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Chapter 7 The challenge of creating a more diverse economics (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9780367001513 Year: Pages: 17 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:06
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Abstract

This paper reflects on the experience of the 1999–2002 minority
pipeline program (MPP) at the University of California, Riverside. With
support from the American Economic Association, the MPP identifi ed
students of color interested in economics, let them explore economic
issues aff ecting minority communities, and encouraged them to
consider postgraduate work in economics. The MPP’s successes and
failures can be traced to the shifting balance in California’s racialized
political economy, especially a state ballot initiative forbidding the
use of applicant race or ethnicity in University of California admission
decisions, and to the transformation of economics itself, especially at
the level of doctoral training. The MPP experience may be of relevance
for other eff orts to increase racial/ethnic diversity in social science
disciplines.

The Underrepresentation of Women in Science: International and Cross-Disciplinary Evidence and Debate

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454341 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-434-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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There is no shortage of articles and books exploring women’s underrepresentation in science. Everyone is interested--academics, politicians, parents, high school girls (and boys), women in search of college majors, administrators working to accommodate women’s educational interests; the list goes on. But one thing often missing is an evidence-based examination of the problem, uninfluenced by personal opinions, accounts of “lived experiences,” anecdotes, and the always-encroaching inputs of popular culture. This is why this special issue of Frontiers in Psychology can make a difference. In it, a diverse group of authors and researchers with even more diverse viewpoints find themselves united by their empirical, objective approaches to understanding women’s underrepresentation in science today. The questions considered within this special issue span academic disciplines, methods, levels of analysis, and nature of analysis; what these article share is their scholarly, evidence-based approach to understanding a key issue of our time.

Image Processing Using FPGAs

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ISBN: 9783038979180 / 9783038979197 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-919-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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This book presents a selection of papers representing current research on using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for realising image processing algorithms. These papers are reprints of papers selected for a Special Issue of the Journal of Imaging on image processing using FPGAs. A diverse range of topics is covered, including parallel soft processors, memory management, image filters, segmentation, clustering, image analysis, and image compression. Applications include traffic sign recognition for autonomous driving, cell detection for histopathology, and video compression. Collectively, they represent the current state-of-the-art on image processing using FPGAs.

Carbon Capture and Storage

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ISBN: 9783039213993 / 9783039214006 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-400-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Climate change is one of the main threats to modern society. This phenomenon is associated with an increase in greenhouse gas (GHGs, mainly carbon dioxide—CO2) emissions due to anthropogenic activities. The main causes are the burning of fossil fuels and land use change (deforestation). Climate change impacts are associated with risks to basic needs (health, food security, and clean water), as well as risks to development (jobs, economic growth, and the cost of living). The processes involving CO2 capture and storage are gaining attention in the scientific community as an alternative for decreasing CO2 emissions, reducing its concentration in ambient air. The carbon capture and storage (CCS) methodologies comprise three steps: CO2 capture, CO2 transportation, and CO2 storage. Despite the high research activity within this topic, several technological, economic, and environmental issues as well as safety problems remain to be solved, such as the following needs: increase of CO2 capture efficiency, reduction of process costs, and verification of the environmental sustainability of CO2 storage.

Heat and Mass Transfer in Energy Systems

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039219827 / 9783039219834 Year: Pages: 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-983-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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In recent years, the interest of the scientific community towards efficient energy systems has significantly increased. One of the reasons is certainly related to the change in the temperature of the planet, which has increased by 0.76 °C with respect to preindustrial levels, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and is still increasing. The European Union considers it vital to prevent global warming from exceeding 2 °C with respect to pre-industrial levels, as it has been proven that this will result in irreversible and potentially catastrophic changes. These changes in climate are mainly caused by greenhouse gas emissions related to human activities, and can be drastically reduced by employing energy systems for the heating and cooling of buildings, as well as for power production, characterized by high efficiency levels and/or based on renewable energy sources. This Special Issue, published in the Energies journal, includes 13 contributions from across the world, including a wide range of applications such as hybrid residential renewable energy systems, desiccant-based air handling units, heat exchanges for engine WHR, solar chimney systems, and other interesting topics.

Keywords

bubble absorber --- absorption cooling --- ammonia-lithium nitrate --- plate heat exchanger --- bentonite buffer material --- Ca-type bentonite --- thermal conductivity --- predictive models --- thermosyphon --- two-phase flow --- startup --- phase change --- operating state --- visualization --- fast thermal simulation --- crude oil pipeline --- batch transportation --- body-fitted coordinate-based proper orthogonal decomposition reduced-order model (BFC-POD-ROM) --- transport scheme determination --- waste heat recovery --- exhaust steam --- heat exchanger --- protracted fin --- turbo-electric generator --- exhaust emissions --- R744 --- two-phase ejector --- refrigeration --- dynamic simulation --- low-order model --- object-oriented modelling --- desiccant wheel --- solar heating and cooling --- hygroscopic materials --- dynamic simulations --- energy and environmental analysis --- solar chimney --- air flow --- analytical and experimental solutions --- method of calculation --- steelmaking --- electric arc furnace --- consumption --- electric energy --- melting --- refining --- tapping --- modeling --- linear regression --- genetic programming --- renewables --- ancillary services --- hybrid systems --- thermal storage --- energy storage --- microgrids --- heat pump --- model predictive control --- optimization --- Biot number --- genetic algorithms --- drying --- air-cooled steam turbine generator --- single-channel ventilation --- backflow --- radial ventilation duct --- fluid field --- ground source heat pump --- numerical and experimental studies --- ground-air heat exchanger --- geothermal energy --- computational fluid dynamics --- spirally corrugated pipe

