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Health and Children with Disabilities

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453573 Year: Pages: 88 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-357-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Articles within this e-book are focused on the health of children with disabilities. Various frameworks have been used to articulate the dynamic interaction of the individual, environment and the task as it relates to child health. A majority of the contributing authors in this special topic are researchers within the field of adapted physical activity. This field embraces a broad perspective of inclusiveness and attitudes of acceptance.

The Role of Physical Fitness on Cardiovascular Responses to Stress

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194636 Year: Pages: 95 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-463-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Cardiovascular responses to physical and/ or mental stressors has been a topic of great interest for some time. For example, significant changes of cardiovascular control and reactivity have been highlighted as important mechanisms for the protective effect of exercise as a simple and effective, non medical therapy for many pathologies. However, despite the great number of studies performed to date (e.g. >54,000 entries in Pubmed for “cardiovascular stress”), important questions of the role stress has on cardiovascular function still remain. For instance, What factors account for the different cardiovascular responses between mental and physical stressors? How do these different components of the cardiovascular system interact during stress? Which cardiovascular responses to stress are the most important for identifying normal, depressed, and enhanced cardiovascular function? Can these stress-induced responses assist with patient diagnosis and prognosis? What impact does physical fitness have on the relationship between cardiovascular function and health? The current topic examined our current understanding of cardiovascular responses to stress and the significant role that physical fitness has on these responses for improved function and health. Manuscripts focusing on heart rate variability (HRV), heart rate recovery, and other novel cardiovascular assessments were especially encouraged.

Emerging Technologies to Promote and Evaluate Physical Activity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192984 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-298-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Public Health --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:07
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Increasingly, efforts to promote and measure physical activity are achieving greater precision, greater ease of use, and/or greater scope by incorporating emerging technologies. This is significant for physical activity promotion because more precise measurement will allow investigators to better understand where, when, and how physical activity is and is not occurring, thus enabling more effective targeting of particular behavior settings. Emerging technologies associated with the measurement and evaluation of physical activity are noteworthy because: (1) Their ease of use and transferability can greatly increase external validity of measures and findings; (2) Technologies can significantly increase the ability to analyze patterns; (3) They can improve the ongoing, systematic collection and analysis of public health surveillance due to real-time capabilities associated with many emerging technologies; (4) There is a need for research and papers about the cyberinfrastructure required to cope with big data (multiple streams, processing, aggregation, visualization, etc.); and (5) Increasingly blurred boundaries between measurement and intervention activity (e.g., the quantified-self /self-tracking movement) may necessitate a reevaluation of the conventional scientific model for designing and evaluating these sorts of studies. There have been many recent, disparate advances related to this topic. Advances such as crowdsourcing allow for input from large, diverse audiences that can help to identify and improve infrastructure for activity (e.g., large group identification of environmental features that are conducive or inhibiting to physical activity on a national and even global scale). Technologies such as Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and accelerometry are now available in many mobile phones and can be used for identifying and promoting activity and also understanding naturalistically-occurring activity. SenseCam and other personal, visual devices and mobile apps provide person point of view context to physical activity lifestyle and timing. Further, multiple sensor systems are enabling better identification of types of activities (like stair climbing and jumping) that could not previously be identified readily using objective measures like pedometers or accelerometers in isolation. The ability of activity sensors to send data to remote servers allows for the incorporation of online technology (e.g., employing an online social-network as a source of inspiration or accountability to achieve physical activity goals), and websites such as Stickk.com enable individuals to make public contracts visible to other users and also incorporates financial incentives and disincentives in order to promote behaviors including physical activity. In addition, the increasing use of active-gaming (e.g., Wii, XBox Kinect) in homes, schools, and other venues further underscores the growing link between technology and physical activity. Improvements in mathematical models and computer algorithms also allow greater capacity for classifying and evaluating physical activity, improving consistency across research studies. Emerging technologies in the promotion and evaluation of physical activity is a significant area of interest because of its ability to greatly increase the amount and quality of global recorded measurements of PA patterns and its potential to more effectively promote PA. Emerging technologies related to physical activity build on our own and others’ interdisciplinary collaborations in employing technology to address public health challenges. This research area is innovative in that is uses emerging resources including social media, crowdsourcing, and online gaming to better understand patterns of physical activity.

Energy metabolism

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193080 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-308-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Energy metabolism is central to life and altered energy expenditure (EE) is often cited as a central mechanism responsible for development of the obese phenotype. Resting EE, EE of physical activity, cold induced thermogenesis and thermic effect of feeding add to produce total EE but can also affect each other. It is thus very important that each component be well measured. Measuring energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry is extremely simple in theory but the practice if far more difficult. Taking into account temperature in small sized animals, measuring accurately the effect of activity on EE, correcting EE for body size body composition, age sex etc… add difficulties in producing reliable data. The goal of this Research Topic was to call for the practical experience of main investigators trained to practice calorimetry in order to get their feedback and the way they deal with the various and specific problems of humans and animal calorimetry. The goal is to share the questions/solutions experienced by the contributors to inititate a “guide of the good practices” that can be periodically updated and used by all those who are and will be interested in measuring energy metabolism from the 20g mouse to the human and large farm animals.

Low Back Pain: Recent Advances and Perspectives

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ISBN: 9783038426578 9783038426561 Year: Pages: 218 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-12 11:29:42
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This text will provide the most recent knowledge and advances in the area of chronic low back pain. The articles will range from topics such as the growing epidemic of chronic low back pain, to intervention for it, as well as specific biopsychosocial characteristics that can be used in its assessment, treatment, and outcomes monitoring.

