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Polarization Phenomena in Physics:Applications to Nuclear Reactions

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ISBN: 9789813230897 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.1142/10731 Language: English
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Co.
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-02 05:44:00
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This book allows the reader to understand the fundamentals of polarization phenomena in a general spin system, showing the polarizations to be indispensable information source of spin-dependent interactions. Particularly, the book describes polarization phenomena in nuclear scattering and reactions in detail, and explains how they provide information concerning spin-dependent interactions between the related particles. The concepts of polarization observables are explained, explicitly in the scattering of protons, deuterons and 7Li nuclei. In looking at deuteron and 7Li scattering, interactions induced by the virtual excitation of projectiles are examined in detail. Resonance reactions are investigated, focusing attention on the polarization of observables, which suggests that polarization phenomena can be used to determine the spin parity of the resonance. It is noted that in few-nucleon systems, the discrepancy between the values of polarization observables based on theoretical models and the corresponding values obtained through experimental data, is an important problem to be solved in the future. Solving this problem should provide new knowledge concerning the nuclear forces between nucleons.The author has chosen open-access publishing for this book to allow any interested person to study this branch of nuclear physics.

Development and Application of Optical Coherence Tomography (Oct)

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ISBN: 9783038427445 9783038427438 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-743-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-16 08:34:07
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This special feature issue has been initiated to celebrate the 25th anniversary of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). In OCT, broad bandwidth light is used in order to produce cross sectional images of turbid and translucent samples with high axial resolution (in the order of a few µm). The imaging speed of OCT can be as high as several millions of depth scans (A-scans) per second which allows for various applications in different fields. This special feature issue consists of three overview papers covering OCT angiography, polarization-sensitive OCT and dental applications of OCT. Additional applications and the latest developments in OCT are covered in nine research papers. The latest developments presented in this issue include magnetomotive OCT, resonant Doppler OCT, full field OCT, new segmentation algorithms and depth range extension. Applications of OCT are widely spread and range from quality control in tooth prostheses and coating thickness measurements in the automotive industry to the assessment of degradation of coatings and alveolar dynamics.

The Happiest Days?

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ISBN: 9780203973271 9781850007302 9781135387266 9781135387259 9781135387211 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203973271 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Education
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:08
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First published in 1990. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Mechanisms of Neuronal Migration during Corticogenesis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198863 Year: Pages: 183 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-886-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The cerebral cortex plays central roles in many higher-order functions such as cognition, language, consciousness, and the control of voluntary behavior. These processes are performed by the densely interconnected networks of excitatory pyramidal neurons and inhibitory interneurons, and the balanced development of these two types of neuron is quite important. During cortical development, pyramidal neurons and interneurons show quite different migratory behaviors: radial migration and tangential migration, respectively. Pyramidal neurons are generated in the ventricular zone of the dorsal telencephalon, and migrate radially along radial glial fibers toward the pial surface, forming a six-layered cortical structure in an “ inside-out” manner. On the other hand, cortical interneurons are generated in the medial and caudal ganglionic eminence in the ventral telencephalon, and follow long tangential migratory paths into the cortex. Defects in these migration processes result in abnormalities in the cortical layer structure and neuronal networks, which may cause various neurological and psychiatric conditions such as epilepsy and schizophrenia. Accordingly, besides basic scientific interest, elucidation of the mechanism of neuronal migration is essential for understanding the pathogenesis of these diseases. This Research Topic includes a series of articles ranging from the basic mechanism of neocortical development to the malformation and evolution of the neocortex. We do hope that the present ebook will further stimulate the interest in the fascinating investigations of neuronal migration and corticogenesis.

