions --- genomics --- antibiotic-resistance --- phage preparation --- lysins --- biofilms --- typhoid fever --- Salmonella Typhi --- extended-spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) --- Democratic Republic of the Congo --- bacteriophages --- MALDI-MS --- Staphylococcus --- bacteriophages --- phage therapy --- Kayvirus --- Viral proteins --- bacteriophage --- therapy --- phage therapy --- bacterial disease --- infection --- target selection --- Bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- resistance --- adaptation --- prophage --- production --- regulation --- phage therapy --- viral genomes --- best practices --- IND --- high-throughput sequencing --- bacteriophages --- phages --- food safety --- foodborne illness --- phage therapy --- history of science --- science communication --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- sustainable agriculture --- zoonosis --- antibiotic resistance --- phage therapy --- experimental therapy --- phage cocktails --- anti-phage antibodies --- prophage --- immunomodulation --- phage therapy --- evolution --- bacterial resistance --- virulence --- Listeria ivanovii --- bacteriophages --- alginate --- production --- disinfection --- phagodisinfection --- virus–host interactions --- bacteriophage efficacy --- gastrointestinal tract --- phage therapy --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- antimicrobial resistance --- antibiotic --- global health --- developing countries --- infectious disease --- bacteriophage --- phage --- phage therapy --- phage-resistance --- phage therapy --- bacterial infection --- capsule depolymerase --- antibiotic --- animal model --- bacterial resistance --- bacteriophage --- immunology --- innate immunity --- adaptive immunity --- human host --- phage-human host interaction --- bacterial infection --- antibiotic resistance --- bacteriophage --- antibiotic therapy --- phage therapy --- cases report --- abortive infection --- prophage --- adsorption --- Enterococcus --- rhamnopolysaccharide --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- Staphylococcus aureus --- biofilm --- antimicrobial --- frequency of resistance --- phage sensitivity --- resistance management --- nontraditional antibacterial --- bacteriophages --- phage therapy --- antibiotic resistance --- Pseudomonas aeruginosa --- Escherichia coli --- Staphylococcus aureus --- Brussels --- Belgium --- phage biocontrol --- patent landscape --- crop production --- bacteriophage --- phage therapy --- multidrug-resistant bacteria --- antimicrobial resistance --- bacteriophage therapy --- compassionate use --- antibiotic resistance --- phage therapy --- PTMP --- ATMP --- regulatory framework --- pharmaceutical paradigm shift --- clinical trial --- magistral formula --- personalized medicine --- phage therapy --- E. faecalis --- OrthoMCL --- antimicrobial resistance --- capsule --- Galleria mellonella --- Klebsiella pneumoniae --- phage therapy --- n/a --- antimicrobial resistance --- bacteriophage --- personalised medicines --- phage therapy --- pharmaceutical legislation --- regulatory framework

Endoplasmic Reticulcum and Its Role in Tumor Immunity

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197866 Year: Pages: 101 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-786-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle crucial to many cellular functions and processes, including the mounting of T-cell immune responses. Indeed, the ER has a well-established central role in anti-tumor immunity. Perhaps best characterized is the role of the ER in the processing of antigen peptides and the subsequent peptide assembly into MHC class I and II molecules. Such MHC/tumor-derived peptide complexes are pivotal for the correct recognition of altered self or viral peptides and the subsequent clonal expansion of tumor-reactive T-cells. In line with the role of the ER in immunity, tumor-associated mutations in ER proteins, as well as ER protein content and localization can have both deleterious and advantageous effects on anti-tumor immune responses. For instance, loss of function of ER-aminopeptidases, that trim peptides to size for MHC, alter the MHC class I - peptide repertoire thereby critically and negatively affecting T-cell recognition. On the other hand, altered localization of ER proteins can have immune-promoting effects. Specifically, translocation of certain ER proteins to the cell surface has been shown to promote anti-tumor T-cell immunity by directing uptake of apoptotic tumor cells to professional antigen presenting cells, thereby facilitating anti-tumor T-cell immunity. These selected examples highlight a diverse and multi-faceted role of the ER in anti-tumor immunity. Molecular biological insights from the past decade have uncovered that ER components may affect tumor immunity and have invoked a variety of follow-up questions. For instance, how and why are ER proteins over-expressed in tumors? How do nucleotide and somatic mutations in ER chaperones/processing machinery affect the MHC/peptide complex and tumor cell immunogenicity? How do ER-proteins translocate to the cell surface? What if any is the potential role of extracellular ER protein in tumor immunotherapy/vaccines, and can they be delivered to the tumor cell surface by photodynamic therapy, anthracyclines or by other means? In this special research topics issue, we present basic and clinical research reports covering many aspects of ER proteins in cancer recognition by the immune system, therapy and drug development. We also present new insights into ER stress, signalling and homeostasis in immunogenic cell death in cancer, the effect of parasitic ER proteins on tumour growth, ER protein regulation of angiogenesis. A comprehensive series of articles highlight our understanding of an expanding avenue of tumour immunology and therapeutic development, which exploit a collection of proteins within the ER that are not obvious candidates for immunity against tumors.

