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Sexuelle Identität und gesellschaftliche Norm

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Book Series: Göttinger Schriften zum Medizinrecht ISBN: 9783941875722 Year: Pages: 125 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Law --- Psychology --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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Die „sexuelle Identität“ des Menschen ist keineswegs nur biologisch, sondern in erheblichem Maße auch neurologisch, psychologisch sowie durch Umweltbedingungen determiniert und infolgedessen gradualisiert. Die Gesellschaft und ihr Recht ignorieren diese Variabilitäten jenseits der natürlichen Geschlechtlichkeit jedoch mit Blick auf Orientierungsbedürfnisse weitgehend: Familien- und personenstandsrechtliche Zuschreibungen müssen eindeutig sein, Veränderungen des biologischen Geschlechts kommen nur in seltenen Ausnahmefällen in Betracht, die gesellschaftlichen Vorstellungen über den Freiraum an „sexueller Selbstbestimmung“ werden an den Grenzen strafrechtlich abgesichert und jene, die sich nicht daran halten, gelten in der Rechtspraxis entweder als schuldfähig oder haben mit u.U. langjährigem Freiheitsentzug im Rahmen der Sicherungsverwahrung zu rechnen. Dieses Spannungsfeld zwischen individueller Disposition und gesellschaftlicher Erwartung war Gegenstand eines Workshops, der am 20. November 2009 gemeinsam vom Institut für Humangenetik der Universitätsmedizin Göttingen und dem Zentrum für Medizinrecht der Juristischen Fakultät veranstaltet wurde. Der vorliegende Band enthält die Resultate eines interdisziplinären Dialogs von Experten/Innen aus der Humangenetik, der Sexualforschung, der Soziologie, des Medizinrechts und der forensischen Psychiatrie.

El taller del jurista: sobre la Colección Documental de Benito de la Mata Linares, Oidor, Regente y Consejero de Indias

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Book Series: Historia del Derecho ISSN: 22555137 ISBN: 9788415454311 Year: Volume: 6 Pages: 175 Language: Spanish
Publisher: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Figuerola Institute of Social Science History
Subject: History --- Diplomatics. Archives. Seals
Added to DOAB on : 2014-06-26 11:06:25
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Este libro es fruto de una línea de investigación sobre la historia del derecho indiano. Su objeto es la Colección Documental de don Benito de la Mata Linares, oidor, regente y consejero de Indias, que se encuentra en la Biblioteca de la Real Academia de la Historia. El propósito del autor es observar la Colección bajo la lupa científica del derecho indiano y no acceder a ella meramente como una cantera documental de carácter histórico –que lo es y, por cierto, riquísima–, que ya había consultado con provecho en anteriores visitas. La primera parte del libro está dedicada a trazar un esbozo biográfico de Mata Linares, que amplía sensiblemente los datos ofrecidos hasta ahora por los historiadores que han dado a conocer piezas documentales de la Colección o por los diccionarios u obras relativas a los órganos de gobierno y justicia en donde se desempeñó. En la segunda parte se hace un examen de la Colección, que permite comprobar que ella, considerada habitualmente como una fuente documental ofrecida para los Investigadores de Historia de América y derivada del empeño de un erudito coleccionista, se formó, en cambio, por la acción de un jurista que reunió esos papeles para uso propio durante su labor profesional al servicio de la Corona. De ahí proviene la denominación de “taller del jurista”, título de este libro que destaca el sentido que tuvo la formación de este conjunto documental y también el valor de estos papeles como fuente de estudio para la historia del derecho. Desde este último punto de vista, se rescata para los estudiosos de la historia jurídica el uso de un conjunto documental singular, ya que no es frecuente para los historiadores el acceso directo e integral a los papeles que hicieron parte del gabinete de un jurista. Con la experiencia adquirida en la indagación realizada, el autor se permite afirmar el enorme valor que tienen los archivos profesionales de este género, al aproximarnos a verificar el papel del jurista en la configuración del Derecho –creación, interpretación, adaptación, transmisión, aplicación, etc.– y a conocer el delicado perfil de “la modulación jurídica” que lo caracteriza.

