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Science and Football VIII

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ISBN: 9781315670300 9781138947061 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Routledge
Subject: Science (General) --- Law
Added to DOAB on : 2017-09-27 11:01:14
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Science;Football;Congresses;Physiological;Soccer

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congresses --- football --- science --- physiological --- soccer

Socio-Cognitive and Affective Computing

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ISBN: 9783038971986 9783038971993 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-199-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Psychology --- Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-21 10:52:57
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Social cognition focuses on how people process, store, and apply information about other people and social situations. It focuses on the role that cognitive processes play in social interactions. On the other hand, the term cognitive computing is generally used to refer to new hardware and/or software that mimics the functioning of the human brain and helps to improve human decision-making. In this sense, it is a type of computing with the goal of discovering more accurate models of how the human brain/mind senses, reasons, and responds to stimuli.Socio-Cognitive Computing should be understood as a set of theoretical interdisciplinary frameworks, methodologies, methods and hardware/software tools to model how the human brain mediates social interactions. In addition, Affective Computing is the study and development of systems and devices that can recognize, interpret, process, and simulate human affects, a fundamental aspect of socio-cognitive neuroscience. It is an interdisciplinary field spanning computer science, electrical engineering, psychology, and cognitive science.Physiological Computing is a category of technology in which electrophysiological data recorded directly from human activity are used to interface with a computing device. This technology becomes even more relevant when computing can be integrated pervasively in everyday life environments. Thus, Socio-Cognitive and Affective Computing systems should be able to adapt their behavior according to the Physiological Computing paradigm.This book integrates proposals from researchers who use signals from the brain and/or body to infer people's intentions and psychological state in smart computing systems. The design of this kind of systems combines knowledge and methods of ubiquitous and pervasive computing, as well as physiological data measurement and processing, with those of socio-cognitive and affective computing.

Investigating the human brainstem with structural and functional MRI

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192472 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-247-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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The brainstem is one of the least understood parts of the human brain despite its prime importance for the maintenance of basic vital functions. Owing to its role as a relay station between spinal cord, cerebellum and neocortex, the brainstem contains vital nodes of all functional systems in the central nervous system, including the visual, auditory, gustatory, vestibular, somatic and visceral senses, and the somatomotor as well as autonomic nervous systems. While the brainstem has been extensively studied in animals using invasive methods, human studies remain scarce. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a non-invasive and widely available method is one possibility to access the brainstem in humans and measure its structure as well as function. The close vicinity of the brainstem to large arteries and ventricles and the small size of the anatomical structures, however, place high demands on imaging as well as data analysis methods. Nevertheless, the field of brainstem-(f)MRI has significantly advanced in the past few years, largely due to the development of several new tools that facilitate studying this critical part of the human brain. Within this scope, the goal of this Research Topic is to compile work representing the state of the art in functional and structural MRI of the human brainstem.

Wearable Electronics and Embedded Computing Systems

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ISBN: 9783038423874 9783038423867 Year: Pages: XII, 242 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Internal medicine --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-15 08:24:05
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Wearable electronics and embedded computing systems have been receiving a great deal of interest over the last two decades in research and commercial fields, with a special focus on biomedical applications. The key benefits introduced by these systems include their small size, lightweight, low-power consumption, and, of course, wearability. Major human-centered applications are related to medicine, enabling outpatient care and enhancing the quality of life for chronic disease patients, maybe preventing unnecessary hospitalization. These technological devices can indeed be cost effective and provide doctors with more accurate and reliable data.Exemplary engineering input has focused on developing innovative sensing platforms, adaptable to different environments and user needs, smart textile technology, miniaturized electronics and sensors, energy harvesting, wireless body area networks, and so on. This has provided the possibility of gathering information on several activities, such as during daily activities or sleep, during specific tasks, at home, in the lab, and in the clinic, in the form of physiological signals.This book includes cutting-edge research articles, as well as reviews describing and assessing wearable devices, or proposing novel wearable sensors, computational efficient algorithms for physiological signal processing through embedded computing, collection of environmental/behavioral/psychological data, data fusion, detection and quantification of symptoms, decision support for medical doctors, and communication between patient and doctor.

