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Specialised membrane domains of plasmodesmata plant intercellular nanopores

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193684 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-368-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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Abstract

Plasmodesmata (PD) are plant-specific intercellular nanopores defined by specialised domains of the plasma membrane (PM) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), both of which contain unique proteins, and probably different lipid compositions than the surrounding bulk membranes. The PD membranes form concentric tubules with a minimal outer diameter of only 50 nm, and the central ER strand constricted to ~10-15 nm, representing one of the narrowest stable membrane tubules in nature. This unique membrane architecture poses many biophysical, structural and functional questions. PM continuity across PD raises the question as to how a locally confined membrane site is established and maintained at PD. There is increasing evidence that the PM within PD may be enriched in membrane ‘rafts’ or TET web domains. Lipid rafts often function as signalling platforms, in line with the emerging view of PD as central players in plant defense responses. Lipid-lipid immiscibility could also provide a mechanism for membrane sub- compartmentalisation at PD. Intricate connections of the PM to the wall and the underlying cytoskeleton and ER may anchor the specialised domains locally. The ER within PD is even more strongly modified. Its extreme curvature suggests that it is stabilised by densely packed proteins, potentially members of the reticulon family that tubulate the cortical ER. The diameter of the constricted ER within PD is similar to membrane stalks in dynamin-mediated membrane fission during endocytosis and may need to be stabilised against spontaneous rupture. The function of this extreme membrane constriction, and the reasons why the ER is connected between plant cells remain unknown. Whilst the technically challenging search for the protein components of PD is ongoing, there has been significant recent progress in research on biological membranes that could benefit our understanding of PD function. With this Research Topic, we therefore aim to bring together researchers in the PD field and those in related areas, such as membrane biophysics, membrane composition and fluidity, protein-lipid interactions, lateral membrane heterogeneity, lipid rafts, membrane curvature, and membrane fusion/fission.

Plant Proteomic Research 2.0

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ISBN: 9783039210626 / 9783039210633 Year: Pages: 594 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-063-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Plant Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:07
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Abstract

Advancements in high-throughput “Omics” techniques have revolutionized plant molecular biology research. Proteomics offers one of the best options for the functional analysis of translated regions of the genome, generating a wealth of detailed information regarding the intrinsic mechanisms of plant stress responses. Various proteomic approaches are being exploited extensively for elucidating master regulator proteins which play key roles in stress perception and signaling, and these approaches largely involve gel-based and gel-free techniques, including both label-based and label-free protein quantification. Furthermore, post-translational modifications, subcellular localization, and protein–protein interactions provide deeper insight into protein molecular function. Their diverse applications contribute to the revelation of new insights into plant molecular responses to various biotic and abiotic stressors.

Keywords

Phalaenopsis --- petal --- pollination --- senescence --- 2-DE --- ROS --- Medicago sativa --- leaf cell wall proteome --- cadmium --- quantitative proteomics --- 2D DIGE --- chloroplast --- elevated CO2 --- heat stress --- nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase --- (phospho)-proteomics --- photosynthesis --- protein phosphorylation --- 14-3-3 proteins --- Oryza sativa L. --- starch --- sucrose --- N utilization efficiency --- proteomics --- 2D --- protein phosphatase --- rice isogenic line --- SnRK1 --- 14-3-3 --- lettuce --- bolting --- proteome --- high temperature --- iTRAQ --- proteome profiling --- iTRAQ --- differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) --- drought stress --- physiological responses --- Zea mays L. --- GS3 --- ? subunit --- heterotrimeric G protein --- mass spectrometric analysis --- RGG3 --- rice --- western blotting --- Dn1-1 --- ?-subunit --- heterotrimeric G protein --- mass spectrometry analysis --- RGG4 --- rice --- western blotting --- Clematis terniflora DC. --- polyphenol oxidase --- virus induced gene silencing --- photosynthesis --- glycolysis --- Camellia sinensis --- chlorotic mutation --- chlorophyll deficiency --- weakening of carbon metabolism --- iTRAQ --- proteomics --- degradome --- wheat --- cultivar --- protease --- papain-like cysteine protease (PLCP) --- subtilase --- metacaspase --- caspase-like --- wheat leaf rust --- Puccinia recondita --- Stagonospora nodorum --- iTRAQ --- proteomics --- somatic embryogenesis --- pyruvate biosynthesis --- Zea mays --- chlorophylls --- LC-MS-based proteomics --- pea (Pisum sativum L.) --- proteome functional annotation --- proteome map --- seeds --- seed proteomics --- late blight disease --- potato proteomics --- Phytophthora infestans --- Sarpo Mira --- early and late disease stages --- Simmondsia chinensis --- cold stress --- proteomics --- leaf --- iTRAQ --- Ricinus communis L. --- cold stress --- seed imbibition --- iTRAQ --- proteomics --- Morus --- organ --- gel-free/label-free proteomics --- flavonoid --- antioxidant activity --- phosphoproteome --- barley --- seed dormancy --- germination --- imbibition --- after-ripening --- sugarcane --- Sporisorium scitamineum --- smut --- proteomics --- RT-qPCR --- ISR --- holm oak --- Quercus ilex --- 2-DE proteomics --- shotgun proteomics --- non-orthodox seed --- population variability --- stresses responses --- ammonium --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- carbon metabolism --- nitrogen metabolism --- nitrate --- proteomics --- root --- secondary metabolism --- proteomics --- wheat --- silver nanoparticles --- plant pathogenesis responses --- data-independent acquisition --- quantitative proteomics --- Pseudomonas syringae --- sweet potato plants infected by SPFMV --- SPV2 and SPVG --- sweet potato plants non-infected by SPFMV --- SPV2 and SPVG --- co-infection --- transcriptome profiling --- gene ontology --- pathway analysis --- lesion mimic mutant --- leaf spot --- phenylpropanoid biosynthesis --- proteomics --- isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) --- rice --- affinity chromatography --- ergosterol --- fungal perception --- innate immunity --- pattern recognition receptors --- plasma membrane --- proteomics --- proteomics --- maize --- plant-derived smoke --- shoot --- Solanum tuberosum --- patatin --- seed storage proteins --- vegetative storage proteins --- tuber phosphoproteome --- targeted two-dimensional electrophoresis --- B. acuminata petals --- MALDI-TOF/TOF --- GC-TOF-MS --- qRT-PCR --- differential proteins --- n/a

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