Der Rahmen der Rechtsgewohnheiten

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ISBN: 9783205782919 Year: Pages: 602 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_437176 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4032
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:49:14
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"The Frame of Legal Customs" ("Der Rahmen der Rechtsgewohnheiten") attempts to interchange results from two scientific disciplines, legal theory and legal history for the middle ages.The first part describes the present and in the sphere of legal theory not unypical view of law as a system of norms as introduced by theorists like Hans Kelsen ore H.L.A. Hart. Main target of criticism is the concept of law as provided by legal positivism, pointing out the problems of the logic of norms and the speech-act-theoretical background of this concept.The second part shows the inadequacy of the modern concept of law – which faces law as system of norms – for the situation of the early middle ages, when law was practiced in judicial assemblies in a strict oral manner without the common use of written texts. Results of German legal history which assume a more differentiated structure of legal thinking (based on incompatible categories of law: "recht", "Gebot", "Willkür") instead of one comprehensive notion of law, are discussed.The third part is dedicated to the close examination of the concept of law of three of the most important legal historians in Germany (Karl Kroeschell, Gerhard Dilcher, Jürgen Weitzel).The fourth and last part offers an alternative approach to the problem, how legal thinking and legal practice can be understood in premodern societies. It starts at the fundamental criticism of legal positivism, which can be found in the work of Ronald Dworkin ("law as integrity") and earlier at Carl Schmitts concept of concrete order ("Konkretes Ordnungsdenken"). The correlation between the role of legal rules, decisions and orders is discussed within the proposed theoretical frame. Finally the notion of order-configurations ("Ordnungskonfigurationen"), which has been brought into discussion by Stefan Weinfurter, is compared to the concept of law as a form of concrete order as developed in the text. A text of Adalbero of Laon and the letters of pope Gregory VII are interpreted as an illustrating example (and implicit criticism on Weinfurter's specific use of sociological functionalism) using the proposed alternative categories

Arte de derecho

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Book Series: Historia del Derecho ISSN: 22555137 ISBN: 9788415454342 Year: Volume: 7 Pages: 178 Language: Spanish
Publisher: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Figuerola Institute of Social Science History
Added to DOAB on : 2014-06-26 11:12:34
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This book includes the first translation of the treatise Ars de iure (1304) by Ramon Llull into a modern language. This translation into Spanish by Pedro Ramis Serra and Rafael Ramis Barceló, accompanied with notes trying to clarify the legal, conceptual and philosophical scope of the lullian conception of Law. The preliminary study by Rafael Ramis Barceló is an introduction to the life, work and thought of Llull, who pays attention to the political and legal context of Llull and the main concepts of the work: general principles of law, theory of justice and natural law. This is one of the most important treatises of legal epistemology throughout the Middle Ages and an alternative vision to the ratio scripta model of ius commune in Montpellier and the Mediterranean Kingdoms. = Este libro incluye la primera traducción del tratado Ars de iure (1304) de Ramon Llull a un idioma moderno. Esta traducción al español, debida a Pedro Ramis Serra y a Rafael Ramis Barceló, se acompaña con notas que intentan precisar el alcance jurídico, termonológico y filosófico de la concepción del derecho de Ramon Llull. El largo estudio preliminar de Rafael Ramis Barceló es una introducción a la vida, obra y pensamiento de Llull, que presta atención al contexto político-jurídico luliano, así como a los conceptos principales de la obra: principios generales del derecho, teoría de la justicia y derecho natural. Se trata de uno de los tratados de epistemología jurídica más importantes de toda la Edad Media y una visión alternativa al modelo de la ratio scripta del ius commune en Montpellier y en los reinos del Mediterráneo.