Ironmaking and Steelmaking

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039213290 / 9783039213306 Year: Pages: 464 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-330-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Steel is a critical material in our societies and will remain an important one for a long time into the future. In the last two decades, the world steel industry has gone through drastic changes and this is predicted to continue in the future. The Asian countries (e.g. China, India) have been dominant in the production of steel creating global over-capacity, while the steel industry in the developed countries have made tremendous efforts to reinforce its global leadership in process technology and product development, and remain sustainable and competitive. The global steel industry is also facing various grand challenges in strict environmental regulation, new energy and materials sources, and ever-increasing customer requirements for high quality steel products, which has been addressed accordingly by the global iron and steel community. This Special Issue, “Ironmaking and Steelmaking”, released by the journal Metals, published 33 high quality articles from the international iron and steel community, covering the state-of-the-art of the ironmaking and steelmaking processes. This includes fundamental understanding, experimental investigation, pilot plant trials, industrial applications and big data utilization in the improvement and optimization of existing processes, and research and development in transformative technologies. It is hoped that the creation of this special issue as a scientific platform will help drive the iron and steel community to build a sustainable steel industry.

Keywords

ironmaking --- microwaves --- carbothermal reduction --- iron oxides --- emission spectrum --- ore-carbon briquette --- CO–CO2 atmosphere --- simulation --- re-oxidation --- reduction --- electroslag cladding --- high speed steel --- ductile cast iron --- composite roll --- bonding interface --- high-phosphorus iron ore --- fluorapatite --- carbothermal reduction --- vaporization dephosphorization --- iron ore pellets --- compressive strength (CS) --- prediction model --- artificial neural network --- principal component analysis --- crystallization behaviors --- crystallization rate --- anosovite crystals --- silicate crystals --- titanium slag --- blast furnace --- copper stave --- hydrogen attack --- slag crust --- heat-affected zone --- high heat input welding --- Ca deoxidation --- inclusion control --- intragranular acicular ferrite --- concentrate --- iron ore --- agglomerate --- structure --- phase analysis --- Mg deoxidation --- inclusions --- Al addition --- high-heat-input welding --- heat-affected zone --- toughness --- shot peening --- Barkhausen noise --- crystallite size --- carbon composite pellet --- direct reduction --- shrinkage --- kinetics --- rotary hearth furnace --- hydrogen plasma --- smelting reduction --- HPSR --- iron oxide --- plasma arc --- ionization degree --- sulfur distribution ratio --- liquid area --- carbon-saturated iron --- phosphate capacity --- sulfide capacity --- phosphorus distribution ratio --- sulfur distribution ratio --- evaluation of coupling relationship --- secondary refining process, CaO–based slags --- iron sulfate --- TG analysis --- thermal treatment --- iron oxide --- kinetics --- activation energy --- high-aluminum iron ore --- synergistic reduction --- high-manganese iron ore --- hercynite --- fayalite --- flow velocity --- casting speed --- gas flow rate --- flow pattern --- continuous casting --- Cr recovery --- self-reduction briquette --- reaction mechanism --- mold flux --- low fluorine --- internal crack --- surface roughness --- slag film --- vanadium titano-magnetite --- gas-based reduction --- carbon monoxide --- hydrogen --- and nitrogen --- kinetics --- pellet size --- liquid steel --- non-contact measurement --- oxides --- steel-making --- blast furnace --- solid flow --- cold experiment --- direct element method --- Wilcox–Swailes coefficient --- viscosity --- BaO --- CaO/Al2O3 ratio --- modified NPL model --- ultrafine particles exposure --- steelmaking factory --- chemical composition --- devolatilization --- torrefied biomass --- bio-coal --- volatile matter --- iso-conversional method --- Al-TRIP steel --- surface depression --- cracks --- non-metallic inclusion --- mold flux --- reactivity --- hot metal pre-treatment --- desiliconisation --- dephosphorisation --- solid and gaseous oxygen --- fork --- flat steel --- inclusions --- 33MnCrTiB --- slag --- carbon dioxide --- injection --- blast furnace --- converter --- combustion --- oxygen steelmaking --- refining kinetics --- slag formation --- penetration theory --- oxygen blast furnace --- COREX --- static process model --- integrated steel plant --- material flow --- energy consumption --- CO2 emissions --- oil-pipeline steel --- Ca-treatment --- non-metallic inclusions --- electrolytic extraction --- corrosion --- n/a

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