Microglial Polarization in the Pathogenesis and Therapeutics of Neurodegenerative Diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455256 Year: Pages: 327 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-525-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is one of the shared prominent hallmarks among various forms of neurodegeneration. Depending on the milieu in which microglia become activated, the polarization of microglia shows to be heterogeneous with diverse functional phenotypes that range from pro-inflammatory phenotypes to immunosuppressive phenotypes. Therefore, targeting microglial polarization holds great promise for the treatment of neurodegeneration.This eBook focuses on the potential mechanisms of microglial polarization that are critically associated with a broad spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington’s disease (HD), Traumatic brain injury (TBI), glaucomatous neurodegeneration and prion diseases. This topic also involves the therapeutic targeting of microglial polarization by nutritional and pharmacological modulators. Moreover, this topic describes advanced technologies employed for studying microglia. Age-related changes in microglia functions are also discussed.Overall, this eBook provides comprehensive understandings of microglial polarization in the course of neurodegeneration, linking with aging-related microglial alterations and technologies developed for microglial studies. Hopefully, it will also give comprehensive insights into various aspects of therapeutic treatment for neurodegeneration, through targeting microglial polarization.

The Refugee Reception Crisis

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: European Studies ISBN: 9782800416939 Year: Pages: 256 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_1005529 Language: English
Publisher: Éditions de l'Université de Bruxelles
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-12 11:21:13
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The refugee question occupied centre stage at every political debate in Europe since 2015. Starting from the "long summer of migration", the polarization of opinions and attitudes towards asylum seekers among citizens of the EU has grown increasingly. The divergence between hospitality and hostility has also become evident in political reactions. &#xD;

Die Politik der Echokammer

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Book Series: Studien des Göttinger Instituts für Demokratieforschung zur Geschichte politischer und gesellschaftlicher Kontroversen ISBN: 9783837636079 9783839436073 Year: DOI: 10.14361/9783839436073 Language: German
Publisher: transcript Verlag Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 103365
Subject: Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-30 11:01:58
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In den USA stehen sich heute zwei politische Lager - Demokraten und Republikaner, Liberale und Konservative - in existenzieller Feindschaft gegenüber. Doch was erklärt den tiefen ideologischen Graben, der das Land durchzieht? In seinem Buch zeigt Torben Lütjen, wie die USA in ein Land politischer Echokammern zerfielen: virtuelle und soziale Räume, die vor allem von Gleichgesinnten bevölkert werden und sich durch das Fehlen von Widerspruch ideologisch radikalisiert haben. Der Blick geht dabei vor allem nach Wisconsin, in den Mittleren Westen der USA: Hier verkörpert sich in zwei extremen Parteihochburgen von Demokraten und Republikanern paradigmatisch der Konflikt, der die modernen USA prägt.

Deliberative Public Engagement with Science: An Empirical Investigation

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: SpringerBriefs in Psychology ISSN: 2192-8363 ISBN: 9783319781594 9783319781600 Year: Pages: 129 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-78160-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: US National Science Foundation (NSF)
Subject: Media and communication
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 16:43:17
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This compact open access reference delves beyond popular concepts of educated consumers and an informed public by examining the science behind deliberative engagement. Using data from four longitudinal studies, the authors assess public engagement methods in deliberative discussions of ethical, legal, and social issues concerning innovations in nanotechnology. Coverage includes the theoretical origins of the studies, forms of engagement and variations used, and in-depth details on cognitive, affective, and social components that go into the critical thinking process and forming of opinions. Not only are the findings intriguing in and of themselves, but researchers from varied fields will also find them useful in pursuing their own projects.Featured in the coverage:Experimental methods and measures used in relation to specific outcomes.Forms of deliberative engagement affecting objective and subjective knowledge.Effects of engagement variables on attitude formation, change, and polarization.Tracing the processes leading to policy acceptance and support.Study conclusions and evaluation.Plus supplemental materials giving readers access to full study data.Since public engagement methods are widely regarded as valuable for policy input, planning purposes, and understanding societal processes, Deliberative Engagement with Science stands to have a wide audience among psychologists, researchers, academics, and policymakers, as well as professionals in the corporate sphere and the tech industries.