El constitucionalismo como discurso político

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Book Series: Historia del Derecho ISSN: 22555137 ISBN: 9788415455554 Year: Volume: 11 Pages: 144 Language: Spanish
Publisher: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Figuerola Institute of Social Science History
Added to DOAB on : 2014-06-26 12:22:44
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Esta visión del constitucionalismo como “discurso político” se aleja un poco de la opinión común, tal vez hasta deformar la esencia “liberal” que comúnmente se le atribuye. Se inserta en una larga línea de trabajo que parte de la toma de conciencia, de la peculiaridad que la historia constitucional puede representar en la amplia gama de los estudios que se dedican a la comprensión del sistema político, en sus elementos constitutivos estructurales, que nunca pueden prescindir de una perspectiva de tipo historiográfico. El concepto de constitución es de matriz indiscutiblemente alemana, es algo que está entre la estructura político-social de una época y la unidad política de una población humana determinada.Un aspecto tal vez un poco más peculiar de mi propuesta interpretativa es la insistencia sobre la componente “doctrinal” del mundo constitucional, que me ha llevado a traducir la constitución en la síntesis doctrinas-instituciones a través de la cual debería poderse caracterizar, de manera históricamente determinada, los distintos elementos de la historia política de los hombres, sobre todo en lo que se refiere a Occidente.

Hate Speech Law

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ISBN: 9780415885478 9781315714899 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 102657
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-12 10:19:51
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Hate speech law can be found throughout the world. But it is also the subject of numerous principled arguments, both for and against. These principles invoke a host of morally relevant features (e.g., liberty, health, autonomy, security, non-subordination, the absence of oppression, human dignity, the discovery of truth, the acquisition of knowledge, self-realization, human excellence, civic dignity, cultural diversity and choice, recognition of cultural identity, intercultural dialogue, participation in democratic self-government, being subject only to legitimate rule) and practical considerations (e.g., efficacy, the least restrictive alternative, chilling effects). The book develops and then critically examines these various principled arguments. It also attempts to de-homogenize hate speech law into different clusters of laws/regulations/codes that constrain uses of hate speech, so as to facilitate a more nuanced examination of the principled arguments.

Who Will Be the Next President?: A Guide to the U.S. Presidential Election System

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ISBN: 9783319446950 9783319446967 Year: Pages: 165 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-44696-7 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Social and Public Welfare --- Manufactures --- Law
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-13 12:24:24
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This book addresses the peculiarities of the current presidential election system not yet addressed in other publications. It argues that any rules for electing a President that may have a chance to replace the current ones should provide an equal representation of states as equal members of the Union, and of the nation as a whole. This book analyzes the National Popular Vote plan and shows that this plan may violate the Supreme Court decisions on the equality of votes cast in statewide popular elections held to choose state electors. That is, the National Popular Vote plan may violate the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The book proposes a new election system in which the will of the states and the will of the nation as a whole are determined by direct popular elections for President and Vice President in the 50 states and in D.C. This system a) would elect President a candidate who is the choice of both the nation as a whole and of the states as equal members of the Union, b) would let the current system elect a President only if the nation as a whole and the states as equal members of the Union fail to agree on a common candidate, and c) would encourage the candidates to campaign nationwide. The second edition has been updated to include a proposal on how to make established non-major party presidential candidates and independent candidates welcome participants in national televised presidential debates with the major-party candidates.

Philosophie der Republik

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ISBN: 9783161543739 9783161543739 9783161554070 Year: DOI: 10.1628/978-3-16-155407-0 Language: German
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 103520
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:03
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The freedom potential of modern societies, above all the justification of political authority, is today linked to a democratically constituted order. What is meant by the idea of being democratic seems, however, to be anything but clear. Is it only a question of representing the people through elections, ballots, and political parties, or does it include institutional culture, the division of powers, and the legal regime within a community? A "philosophy of the republic", as developed in this volume's contributions, shows that the current "dominance of the democratic" falls short of accounting for the independent significance to the republican self-organisation of state and society.

Der Abschreckungseffekt auf die Grundrechtsausübung

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Book Series: Internet und Gesellschaft ISBN: 9783161548383 9783161554889 Year: DOI: 10.1628/9783161554889 Language: German
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 101762
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-26 11:01:50
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Julian Staben examines chilling effects, framed as deterrence-based lines of argument, in the jurisprudence of the Bundesverfassungsgericht (German Federal Constitutional Court) and compares them with the jurisprudence of the US Supreme Court. Chilling effects follow distinct patterns when it comes to online behaviour and emerging digital practices and therefore call for their constitutional reassessment. Julian Staben's work enables a more methodologically reflective use of these arguments in the judicial discourse.

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