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A Broader View for Plant EvoDevo: Novel Approaches for Diverse Model Systems

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451531 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-153-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Abstract

This collection attempts to integrate work pertaining to a fundamental question in plant evolution: What are the molecular underpinnings for the origin of different plant forms? Among the many facets this question touches are the transition to land, the emergence of vascular plants, the origin of the seed and the origin and diversification of floral form. We aim to bring to the forefront the most salient and original plant systems and approaches within an inclusive phylogenetic context that encompasses representatives of the major lineages of land plants.

Asymmetric and Selective Biocatalysis

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ISBN: 9783038978466 9783038978473 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-847-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 09:16:44
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This Issue contains one communication, six articles, and two reviews. The communication from Paola Vitale et al. represents a work where whole cells were used as biocatalysts for the reduction of optically active chloroalkyl arylketones followed by a chemical cyclization to give the desired heterocycles. Among the various whole cells screened (baker’s yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS 6556, Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS 7336, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016), baker’s yeast provided the best yields and the highest enantiomeric ratios (95:5) in the bioreduction of the above ketones. In this respect, valuable chiral non-racemic functionalized oxygen-containing heterocycles (e.g., (S)-styrene oxide, (S)-2-phenyloxetane, (S)-2-phenyltetrahydrofuran), amenable to be further elaborated on, can be smoothly and successfully generated from their prochiral precursors. Studies about pure biocatalysts with mechanistical studies, application in different reactions, and new immobilization methods for improving their stability were reported in five different articles. The article by Su-Yan Wang et al. describes the cloning, expression, purification, and characterization of an N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase from Pedobacter heparinus (PhGn2E). For this, several N-acylated glucosamine derivatives were chemically synthesized and used to test the substrate specificity of the enzyme. The mechanism of the enzyme was studied by hydrogen/deuterium NMR. The study at the anomeric hydroxyl group and C-2 position of the substrate in the reaction mixture confirmed the epimerization reaction via ring-opening/enolate formation. Site-directed mutagenesis was also used to confirm the proposed mechanism of this interesting enzyme. The article by Forest H. Andrews et al. studies two enzymes, benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFDC) and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), which catalyze the non-oxidative decarboxylation of 2-keto acids with different specificity. BFDC from Pseudomonas putida exhibited very limited activity with pyruvate, whereas the PDCs from S. cerevisiae or from Zymomonas mobilis showed virtually no activity with benzoylformate (phenylglyoxylate). After studies using saturation mutagenesis, the BFDC T377L/A460Y variant was obtained, with 10,000-fold increase in pyruvate/benzoylformate. The change was attributed to an improvement in the Km value for pyruvate and a decrease in the kcat value for benzoylformate. The characterization of the new catalyst was performed, providing context for the observed changes in the specificity. The article by Xin Wang et al. compares two types of biocatalysts to produce D-lysine L-lysine in a cascade process catalyzed by two enzymes: racemase from microorganisms that racemize L-lysine to give D,L-lysine and decarboxylase that can be in cells, permeabilized cells, and the isolated enzyme. The comparison between the different forms demonstrated that the isolated enzyme showed the higher decarboxylase activity. Under optimal conditions, 750.7 mmol/L D-lysine was finally obtained from 1710 mmol/L L-lysine after 1 h of racemization reaction and 0.5 h of decarboxylation reaction. D-lysine yield could reach 48.8% with enantiomeric excess (ee) of 99%. In the article by Rivero and Palomo, lipase from Candida rugosa (CRL) was highly stabilized at alkaline pH in the presence of PEG, which permitted its immobilization for the first time by multipoint covalent attachment on different aldehyde-activated matrices. Different covalent immobilized preparation of the enzyme was successfully obtained. The thermal and solvent stability was highly increased by this treatment, and the novel catalysts showed high regioselectivity in the deprotection of per-O-acetylated nucleosides. The article by Robson Carlos Alnoch et al. describes the protocol and use of a new generation of tailor-made bifunctional supports activated with alkyl groups that allow the immobilization of proteins through the most hydrophobic region of the protein surface and aldehyde groups that allows the covalent immobilization of the previously adsorbed proteins. These supports were especially used in the case of lipase immobilization. The immobilization of a new metagenomic lipase (LipC12) yielded a biocatalyst 3.5-fold more active and 5000-fold more stable than the soluble enzyme. The PEGylated immobilized lipase showed high regioselectivity, producing high yields of the C-3 monodeacetylated product at pH 5.0 and 4 °C. Hybrid catalysts composed of an enzyme and metallic complex are also treated in this Special Issue. The article by Christian Herrero et al. describes the development of the Mn(TpCPP)-Xln10A artificial metalloenzyme, obtained by non-covalent insertion of Mn(III)-meso-tetrakis(p-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin [Mn(TpCPP), 1-Mn] into xylanase 10A from Streptomyces lividans (Xln10A). The complex was found able to catalyze the selective photo-induced oxidation of organic substrates in the presence of [RuII(bpy)3]2+ as a photosensitizer and [CoIII(NH3)5Cl]2+ as a sacrificial electron acceptor, using water as oxygen atom source. The two published reviews describe different subjects with interest in the fields of biocatalysis and mix metallic-biocatalysis, respectively. The review by Anika Scholtissek et al. describes the state-of-the-art regarding ene-reductases from the old yellow enzyme family (OYEs) to catalyze the asymmetric hydrogenation of activated alkenes to produce chiral products with industrial interest. The dependence of OYEs on pyridine nucleotide coenzyme can be avoided by using nicotinamide coenzyme mimetics. In the review, three main classes of OYEs are described and characterized. The review by Yajie Wang and Huimin Zhao highlights some of the recent examples in the past three years that combine transition metal catalysis with enzymatic catalysis. With recent advances in protein engineering, catalyst synthesis, artificial metalloenzymes, and supramolecular assembly, there is great potential to develop more sophisticated tandem chemoenzymatic processes for the synthesis of structurally complex chemicals. In conclusion, these nine publications give an overview of the possibilities of different catalysts, both traditional biocatalysts and hybrids with metals or organometallic complexes to be used in different processes—particularly in synthetic reactions—under very mild reaction conditions.

