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Ion Transport in Chloroplast and Mitochondria Physiology in Green Organisms

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451104 Year: Pages: 123 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-110-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Chloroplasts and mitochondria both have a prokaryotic origin, carry essential genes on their own highly reduced genome and generate energy in the form of ATP for the plant cell. The ion composition and concentration in these bioenergetic organelles impact photosynthesis, respiration and stress responses in plants. Early electrophysiological and biochemical studies provided strong evidence for the presence of ion channels and ion transporters in chloroplast and mitochondrial membranes. However, it wasn’t until the last decade that the development of model organisms such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii along with improved genetic tools to study cell physiolgy have led to the discovery of several genes encoding for ion transport proteins in chloroplasts and mitochondria. For the first time, these discoveries have enabled detailed studies on the essential physiological function of the organellar ion flux. This Research Topic welcomed updated overviews and comprehensive investigations on already identified and novel ion transport components involved in physiology of chloroplasts and mitochondria in green organisms.

Advances in Agrophysical Research

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ISBN: 9789535111849 Year: Pages: 410 DOI: 10.5772/3341 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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The idea of this book was born due to the rapid increase of the interest in excellence of agricultural production in the aspect of both – the quality of raw material for food production as well as in the aspect of environment protection. Agrophysics is a field of science that focuses on the quality of agriculture as a whole i.e. the interaction between human and environment, especially the interaction between soil, plant, atmosphere and machine. Physics with its laws, principles and rules is a good tool for description of the interactions, as well as of the results of these interactions. Some aspects of chemistry, biology and other fields of science are also taken under consideration. This interdisciplinary approach can result in holistic description of processes which should lead to improvement of the efficiency of obtaining the raw materials to ensure a sufficient amount of food, safe for human health. This book could be regarded as the contribution to this description. The reader can find some basic as well, as more particular aspects of the contemporary agriculture, starting with the soil characteristics and treatment, plant growth and agricultural products’ properties and processing.

Plant Growth

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ISBN: 9789535127710 9789535127727 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.5772/62601 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Over the last few decades, the prevalence of studies about plant growth has dramatically grown in most regions of the world. Many aspects have been investigated related to this phenomenon. If we can gain understanding of how plants grow, then we may be able to manipulate it to reduce both chemical fertilizer use and its environmental impact without decreasing the yield. This book provides information about the use of bio-agents, plant health, plant pathogen, property of melanin, and the influence of rootstock and root growth. We hope this information will be useful for all the people who work with this hot topic.

Photosynthesis - From Its Evolution to Future Improvements in Photosynthetic Efficiency Using Nanomaterials

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ISBN: 9781789237856 9781789237863 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71794 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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This book is a compilation. It starts from the origins of the photosynthetic capacity of organisms with a summary of the evolution of photosynthesis. This is followed by a concise description of the photosynthetic process and a discussion of the role that light, nutrients, and cultivation play in the photosynthetic process using examples in each case. Finally, the book explains future improvements in the field by applying nanotechnology to improve photosynthetic productivity, explaining how crop productivity can be increased by engineering crop plants for tolerance against various environmental stresses and improving yield attributes, especially photosynthetic efficiency using nanomaterials.

Plant Growth and Regulation - Alterations to Sustain Unfavorable Conditions

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ISBN: 9781789842852 9781789842869 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.74314 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Plant Growth and Regulation - Alterations to Sustain Unfavorable Conditions consists of five chapters written by scientists from different parts of the world, who are experts in their respective focuses of research. The topics cover the physical growth and physiological and genetic alterations in plants, particularly under environmental stress conditions. The storyline of this book starts from the plant community, followed by cellular and ultrastructural phenomenes occurring within the plant in its interaction with the environment, and ends with elucidation of chloroplast's DNAs, their transfer to the nucleus, and the genetic engineering technology applicable for plant adaptation to changing environmental conditions. This book is aimed at attracting the attention of students, teachers, as well as scientists who have a similar focus of study or interest. It contains advanced studies in the respective chapters.