Effects of Time-Varying Magnetic Fields in the Frequency Range 1 kHz to 100 kHz upon the Human Body : Numerical Studies and Stimulation Experiment

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Book Series: Karlsruhe transactions on biomedical engineering / Ed.: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology / Institute of Biomedical Engineering ISSN: 18645933 ISBN: 9783866447820 Year: Volume: 15 Pages: V, 182 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000025255 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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In this work, the physiological effects of time-varying magnetic fields up to 100 kHz have been investigated, namely magnetic stimulation and body warming. Simulation studies were based on numerical calculations on sophisticated cell and body models. In addition, magnetic stimulation thresholds have been determined experimentally.The project was carried out within the scope of the development of Magnetic Particle Imaging, a new imaging technology for medical diagnostics.

Konzeption, Realisierung und Verifikation eines automobilen Forschungsscheinwerfers auf Basis von Digitalprojektoren

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Book Series: Spektrum der Lichttechnik / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Lichttechnisches Institut ISSN: 21951152 ISBN: 9783731503019 Year: Volume: 9 Pages: VIII, 218 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000044632 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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As far as automotive lighting technoligies are concerned, the question rises in which way different technologies nowadays and in future can be displayed realistically and with high validity while simultaneously saving costs and time. This paper describes the conception and the technical installation of the multifunctional headlighting platform Propix which is supposed to being used for various research activity in the field of automotive lighting physiology.

Mutation Breeding in Chickpea: Perspectives and Prospects for Food Security

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ISBN: 9788376560717 9783110374254 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.2478/9788376560717 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Botany --- Plant Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2014-11-17 10:29:09
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The book by M. Imran Kozgar aims to cover the problems of mutation breeding in pulse crops in the light of issues related to food insecurity and malnutrition, which according to FAO are the major threats at the present time. So far the research on induction of mutation in pulse crops is negligible compared to cereal crops, though the pulse crops and especially the chickpea are the largest grown crops in India. The main objective of the book is to reveal and explore the possibility of inducing genetic variability in early generations of mutated chickpea, describe the positive aspects of mutagenic treatments, evaluate the content of mineral elements (iron, manganese, zinc and copper) and physiological parameters of isolated high yielding mutant lines. The author hopes that his book will help to advance studies on pulse crops, and that in the long term it will help to reduce the food insecurity and malnutrition problems presently persisting in various developing countries, including India.

Using neurophysiological signals that reflect cognitive or affective state

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196135 Year: Pages: 314 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-613-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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What can we learn from spontaneously occurring brain and other physiological signals about an individual’s cognitive and affective state and how can we make use of this information? One line of research that is actively involved with this question is Passive Brain-Computer-Interfaces (BCI). To date most BCIs are aimed at assisting patients for whom brain signals could form an alternative output channel as opposed to more common human output channels, like speech and moving the hands. However, brain signals (possibly in combination with other physiological signals) also form an output channel above and beyond the more usual ones: they can potentially provide continuous, online information about an individual’s cognitive and affective state without the need of conscious or effortful communication. The provided information could be used in a number of ways. Examples include monitoring cognitive workload through EEG and skin conductance for adaptive automation or using ERPs in response to errors to correct for a behavioral response. While Passive BCIs make use of online (neuro)physiological responses and close the interaction cycle between a user and a computer system, (neuro)physiological responses can also be used in an offline fashion. Examples of this include detecting amygdala responses for neuromarketing, and measuring EEG and pupil dilation as indicators of mental effort for optimizing information systems. The described field of applied (neuro)physiology can strongly benefit from high quality scientific studies that control for confounding factors and use proper comparison conditions. Another area of relevance is ethics, ranging from dubious product claims, acceptance of the technology by the general public, privacy of users, to possible effects that these kinds of applications may have on society as a whole. In this Research Topic we aimed to publish studies of the highest scientific quality that are directed towards applications that utilize spontaneously, effortlessly generated neurophysiological signals (brain and/or other physiological signals) reflecting cognitive or affective state. We especially welcomed studies that describe specific real world applications demonstrating a significant benefit compared to standard applications. We also invited original, new kinds of (proposed) applications in this area as well as comprehensive review articles that point out what is and what is not possible (according to scientific standards) in this field. Finally, we welcomed manuscripts on the ethical issues that are involved. Connected to the Research Topic was a workshop (held on June 6, during the Fifth International Brain-Computer Interface Meeting, June 3-7, 2013, Asilomar, California) that brought together a diverse group of people who were working in this field. We discussed the state of the art and formulated major challenges, as reflected in the first paper of the Research Topic.