Fungal Infections in Immunocompromised Hosts

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ISBN: 9783038977162 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-717-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Microbiology --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Abstract

This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Fungal Infections in Immunocompromised Hosts that was published in JoF

Keywords

Candida auris --- Aspergillus fumigatus --- antifungal resistance --- multidrug resistance --- mechanisms of antifungal resistance --- liver disease --- hepatic impairment --- invasive fungal infection --- antifungal agent --- antifungal drug --- toxicity --- Immunotherapy --- invasive aspergillosis --- Aspergillus fumigatus --- fungal infections --- innate immunity --- adaptive immunity --- cell therapy --- cytokine therapy --- taxonomy --- fungal nomenclature --- phylogenetics --- species complex --- invasive fungal infections --- mycoses --- immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome --- fungal immunity --- prognostic risk model --- prediction models --- risk score --- invasive mold disease --- hematological malignancy --- risk assessment --- antifungal stewardship --- paracoccidioidomycosis --- HIV --- cancer --- lymphoma --- kidney transplant --- TNF inhibitors --- literature review --- MALDI-ToF MS --- yeast --- fungus --- AIDS --- IRIS --- cat-transmitted sporotrichosis --- immunocompromised hosts --- mycoses of implantation --- sporotrichosis --- Sporothrix brasiliensis --- Sporothrix schenckii --- subcutaneous mycoses --- invasive fungal infection --- non-culture-based diagnostics --- aspergillosis --- candidiasis --- Aspergillus PCR --- galactomannan --- lateral flow --- beta-d-glucan --- T2 Candida --- candidemia --- Candida meningoencephalitis --- (1?3)-?-d-glucan --- T2Candida --- PCR --- liposomal amphotericin B --- micafungin --- anidulafungin --- Aspergillus --- anti-fungal agents --- hematological malignancies

Systematics and Phylogeny of Weevils

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ISBN: 9783038976561 9783038976578 Year: Pages: 474 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-657-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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This Special Issue on the Systematics and Phylogeny of Weevils presents 31 new research papers on one of the most diverse and successful groups of animals on Earth, the beetle superfamily Curculionoidea. It was in part inspired to commemorate the extraordinary life and scientific achievements of Guillermo (“Willy”) Kuschel (1918–2017), who shaped this field of science over the last century like no other weevil systematist. The papers in this memorial issue span weevil faunas from all over the globe, including South and Central America, Africa, Europe and the Near East, South-East Asia, New Guinea, Australia and New Zealand. They include major advances on the phylogeny and classification of the “broad-nosed” weevils (Entiminae), on the weevils associated with American cycads and on the unique extinct weevil fauna preserved in the 100-million-year-old Burmese amber, when weevils started to diversify alongside the oldest angiosperm plants. They comprise a tribute to Willy Kuschel, the proceedings of a weevil symposium held in his honor in 2016 in Orlando, Florida, 24 systematic studies (including seven phylogenetic analyses) and five other contributions on the diversity, biology, distribution, evolution and fossil history of weevils. In the papers collated in this volume, 30 new genera and 92 new species of weevils are described and a new family of extinct weevils is recognized.

