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Regulation by non-coding RNAs

ISBN: 9783038420057 9783038420101 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 844 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-01-12 11:03:39
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Abstract

Regulatory non-protein-coding RNA genes and their transcripts were first found and characterized in bacteria but encompass all biological kingdoms. The complexity of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in terms of number and types increases with degree of biological development, whereby humans and other primates appear to have the largest number. Many regulatory ncRNAs base-pair to a target RNA or DNA and inhibit target function. Bacterial ncRNA genes largely respond to environmental stress conditions and help protect the organism from adverse conditions. The prokaryotic RNAs are for the most part small (<200 bp) and are commonly referred to as small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs). Eukaryotic RNAs consist of small <200 nt RNAs and large >200 nt (termed lncRNAs). The eukaryotic small RNAs include miRNAs, siRNAs, and piRNAs. miRNAs inhibit mRNA functions and may also be associated with cancer. lncRNAs functions are multifaceted and include epigenetic regulation and animal development. The bacterial and archeal immune system CRISPR, and the eukaryotic piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNA) immune system that inhibits mobile elements in germ line cells both function by via RNA transcript/ target DNA heteroduplex base-pairing are a specific class of RNAs that protect cells from invading transposons/and or viruses. siRNAs function in plant and invertebrate immune systems and protect against viral infections. [...]

Regulation by non-coding RNAs

ISBN: 9783038420064 9783038420118 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 244 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-01-12 11:06:27
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Abstract

Regulatory non-protein-coding RNA genes and their transcripts were first found and characterized in bacteria but encompass all biological kingdoms. The complexity of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in terms of number and types increases with degree of biological development, whereby humans and other primates appear to have the largest number. Many regulatory ncRNAs base-pair to a target RNA or DNA and inhibit target function. Bacterial ncRNA genes largely respond to environmental stress conditions and help protect the organism from adverse conditions. The prokaryotic RNAs are for the most part small (<200 bp) and are commonly referred to as small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs). Eukaryotic RNAs consist of small <200 nt RNAs and large >200 nt (termed lncRNAs). The eukaryotic small RNAs include miRNAs, siRNAs, and piRNAs. miRNAs inhibit mRNA functions and may also be associated with cancer. lncRNAs functions are multifaceted and include epigenetic regulation and animal development. The bacterial and archeal immune system CRISPR, and the eukaryotic piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNA) immune system that inhibits mobile elements in germ line cells both function by via RNA transcript/ target DNA heteroduplex base-pairing are a specific class of RNAs that protect cells from invading transposons/and or viruses. siRNAs function in plant and invertebrate immune systems and protect against viral infections. [...]

Repetitive DNA Sequences

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039283668 9783039283675 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-367-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Repetitive DNA is ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes, and, in many species, comprises the bulk of the genome. Repeats include transposable elements that can self-mobilize and disperse around the genome, and tandemly-repeated satellite DNAs that increase in copy number due to replication slippage and unequal crossing over. Despite their abundance, repetitive DNA is often ignored in genomic studies due to technical challenges in their identification, assembly, and quantification. New technologies and methods are now providing the unprecedented power to analyze repetitive DNAs across diverse taxa. Repetitive DNA is of particular interest because it can represent distinct modes of genome evolution. Some repetitive DNA forms essential genome structures, such as telomeres and centromeres, which are required for proper chromosome maintenance and segregation, whereas others form piRNA clusters that regulate transposable elements; thus, these elements are expected to evolve under purifying selection. In contrast, other repeats evolve selfishly and produce genetic conflicts with their host species that drive adaptive evolution of host defense systems. However, the majority of repeats likely accumulate in eukaryotes in the absence of selection due to mechanisms of transposition and unequal crossing over. Even these neutral repeats may indirectly influence genome evolution as they reach high abundance. In this Special Issue, the contributing authors explore these questions from a range of perspectives.

Cell-Free Nucleic Acids

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ISBN: 9783039280742 9783039280759 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-075-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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The deficits of mammography and the potential of noninvasive diagnostic testing using circulating miRNA profiles are presented in our first review article. Exosomes are important in the transfer of genetic information. The current knowledge on exosome-associated DNAs and on vesicle-associated DNAs and their role in pregnancy-related complications is presented in the next article. The major obstacle is the lack of a standardized technique for the isolation and measurement of exosomes. One review has summarized the latest results on cell-free nucleic acids in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Despite the extensive research, the etiology and exact pathogenesis are still unclear, although similarity to the cell-free ribonucleic acids (cfRNAs) observed in other autoimmune diseases seems to be relevant in IBD. Liquid biopsy is a useful tool for the differentiation of leiomyomas and sarcomas in the corpus uteri. One manuscript has collected the most important knowledge of mesenchymal uterine tumors and shows the benefits of noninvasive sampling. Microchimerism has also recently become a hot topic. It is discussed in the context of various forms of transplantation and transplantation-related advanced therapies, the available cell-free nucleic acid (cfNA) markers, and the detection platforms that have been introduced. Ovarian cancer is one of the leading serious malignancies among women, with a high incidence of mortality; the introduction of new noninvasive diagnostic markers could help in its early detection and treatment monitoring. Epigenetic regulation is very important during the development of diseases and drug resistance. Methylation changes are important signs during ovarian cancer development, and it seems that the CDH1 gene is a potential candidate for being a noninvasive biomarker in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Preeclampsia is a mysterious disease—despite intensive research, the exact details of its development are unknown. It seems that cell-free nucleic acids could serve as biomarkers for the early detection of this disease. Three research papers deal with the prenatal application of cfDNA. Copy number variants (CNVs) are important subjects for the study of human genome variations, as CNVs can contribute to population diversity and human genetic diseases. These are useful in NIPT as a source of population specific data. The reliability of NIPT depends on the accurate estimation of fetal fraction. Improvement in the success rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) is an important goal. The measurement of embryo-specific small noncoding RNAs in culture media could improve the efficiency of ET.

Keywords

breast cancer --- screening --- liquid biopsy --- omics --- multi-level diagnostics --- individualized patient profile --- miRNA --- mammography --- predictive and preventive approach --- personalized medicine --- cell-free DNA --- exosomes --- extracellular vesicles --- fetal DNA --- preeclampsia --- growth retardation --- gestational diabetes mellitus --- miRNA --- piRNA --- NGS --- RT-PCR --- embryo culture medium --- C19MC microRNA --- expression --- exosomes --- fetal growth restriction --- gestational hypertension --- plasma --- prediction --- preeclampsia --- pregnancy-related complications --- screening --- non-invasive prenatal testing --- statistical models --- z-score --- cell-free nucleic acids --- circulating nucleic acids --- cell-free DNAs --- cell-free RNAs --- exosomes --- inflammatory bowel disease --- neutrophil extracellular traps --- NETosis --- liquid biopsy --- cell-free nucleic acids --- circulating tumor cells --- leiomyomas --- sarcomas --- leiomyosarcomas --- exosomes --- NIPT --- fetal fraction --- statistical methods --- DNA --- maternal serum screening --- fetal cells --- liquid biopsy --- pyrosequencing --- ovarian cancer --- CDH1 --- PTEN --- PAX1 --- RASSF1 --- cfDNA --- cell-free DNA --- nuclease activity --- aging --- obesity --- gender differences --- copy number variants --- next generation sequencing --- non-invasive prenatal testing --- population study --- microchimerism --- solid organ transplantation --- hematopoietic stem cell transplantation --- genetic marker --- single nucleotide polymorphism --- deletion/insertion polymorphism --- ovarian cancer --- circulating miRNA --- blood plasma --- NanoString --- network analysis --- biomarker --- n/a

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