Trends in Neuroergonomics: A Comprehensive Overview

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452033 Year: Pages: 402 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-203-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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This Research Topic is dedicated to Raja Parasuraman who unexpectedly passed on March 22nd 2015. Raja Parasuraman’s pioneering work led the emergence of Neuroergonomics as a new scientific field. He combined his research interests in the field of Neuroergonomics which he defined as the study of the human brain in relation to performance at work and everyday settings. Raja Parasuraman was a pioneer, a truly exceptional researcher and an extraordinary person. He made significant contributions to a number of disciplines, from human factors to cognitive neuroscience. His advice to young researchers was to be passionate in order to develop theory and knowledge that can guide the design of technologies and environments for people. His legacy, the field of Neuroergonomics, will live on in countless faculties and students whom he advised and inspired with unmatched humility throughout the whole of his distinguished career. Raja Parasuraman was an impressive human being, a very kind person, and an absolutely inspiring individual who will be remembered by everyone who had the chance to meet him. About this Research Topic Since the advent of neuroergonomics, significant progress has been made with respect to methodology and tools for the investigation of the brain and behavior at work. This is especially the case for neuroscientific methods where the availability of ambulatory hardware, wearable sensors and advanced data analyses allow for imaging of brain dynamics in humans in applied environments. Methods such as: electroencephalography (EEG), functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), and stimulation approaches like transcranial direct-currrent stimulation (tDCS) have made significant progress in both recording and altering brain activity while allowing full body movements outside laboratory environments. For neuroergonomics, the application of brain imaging in real-world scenarios is highly relevant. Traditionally, brain imaging experiments in human factors research tend to avoid active behavior for fear of artifacts and a contaminated data set that would provide limited insight into brain dynamics in real working environments. To overcome these problems new analyses approaches have to be developed that identify artifacts resulting from hostile recording environments and movement-related non-brain activity stemming from eye-, head, and full-body movements. The application of methodology from the field of Brain-Computer Interfacing (BCI) for neuroergonomics is one approach that has significant potential to enhance ambulatory monitoring and applied testing. Passive BCIs allow for assessing aspects of the user state online, such that systems can automatically adapt to their user. This neuroadaptive technology could lead to highly efficient working environments, to auto-adaptive experimental paradigms and to a continuous tracking of cognitive and affective aspects of the user state. Hence, deployment of portable neuroimaging technologies to real time settings could help assess cognitive and motivational states of personnel assigned to perform critical tasks. This Research Topic gathers submissions that cover new approaches in neuroergonomics. Different article type cover advanced neuroscience methods and neuroergonomics techniques as well as analysis approaches to investigate brain dynamics in working environments. The selection of papers provides insights into new neuroergonomic research approaches that demonstrate significant advances in brain imaging technologies that become more and more mobile, Moreover, a strong trend for new analyses approaches and paradigms investigating real work settings can be seen. Together, this unique collection of latest research papers provides a comprehensive overview on the latest developments in neuroergonomics.

Global Change, Clonal Growth, and Biological Invasions by Plants

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450466 Year: Pages: 179 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-046-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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There are few more active frontiers in plant science than helping understand and predict the ecological consequences of on-going, global changes in climate, land use and cover, nutrient cycling, and acidity. This collection of research papers and reviews focuses on how these changes are likely to interact with two important factors, clonal growth in plants and the introduction of species into new regions by humans, to reshape the ecology of our world. Clonal growth is vegetative reproduction in which offspring remain attached to the parent at least until establishment. Clonal growth is associated with the invasiveness of introduced species, their tendency to spread after introduction and negatively affect other species. Will changes in climate, land cover, or nutrients further increase biological invasions by introduced, clonal plants? The articles in this book seek to address this question with new research and theory on clonal growth and its interactions with invasiveness and other components of global change.

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