Keywords

constraint analysis --- AU test --- SH test --- KH test --- mitochondrial genomes --- Curculionoidea --- Curculionidae --- Cossoninae --- Rhyncolini --- Rhyncolina --- taxonomy --- new species --- mature larva --- morphology --- host plant --- Cape Verde --- biogeography --- microclimate --- species competition --- taxonomy --- South Africa --- Namibia --- weevils --- new taxa --- spermatheca --- Mimaulus --- Spartecerus --- spatio-temporal diffusion --- specialist weevils --- parasitic plants --- co-dispersal through space and time --- stable populations --- Coleoptera --- Curculionidae --- Curculioninae --- Acentrusini --- phylogeny --- Coleoptera --- Curculionidae --- Brachycerinae --- Tanysphyrini --- Afroryzophilus --- new species --- Afrotropical region --- Belidae --- Oxycoryninae --- Erotylidae --- Pharaxonothinae --- cycad pollination --- Alien --- invasive --- exotic --- biodiversity --- Patagonia --- Pinus radiata --- Eucalyptus --- taxonomy --- weevil --- new species --- Araucariaceae --- Hoop Pine --- Klinki Pine --- Australia --- Papuan region --- Neotropical region --- broad-nosed weevils --- Naupactini --- Pantomorus-Naupactus complex --- phylogeny --- COI --- combined evidence --- 1K Weevils Project --- biogeography --- classification --- Curculionidae --- Curculionoidea --- fossils --- Guillermo Kuschel --- morphology --- molecular phylogenetics --- DNA barcoding --- phylogeny --- phytophagy --- weevils --- Dichotrachelini --- systematics --- morphology --- evolution --- mt-Cox1 --- Cryptoplini --- taxonomy --- weevils --- tectal aedeagus --- Kuschelorhynchus --- Macadamia --- Syzygium --- Australia --- New Guinea --- Curculionidae --- biological control --- target host --- non-target host --- taxonomy --- phylogeny --- Sclerocardius --- Sclerocardiini --- taxonomy --- systematics --- elytro-tergal stridulation --- taxonomy --- identification --- diagnostics --- pollination --- flightlessness --- Curculionoidea --- weevil --- hygrophilous --- aquatic --- semi-aquatic --- riparian --- key --- Israel --- Curculionidae --- Anchonini --- Molytinae --- Aethiopacorep africanus --- neotype --- Titilayo --- Titilayo barclayi --- Titilayo garnerae --- Titilayo geiseri --- Titilayo takanoi --- Titilayo perrinae --- Titilayo saotomense --- Titilayo turneri --- taxonomy --- distribution --- taxonomy --- weevil --- new species --- Australia --- Papuan region --- Araceae --- biodiversity --- ecology --- faunal inventories --- mimicry --- phenology --- Brachycerinae --- Tanysphyrini --- Afroryzophilus --- new species --- Afrotropical region --- Cossoninae --- Rhyncolini --- Rhyncolina --- taxonomy --- new species --- Aciphylla --- Chatham Islands --- integrative taxonomy --- Poor Knights Islands --- weevils --- Urodontinae --- Urodontidius --- genitalia --- larva --- life history --- galling habit --- silk production --- taxonomy --- South Africa --- Namibia --- weevils --- new taxa --- Broad-nosed weevils --- Entiminae --- tribal relationships --- combined evidence --- ribosomal markers --- structural alignment --- mitochondrial COI --- adults --- larvae --- biography --- obituary --- weevils --- systematics --- publications --- Borneo --- tropical forest canopies --- fogging --- diversity --- forest disturbance --- weevil fauna --- longhorned beetle (Cerambycidae) --- new species --- Curculionoidea --- Mesophyletidae --- Cretaceous --- taxonomy --- morphology --- CT scanning --- amber preparation --- angiosperm associations --- weevil larvae --- palm weevils --- invasive species --- comparative morphology --- homonym --- taxonomy --- Curculionoidea --- Mesophyletidae --- Cretaceous

Systematics and Phylogeny of Weevils

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038976684 9783038976691 Year: Pages: 458 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-669-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Abstract

This Special Issue on the Systematics and Phylogeny of Weevils presents 31 new research papers on one of the most diverse and successful groups of animals on Earth, the beetle superfamily Curculionoidea. It was in part inspired to commemorate the extraordinary life and scientific achievements of Guillermo (“Willy”) Kuschel (1918–2017), who shaped this field of science over the last century like no other weevil systematist. The papers in this memorial issue span weevil faunas from all over the globe, including South and Central America, Africa, Europe and the Near East, South-East Asia, New Guinea, Australia and New Zealand. They include major advances on the phylogeny and classification of the “broad-nosed” weevils (Entiminae), on the weevils associated with American cycads and on the unique extinct weevil fauna preserved in the 100-million-year-old Burmese amber, when weevils started to diversify alongside the oldest angiosperm plants. They comprise a tribute to Willy Kuschel, the proceedings of a weevil symposium held in his honor in 2016 in Orlando, Florida, 24 systematic studies (including seven phylogenetic analyses) and five other contributions on the diversity, biology, distribution, evolution and fossil history of weevils. In the papers collated in this volume, 30 new genera and 92 new species of weevils are described and a new family of extinct weevils is recognized.

