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The Challenge of Chance: A Multidisciplinary Approach from Science and the Humanities

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Book Series: The Frontiers Collection ISSN: 1612-3018 ISBN: 9783319262987 9783319263007 Year: Pages: 276 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-26300-7 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Statistics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-24 17:28:09
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This book presents a multidisciplinary perspective on chance, with contributions from distinguished researchers in the areas of biology, cognitive neuroscience, economics, genetics, general history, law, linguistics, logic, mathematical physics, statistics, theology and philosophy. The individual chapters are bound together by a general introduction followed by an opening chapter that surveys 2500 years of linguistic, philosophical, and scientific reflections on chance, coincidence, fortune, randomness, luck and related concepts.A main conclusion that can be drawn is that, even after all this time, we still cannot be sure whether chance is a truly fundamental and irreducible phenomenon, in that certain events are simply uncaused and could have been otherwise, or whether it is always simply a reflection of our ignorance. Other challenges that emerge from this book include a better understanding of the contextuality and perspectival character of chance (including its scale-dependence), and the curious fact that, throughout history (including contemporary science), chance has been used both as an explanation and as a hallmark of the absence of explanation. As such, this book challenges the reader to think about chance in a new way and to come to grips with this endlessly fascinating phenomenon.

El conocimiento como práctica: Investigación, valoración, ciencia y difusión

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Book Series: Estudios / Investigaciones ISSN: 15140075 ISBN: 9789503411018 Year: Volume: 48 Pages: 268 Language: Spanish
Publisher: Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2015-08-03 15:25:52
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Presentamos en este volumen una serie de trabajos en los que se reflexiona sobre el problema del conocimiento desde una perspectiva filosófica. En muchos de ellos se parte de la formulación de diversas críticas a las concepciones tradicionales del conocimiento en general y del conocimiento científico en particular. En varios de los aportes incluidos se identifican y exploran las consecuencias de sus limitaciones, inconsistencias o debilidades y se recurre a nuevos modos de abordaje que no desconocen su deuda con la tradición filosófica misma. Todo esto para llegar a nuevas y más adecuadas respuestas desde la filosofía hacia las problemáticas específicas que plantea nuestro tiempo, para dar cuenta de una mejor comprensión de la actividad cognoscitiva humana y científica en particular.

Dilthey als Wissenschaftsphilosoph

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ISBN: 9783495487280 Year: Pages: 253 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_615394 Language: German
Publisher: Verlag Karl Alber Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 291
Added to DOAB on : 2016-09-19 11:01:22
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This volume contains the contributions to a conference at the Institute Vienna Circle of the University of Vienna in June 2013 that aimed at examining Dilthey’s work as a philosopher of science in the light of the results of the last decades’ Dilthey research that have moved him further away from the idea of a merely “continental” philosophy of the hermeneutics of life.

New Vistas on Old Problems: Recent Approaches to the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics

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Book Series: Proceedings 3: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783844242843 Year: Pages: 188 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-07 12:14:48
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Quantum theory has been a subject of interpretational debates ever since its inception. The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, the empirical violation of Bell’s inequalities, and recent activities to exploit quantum entanglement for technological innovation only exacerbate a long-standing philosophical debate. Despite no-signaling theorems and theories of decoherence, deep-rooted conflicts between special relativistic principles and observed quantum correlations as well as between definite measurement outcomes and quantum theoretical superpositions persist.This collection of papers, first presented at an international symposium at the University of Bern in 2011, highlights some recent approaches to the old problems of a philosophy of quantum mechanics. The authors address the issues from a variety of perspectives, ranging from variations of causal theory and system theoretic interpretations of the observer to an empirical test of whether entanglement itself can be entangled. The essays demonstrate that the discussion about the foundations of quantum mechanics is as lively and interesting as ever.