Advances in Selected Plant Physiology Aspects

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Book Series: www.intechopen.com/books/advances-in-selected-plant-physiology-aspects ISBN: 9789535105572 9789535142997 Year: Volume: 2012-04-25 Pages: 400 DOI: 10.5772/1874 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 09:47:09
License: CC BY 3.0

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The book provides general principles and new insights of some plant physiology aspects covering abiotic stress, plant water relations, mineral nutrition and reproduction. Plant response to reduced water availability and other abiotic stress (e.g. metals) have been analysed through changes in water absorption and transport mechanisms, as well as by molecular and genetic approach. A relatively new aspects of fruit nutrition are presented in order to provide the basis for the improvement of some fruit quality traits. The involvement of hormones, nutritional and proteomic plant profiles together with some structure/function of sexual components have also been addressed. Written by leading scientists from around the world it may serve as source of methods, theories, ideas and tools for students, researchers and experts in that areas of plant physiology.

Abiotic Stresses in Agroecology: A Challenge for Whole Plant Physiology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452040 Year: Pages: 177 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-204-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Understanding plant responses to abiotic stresses is central to our ability to predict the impact of global change and environmental pollution on the production of food, feed and forestry. Besides increasing carbon dioxide concentration and rising global temperature, increasingly frequent and severe climatic events (e.g. extended droughts, heat waves, flooding) are expected in the coming decades. Additionally, pollution (e.g. heavy metals, gaseous pollutants such as ozone or sulfur dioxide) is an important factor in many regions, decreasing plant productivity and product quality. This Research topic focuses on stress responses at the level of whole plants, addressing biomass-related processes (development of the root system, root respiration/fermentation, leaf expansion, stomatal regulation, photosynthetic capacity, leaf senescence, yield) and interactions between organs (transport via xylem and phloem, long-distance signaling and secondary metabolites). Comparisons between species and between varieties of the same species are helpful to evaluate the potential for species selection and genetic improvement. This research topic is focused on the following abiotic stresses and interactions between them:- Increased carbon dioxide concentration in ambient air is an important parameter influenced by global change and affects photosynthesis, stomatal regulation, plant growth and finally yield.- Elevated temperature: both the steady rise in average temperature and extreme events of shorter duration (heat waves) must be considered in the context of alterations in carbon balance through increased photorespiration, decreased Rubisco activation and carboxylation efficiency, damage to photosynthetic apparatus, as well as loss of water via transpiration and stomatal sensitivity. - Low temperatures (late frosts, prolonged cold phases, freezing temperature) can decrease overwintering survival rates, productivity of crop plants and species composition in meadows.- Water availability: More frequent, severe and extended drought periods have been predicted by climate change models. The timing and duration of a drought period is crucial to determining plant responses, particularly if the drought event coincides with an increase in temperature. Drought causes stomatal closure, decreasing the cooling potential of transpiration and potentially leading to thermal stress as leaf temperature rises. Waterlogging may become also more relevant during the next decades and is especially important for seedlings and young plants. It is not the presence of water itself that causes the stress, but the exclusion of oxygen from the soil which causes a decrease in respiration and an increase in fermentation rates followed by a period of potential oxidative stress as water recedes.- Salinity: high salt concentration in soil influences soil water potential, the water status of the plant and hence affects productivity. Salt tolerance will become an important trait driven by increased competition for land and the need to exploit marginal lands.

"One rotten apple spoils the whole barrel": The plant hormone ethylene, the small molecule and its complexity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196234 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-623-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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The gaseous molecule ethylene (C2H4), which is small in size and simple in structure, is a plant hormone most often associated with fruit ripening yet has a diversity of effects throughout the plant life cycle. While its agricultural effects were known even in ancient Egypt, the complexity of its mode of action and the broad spectrum of its effects and potential uses in plant physiology remain important scientific challenges today. In the last few decades, the biochemical pathway of ethylene production has been uncovered, ethylene perception and signaling have been molecularly dissected, ethylene-responsive transcription factors have been identified and numerous effects of ethylene have been described, ranging from water stress, development, senescence, reproduction plant-pathogen interactions, and of course, ripening. Thus ethylene is involved in plant development, in biotic and abiotic stress, and in reproduction. There is no stage in plant life that is not affected by ethylene, modulated by a complex and fascinating molecular machinery.

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