Keywords

constraint analysis --- AU test --- SH test --- KH test --- mitochondrial genomes --- Curculionoidea --- Curculionidae --- Cossoninae --- Rhyncolini --- Rhyncolina --- taxonomy --- new species --- mature larva --- morphology --- host plant --- Cape Verde --- biogeography --- microclimate --- species competition --- taxonomy --- South Africa --- Namibia --- weevils --- new taxa --- spermatheca --- Mimaulus --- Spartecerus --- spatio-temporal diffusion --- specialist weevils --- parasitic plants --- co-dispersal through space and time --- stable populations --- Coleoptera --- Curculionidae --- Curculioninae --- Acentrusini --- phylogeny --- Coleoptera --- Curculionidae --- Brachycerinae --- Tanysphyrini --- Afroryzophilus --- new species --- Afrotropical region --- Belidae --- Oxycoryninae --- Erotylidae --- Pharaxonothinae --- cycad pollination --- Alien --- invasive --- exotic --- biodiversity --- Patagonia --- Pinus radiata --- Eucalyptus --- taxonomy --- weevil --- new species --- Araucariaceae --- Hoop Pine --- Klinki Pine --- Australia --- Papuan region --- Neotropical region --- broad-nosed weevils --- Naupactini --- Pantomorus-Naupactus complex --- phylogeny --- COI --- combined evidence --- 1K Weevils Project --- biogeography --- classification --- Curculionidae --- Curculionoidea --- fossils --- Guillermo Kuschel --- morphology --- molecular phylogenetics --- DNA barcoding --- phylogeny --- phytophagy --- weevils --- Dichotrachelini --- systematics --- morphology --- evolution --- mt-Cox1 --- Cryptoplini --- taxonomy --- weevils --- tectal aedeagus --- Kuschelorhynchus --- Macadamia --- Syzygium --- Australia --- New Guinea --- Curculionidae --- biological control --- target host --- non-target host --- taxonomy --- phylogeny --- Sclerocardius --- Sclerocardiini --- taxonomy --- systematics --- elytro-tergal stridulation --- taxonomy --- identification --- diagnostics --- pollination --- flightlessness --- Curculionoidea --- weevil --- hygrophilous --- aquatic --- semi-aquatic --- riparian --- key --- Israel --- Curculionidae --- Anchonini --- Molytinae --- Aethiopacorep africanus --- neotype --- Titilayo --- Titilayo barclayi --- Titilayo garnerae --- Titilayo geiseri --- Titilayo takanoi --- Titilayo perrinae --- Titilayo saotomense --- Titilayo turneri --- taxonomy --- distribution --- taxonomy --- weevil --- new species --- Australia --- Papuan region --- Araceae --- biodiversity --- ecology --- faunal inventories --- mimicry --- phenology --- Brachycerinae --- Tanysphyrini --- Afroryzophilus --- new species --- Afrotropical region --- Cossoninae --- Rhyncolini --- Rhyncolina --- taxonomy --- new species --- Aciphylla --- Chatham Islands --- integrative taxonomy --- Poor Knights Islands --- weevils --- Urodontinae --- Urodontidius --- genitalia --- larva --- life history --- galling habit --- silk production --- taxonomy --- South Africa --- Namibia --- weevils --- new taxa --- Broad-nosed weevils --- Entiminae --- tribal relationships --- combined evidence --- ribosomal markers --- structural alignment --- mitochondrial COI --- adults --- larvae --- biography --- obituary --- weevils --- systematics --- publications --- Borneo --- tropical forest canopies --- fogging --- diversity --- forest disturbance --- weevil fauna --- longhorned beetle (Cerambycidae) --- new species --- Curculionoidea --- Mesophyletidae --- Cretaceous --- taxonomy --- morphology --- CT scanning --- amber preparation --- angiosperm associations --- weevil larvae --- palm weevils --- invasive species --- comparative morphology --- homonym --- taxonomy --- Curculionoidea --- Mesophyletidae --- Cretaceous

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