Foucault's Archaeology

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ISBN: 9780748624218 9780748630387 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 101018
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-25 11:01:48
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This book provides a new perspective on Foucault’s The Archaeology of Knowledge by revealing the extent to which its approach to language was influenced by the mathematical sciences. Setting out this background to Foucault’s analysis makes The Archaeology of Knowledge both accessible in a new way, and relevant to issues that are at the heart of much contemporary debate over the nature of critical thought and the relation between philosophy and the sciences. This book sheds new light on a crucial period of Foucault’s work by highlighting his relation to thinkers such as Cavaillès and Serres. It aims to provide a reading of The Archaeology of Knowledge that puts it at the heart Foucault’s thought. Rather than attempting a scientific study of language as such, Foucault is shown to have adopted a mode of thought indebted to thinkers in the scientific and epistemological tradition.

Vital Reenchantments: Biophilia, Gaia, Cosmos, and the Affectively Ecological

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ISBN: 9781950192076 9781950192083 Year: Pages: 276 DOI: 10.21983/P3.0240.1.00 Language: English
Publisher: punctum books
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-26 11:21:03
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Not all charms fly at the touch of cold philosophy. Vital Reenchantments examines so-called cold philosophy, or science, that does precisely the opposite — rather than mercilessly emptying out and unweaving, it operates as a philosophy that animates. More specifically, Greyson closely examines how a specific group of “poet-in-scientists” of the late 1970s and 1980s directed attention to the “wondrous” unfolding of life, at a time when the counter-culture in particular had made the institution of science synonymous with technologies of alienation and destruction. In this vein, Vital Reenchantments takes up E.O. Wilson’s Biophilia (1984), James Lovelock’s Gaia (1979), and Carl Sagan’s Cosmos (1980), in order to show how each work fleshes out scientific concepts with a unique attention to “affective wonder,” understood as the experience of and attunement to novel effects. What is so unique about these works is that they reenchant the scientific world without pandering to what Richard Dawkins will later term “cosmic sentimentality.” Carl Sagan may have said “We are made of starstuff,” but he would never insist, as Joni Mitchell did in 1969, that “we’ve got to get ourselves back to the garden.” Instead, they insist on a third way that does not rely on the idea of an ecological Eden — a vigorously vital materialism in which the affective trumps the sentimental. Further, the historical emergence of these works, all published within 5 years of each other, was no accident: each book responded to an ever deepening sense of environmental crisis, certainly, but along with it they responded to, perhaps more than marginally related, narratives of the large-scale disenchantment brought on by modernity or science, and more often than not a mixture of the two. Greyson argues that the persistence of these works and their affectively-charged scientific concepts in contemporary popular culture and ecological thought is no accident. As such, these works deserve recognition as far more than “popular science” and can be seen as essential contributions to more contemporary vital materialist thought and ecological theory. No doubt this talk of enchantment and wonder, so tied to immediate experience, can seem trivial in the face of any number of environmental crises (global warming first among these) that do not just appear ominously on the horizon, but loom as never before. The first task of this book thus to pose the same question that Jane Bennett does at the end of her own work on enchantment: “How can someone write a book about enchantment in such a world?” Does this approach really provide, as Latour phrases it, “a way to bridge the distance between the scale of the phenomena we hear about and the tiny Umwelt inside which we witness, as if it were a fish inside its bowl, an ocean of catastrophes that are supposed to unfold”? Ultimately, Vital Reenchantments argues that affective ecologies, properly attended to, point toward an open present, one that broadens the horizons of the “fish bowl” and allows us to imagine engendering futures that are neither naively hopeful nor hopelessly apocalyptic.

Shifting Paradigms: Thomas S. Kuhn and the History of Science

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Book Series: Proceedings 8: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783945561119 Year: Pages: 397 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-07 12:55:38
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The publication of Thomas S. Kuhn’s "Structure of Scientific Revolutions" in 1962 stands for a turning point in the history and philosophy of science. The repercussions of this work have rearticulated the theoretical framework of history and philosophy of science and have also generated discussions that contributed to the formation of the communities of historians as well as philosophers of science in many parts of the world. Different approaches to history of science have since emerged and most of them have the "Structure" as their reference point. In October 2012, a conference at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science brought together some of the historians of science whose work has played a decisive role in the ways history of science has evolved as a field of research in the past 50 years, both intellectually and institutionally. This volume gathers reflections by many of these historians on the history of the history of science, based on the presentations and discussions at the conference. The topics covered range from personal recollections of working with Thomas Kuhn to broad overviews of the historical development of the history of science as a discipline in the past half-century. The series Proceedings of the Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge presents the results of scientific meetings on current issues and supports further cooperation on these issues via an electronic platform. The volumes are available both as print-on-demand books and as open-access publications on the Internet. The material is freely accessible online at www.edition-open-access.de.