Metabolically Healthy Obesity

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ISBN: 9783038426868 9783038426875 Year: Pages: 206
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-24 14:06:23
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Accumulating evidence suggests that not all obese subjects are at increased cardiometabolic risk and that the “metabolically healthy obese” phenotype may exist in the absence of metabolic abnormalities. Limited data regards the determinants of metabolically healthy obesity exist, particularly in relation to genetics, dietary and lifestyle behaviours. In light of the current obesity epidemic, it is clear that current “one size fits all” approaches to tackle obesity are largely unsuccessful. Whether dietary, lifestyle and/or therapeutic interventions, based on stratification of obese individuals according to their metabolic health phenotype, are more effective remains to be seen, with limited and conflicting data available. This book includes original research articles and reviews of the scientific literature that contribute to our understanding of the role of clinical, biological, genetic, and environmental factors in metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity.

How Do Emotions and Feelings Regulate Physical Activity?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452712 Year: Pages: 149 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-271-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Up to date the scientific discussion about how frequency and regularity of physical activity can be increased is dominated by social-cognitive models. However, increasing evidence suggests that emotions and feelings have greater influence on physical activity than originally assumed (Rhodes, Fiala, & Conner, 2009). Generally speaking, humans possess an evaluative system with a basic action tendency to approach pleasurable events and to avoid aversive ones (Cacioppo & Berntson, 1999). Evaluative responses to a behavior and associated emotional states may influence a decision regarding whether or not to repeat being physically active. Generally, behavior associated with positive evaluations has a higher probability of being repeated than behaviors without such an association. On the contrary, an association with negative evaluations tends to decrease the probability of repeating to be physically active. Hence, evaluative responses to physical activity or the related situation can be an important aspect in the process of physical activity maintenance (McAuley et al., 2007). Several social-cognitive models of behavior change and maintenance were recently extended to take the influence of affective responses into account, in a way that variables already included in the models (e.g. outcome expectancies or attitudes) were more clearly articulated into their cognitive and affective components. For example, with regard to Social Cognitive Theory, Gellert, Ziegelmann and Schwarzer (2012) proposed to distinguish between affective and health-related outcome expectancies, and in the Theory of Planned Behavior, researchers suggested to differentiate between cognitive and affective attitudes (Lawton, Conner, & McEachan, 2009). The results of these and other studies suggest that affective components make a unique contribution to the explanation of the physical activity behavior (Brand, 2006). Other examples come from social cognition research, where it was shown that automatic evaluative responses are part of our everyday life and that they decisively influence health behavior (Hofmann, Friese, & Wiers, 2008). Accordingly, there is evidence that people who exercise regulary hold more positive automatic evaluations with exercise than non-exercisers (Bluemke, Brand, Schweizer, & Kahlert, 2010). Although significant progress has been made in showing that evaluative responses to physical activity and associated emotional states are important predictors of physical activity underlying psychological processes are far from being fully understood. Some important issues still remain to be resolved. Which role play affective states compared to concrete emotions when influencing physical activity? How do affective states and emotions interact with cognitive variables such as intentions? Are evaluative processes before, during or after physical activity important to predict future physical activity? Do negative and positive evaluations interact antagonistically or rather synergistically when physical activity as a new behavior shall be adopted? Future research will help us to resolve these and a lot of other so far unresolved issues.

Optimizing Exercise for the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455140 Year: Pages: 115 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-514-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine --- Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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This eBook contains a collection of peer-reviewed original and review articles published in either Frontiers in Endocrinology or Frontiers in Physiology focused on the research topic Optimizing Exercise for the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.

Sedentary Behaviour in Human Health and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455478 Year: Pages: 74 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-547-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Sedentary behaviour – too much sitting as distinct from too little physical activity – is now recognised as an independent risk factor for several health outcomes and premature mortality. This is problematic as technological advancements in transportation, communications, workplaces, and domestic entertainment has created environments that encourage engagement in sedentary behaviour. Evidence from observational epidemiology shows that prolonged sitting is associated with increased risk of disease and adverse risk marker levels including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, obesity, glucose tolerance, and lipids. Importantly, the associations between prolonged sitting and these health markers are independent of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Intriguingly, observational studies employing objective measures of sedentary time patterns using accelerometry have shown that adults who interrupt their sedentary time more frequently (breaks in sedentary time) have improved cardiometabolic profiles than those whose sedentary time is mostly uninterrupted. These beneficial associations are independent of total sedentary time and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. In light of this evidence, experimental studies are now being conducted to identify novel mechanisms and potential causal relationships. It has been suggested that loss of muscular contractile stimulation induced through sitting impairs skeletal muscle metabolism of lipids and glucose and that the molecular processes through which these responses occur may be separate from the pathways activated when engaging in exercise. This Research Topic aims to bring together contributions from researchers to advance the sedentary behaviour research agenda and strengthen the case for reducing and breaking up sitting time in primary prevention and disease management contexts.

Health Promotion in Children and Adolescents through Sport and Physical Activities

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ISBN: 9783038978862 / 9783038978879 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-887-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Sports Medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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I made the important decision to manage a Special Issue, because I believe it to be extremely important to focus on children’s and adolescents’ physiological and psychological development. I aimed to collect research that investigates the role of physical activity and sport on physical and mental well-being, with a particular focus on practical implications, innovation, tools, and technique. This Special Issue, “Health Promotion in Children and Adolescents through Sport and Physical Activities” addresses pediatric exercise science as a key scientific discipline able to help future generations live longer and better. It is already clear that sedentariness and a low level of muscular strength and power significantly affects cognitive functions and daily relations, but it is interesting to understand the key determinants and how we can help practitioners better manage these concerns in their patients. Authors were invited to submit letters, original research papers, case studies, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews.

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