Filamentous Bacteriophage in Bio/Nano/Technology, Bacterial Pathogenesis and Ecology

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450954 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-095-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Filamentous phage (genus Inovirus) infect almost invariably Gram-negative bacteria. They are distinguished from all other bacteriophage not only by morphology, but also by the mode of their assembly, a secretion-like process that does not kill the host. “Classic” Escherichia coli filamentous phage Ff (f1, fd and M13) are used in display technology and bio/nano/technology, whereas filamentous phage in general have been put to use by their bacterial hosts for adaptation to environment, pathogenesis, biofilm formation, horizontal gene transfer and modulating genome stability. Many filamentous phage have a “symbiotic” life style that is often manifested by inability to form plaques, preventing their identification by standard phage-hunting techniques; while the absence or very low sequence conservation between phage infecting different species often complicates their identification through bioinformatics. Nevertheless, the number of discovered filamentous phage is increasing rapidly, along with realization of their significance. “Temperate” filamentous phage whose genomes are integrated into the bacterial chromosome of pathogenic bacteria often modulate virulence of the host. The Vibrio cholerae phage CTXf genome encodes cholera toxin, whereas many filamentous prophage influence virulence without encoding virulence factors. The nature of their effect on the bacterial pathogenicity and overall physiology is the next frontier in understanding intricate relationship between the filamentous phage and their hosts. Phage display has been widely used as a combinatorial technology of choice for discovery of therapeutic antibodies and peptide leads that have been applied in the vaccine design, diagnostics and drug development or targeting over the past thirty years. Virion proteins of filamentous phage are integral membrane proteins prior to assembly; hence they are ideal for display of bacterial surface and secreted proteins. The use of this technology at the scale of microbial community has potential to identify host-interacting proteins of uncultivable or low-represented community members. Recent applications of Ff filamentous phage extend into protein evolution, synthetic biology and nanotechnology. In many applications, phage serves as a monodisperse long-aspect nano-scaffold of well-defined shape. Chemical or chenetic modifications of this scaffold are used to introduce the necessary functionalities, such as fluorescent labels, ligands that target specific proteins, or peptides that promote formation of inorganic or organic nanostructures. We anticipate that the future holds development of new strategies for particle assembly, site-specific multi-functional modifications and improvement of existing modification strategies. These improvements will render the production of filamentous-phage-templated materials safe and affordable, allowing their applications outside of the laboratory.

Biotechnological Applications of Phage and Phage-Derived Proteins

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039214419 / 9783039214426 Year: Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-442-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Phages have shown a high biotechnological potential with numerous applications. The advent of high-resolution microscopy techniques aligned with omic and molecular tools have revealed innovative phage features and enabled new processes that can be further exploited for biotechnological applications in a wide variety of fields. The high-quality original articles and reviews presented in this Special Issue demonstrate the incredible potential of phages and their derived proteins in a wide range of biotechnological applications for human benefit. Considering the emergence of amazing new available bioengineering tools and the high abundance of phages and the multitude of phage proteins yet to be discovered and studied, we believe that the upcoming years will present us with many more fascinating and new previously unimagined phage-based biotechnological applications.