Science as Social Existence: Heidegger and the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge

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ISBN: 9781783744121 9781783744107 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 444 DOI: http://doi.org/10.11647/OBP.0129 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Philosophy --- Science (General) --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-18 15:38:12
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In this bold and original study, Jeff Kochan constructively combines the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) with Martin Heidegger’s early existential conception of science. Kochan shows convincingly that these apparently quite different approaches to science are, in fact, largely compatible, even mutually reinforcing. By combining Heidegger with SSK, Kochan argues, we can explicate, elaborate, and empirically ground Heidegger’s philosophy of science in a way that makes it more accessible and useful for social scientists and historians of science. Likewise, incorporating Heideggerian phenomenology into SSK renders SKK a more robust and attractive methodology for use by scholars in the interdisciplinary field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). Kochan’s ground-breaking reinterpretation of Heidegger also enables STS scholars to sustain a principled analytical focus on scientific subjectivity, without running afoul of the orthodox subject-object distinction they often reject.Science as Social Existence is the first book of its kind, unfurling its argument through a range of topics relevant to contemporary STS research. These include the epistemology and metaphysics of scientific practice, as well as the methods of explanation appropriate to social scientific and historical studies of science. Science as Social Existence puts concentrated emphasis on the compatibility of Heidegger’s existential conception of science with the historical sociology of scientific knowledge, pursuing this combination at both macro- and micro-historical levels.Beautifully written and accessible, Science as Social Existence puts new and powerful tools into the hands of sociologists and historians of science, cultural theorists of science, Heidegger scholars, and pluralist philosophers of science.

Embodiment in Evolution and Culture

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ISBN: 9783161547362 9783161549014 Year: DOI: 10.1628/9783161549014 Language: English
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 101760
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-26 11:01:50
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From its beginnings, the theory of evolution has unsettled fundamental anthropological assumptions about the place of human beings in nature. The integration of human origins into natural history by Darwinism was countered by the philosophical anthropologies of the 20th century. Their attempts were to hold on even more resolutely to the special status of humans as beings 'open towards the world'. Today, evolutionary and philosophical anthropology have moved closer together via the paradigm of embodiment. Building on embodied cognitive science, this volume aims to establish how far the human mind and human cultural cognition can be attributed to the structures of human existence, structures which have emerged in the course of evolution and have in turn been affected by culture. The traditional dualism of nature and culture is transformed into an explanation of an evolutionary process in which body and mind are understood to be intertwined and mutually constitutive.

Environments of Intelligence

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Book Series: History and Philosophy of Technoscience ISBN: 9781315408101 9781138222328 9780367348717 9781315408095 9781315408071 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9781315408101 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Science (General) --- Philosophy --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:25
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What is the role of the environment, and of the information it provides, in cognition? More specifically, may there be a role for certain artefacts to play in this context? These are questions that motivate "4E" theories of cognition (as being embodied, embedded, extended, enactive). In his take on that family of views, Hajo Greif first defends and refines a concept of information as primarily natural, environmentally embedded in character, which had been eclipsed by information-processing views of cognition. He continues with an inquiry into the cognitive bearing of some artefacts that are sometimes referred to as 'intelligent environments'. Without necessarily having much to do with Artificial Intelligence, such artefacts may ultimately modify our informational environments. With respect to human cognition, the most notable effect of digital computers is not that they might be able, or become able, to think but that they alter the way we perceive, think and act. The Open Access version of this book, available at http://www.tandfebooks.com/doi/view/10.4324/9781315401867, has been made available under a Creative Commons CC-BY licence

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