Recent Advances in Novel Materials for Future Spintronics

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038979760 / 9783038979777 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-977-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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As we all know, electrons carry both charge and spin. The processing of information in conventional electronic devices is based only on the charge of electrons. Spin electronics, or spintronics, uses the spin of electrons, as well as their charge, to process information. Metals, semiconductors, and insulators are the basic materials that constitute the components of electronic devices, and these types of materials have been transforming all aspects of society for over a century. In contrast, magnetic metals, half-metals (including zero-gap half-metals), magnetic semiconductors (including spin-gapless semiconductors), dilute magnetic semiconductors, and magnetic insulators are the materials that will form the basis for spintronic devices. This book aims to collect a range of papers on novel materials that have intriguing physical properties and numerous potential practical applications in spintronics.

Outstanding Topics in Ocean Optics

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ISBN: 9783038977049 9783038977056 Year: Pages: 454 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-705-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Ocean optics is a branch of oceanography which is firmly embedded in studies of a great variety of ocean science and engineering questions. The interactive nature between radiative transfer of light and various dissolved and particulate constituents of seawater is at the core of ocean optics science and applications. The transfer of radiant solar energy has vital implications to life and climate on Earth, and the large variety of subjects of ocean optics ranges from the subtle problems of physical optics to optical remote sensing towards a better understanding of ocean biology, biogeochemistry and ecosystems and their roles in the Earth's system processes. The intention of this book is to present a collection of papers that generally share a common denominator of frontier topics in ocean optics which are unique, uncommon or outstanding in the literature, and to provide a balanced view of the extraordinary breadth of research in this field. Topics as diverse as measurements and modeling of radiative transfer, light fields, light scattering and polarization, ocean color, benthic optical properties, and the use of optics for characterizing seawater constituents are addressed in this book. The book is expected to be of interest and useful to a broad audience of professional ocean scientists, engineers and advanced students with an interest in ocean optics and applications of optical methods in oceanography.

Keywords

forward modeling --- suspended matter --- marine particles --- fractal structure --- organic carbon --- chlorophyll-a --- oceanic light field --- irradiance quartet --- apparent optical properties --- inelastic processes --- Gershun equation --- ocean euphotic zone --- phytoplankton pigments --- ocean color --- remote sensing --- MERIS --- global oceans --- light scattering --- light scattering by pure water --- light scattering by pure seawater --- anomalous properties of water --- remote-sensing reflectance --- bathymetry --- hyperspectral --- bottom mapping --- radiative transfer --- apparent optical properties --- 3D Monte Carlo numerical simulations --- downward irradiance --- upward radiance --- sea ice heterogeneity --- vertical attenuation coefficient --- melt ponds --- remote sensing --- coral reef --- sensor noise --- retrieval uncertainty --- particle dynamics --- optical properties --- suspended sediment --- phytoplankton --- PFT --- ocean colour --- satellite radiometry --- radiative transfer --- optical modelling --- vector radiative transfer --- polarization --- coupled systems --- atmosphere --- ocean --- forward modeling --- inverse problems --- marine optics --- inherent optical properties --- volume scattering function --- degree of linear polarization --- marine particles --- light scattering measurements --- LISST-VSF instrument --- ocean optics --- ocean color --- remote sensing --- radiative transfer approximation --- volume scattering function --- NASA PACE mission --- polarization --- ocean optics --- upwelling radiance distribution --- remote sensing --- remote sensing --- hyperspectral --- shallow water --- coral --- derivative --- radiative transfer --- canopy --- ocean color database --- oceanic carbon --- chromophoric dissolved organic matter --- dissolved organic carbon --- CDOM spectral slope --- ocean color remote sensing --- algorithm development --- ocean color algorithm validation --- ocean optics --- CDOM climatology --- CDOM and ENSO --- machine learning --- ocean optics --- backscattering ratio --- phytoplankton --- coated-sphere model --- bulk refractive index --- seawater component --- natural organic matter --- DOM --- FDOM --- CDOM --- Gelbstoff --- EEMS --- PARAFAC --- marine sensors --- Kallemeter --- FerryBox --- Trondheimsfjord --- Norway --- ocean optics --- light scattering --- Mueller matrix --- volume and surface integral methods

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