Keywords

gene expression regulation --- molecular probe --- macromolecular interactions --- phage-host interaction --- bacteriophage --- endolysin --- Clostridium perfringens --- alpha-sheet --- cancerous tumors --- capsid dynamics --- drug delivery vehicles --- native gel electrophoresis --- neurodegenerative disease --- pathogenic viruses --- phage display --- landscape phage --- major coat protein --- nanomedicine --- diagnostics --- biosensors --- M13 bacteriophage --- biofilm --- porous structure --- filters --- self-assembly --- T7phage library --- sarcoidosis --- tuberculosis --- microarray --- immunoscreening --- R-type pyocin --- bacteriocin --- contractile injection systems --- Pseudomonas aeruginosa --- X-ray crystallography --- receptor-binding protein --- Shigella flexneri --- bacteriophage --- tailspike proteins --- O-antigen --- serotyping --- microtiter plate assay --- fluorescence sensor --- bacteriophages --- encapsulation --- niosomes --- transfersomes --- liposomes --- Staphylococcus aureus --- phage --- Enterococcus faecalis --- Streptococcus agalactiae --- culture enrichment --- bacteriophage --- diagnostics --- Listeria monocytogenes --- endolysin --- magnetic separation --- reporter phage --- endolysin --- Pal --- Cpl-1 --- safety --- toxicity --- immune response --- Streptococcus pneumoniae --- self-assembly --- nanotubular structures --- tail sheath protein --- bacteriophage vB_EcoM_FV3 --- Appelmans --- bacteriophage evolution --- bacteriophage recombination --- phage therapy --- Pseudomonas aeruginosa --- antibiotic resistance --- bacteriophages --- Myoviridae --- bacteriophage-derived lytic enzyme --- enzybiotics --- endolysin --- in vitro activity --- ESKAPE --- n/a

Drug Delivery Technology Development in Canada

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ISBN: 9783039280049 / 9783039280056 Year: Pages: 352 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-005-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:21:22
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Canada continues to have a rich history of ground-breaking research in drug delivery within academic institutions, pharmaceutical industry and the biotechnology community.

Keywords

doxorubicin --- MG63 --- Vitamin D --- DOX-Vit D --- hypoxia-induced chemoresistance --- cisplatin --- polymeric micelle --- EGFR-targeted therapy --- STAT3 --- HIF-1 --- GE11 peptide --- pharmacological Inhibitors of HIF-1 and STAT3 --- combination therapy --- pharmacokinetics --- antibodies --- radiolabeling --- biodistribution --- mouse models --- oral formulation --- amphotericin B --- fungal infections --- parasitic infections --- developing world --- drug delivery --- liposomes --- drug delivery systems --- innovation --- lipid nanoparticles --- Metaplex --- triggered drug release --- liposomes --- ultrasound --- magnetic fields --- radiation --- oral delivery --- biological barriers --- co-delivery --- throughput --- sustained delivery --- phospholipid complex --- rosmarinic acid --- bioaccessibility --- dissolution --- TNO gastrointestinal model --- gastrointestinal simulator --- phytosterols --- tocopherols --- liposomes --- canola oil deodorizer distillate --- model orange juice --- virus --- plant --- bacteriophage --- phage display --- drug discovery --- encapsulation --- drug delivery --- blood-brain barrier --- intra-arterial chemotherapy --- malignant gliomas --- primary central nervous system lymphomas --- transdermal drug delivery --- Canada --- skin --- permeation enhancers --- oral, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma --- targeted therapies --- drug delivery systems --- nanoparticles --- controlled drug delivery --- circadian clock --- chronotherapy --- precision medicine --- cationic gemini surfactant --- melphalan --- inclusion complex --- ROESY NMR spectroscopy --- 3D spheroid --- drug-resistant melanoma --- liposome --- water miscible solvents --- remote loading --- staurosporine --- cancer --- gambogic acid --- loading gradients --- mefloquine --- child friendly formulation --- blood-brain barrier (BBB) --- drug delivery --- transient modulation --- HAV6 cadherin peptide --- adenanthin --- magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) --- medulloblastoma --- drug delivery --- pharmaceutics --- drug development --- formulation and dosage form development --- translational research --- biologicals --- small molecules --- clinical trials --- pharmacokinetics --- medical devices --- route of administration --- nifedipine --- emulsion --- flavonoids --- topical formulation --- quercetin --- photostabilizers

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