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The poor in England 1700-1850: An economy of makeshifts

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ISBN: 9781526137869 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Manchester University Press
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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This fascinating study investigates the experience of English poverty between 1700 and 1900 and in the ways in which the poor made ends meet. The phrase 'economy of makeshifts' has often been used to summarise the patchy, desperate and sometimes failing strategies of the poor for material survival. Incomes or benefits derived from such strategies allegedly ranged from wages supported by under-employment via petty crime through to charity, but allusions to this array of makeshifts usually fall short of answering vital questions about how and when the poor secured access to them. This book represents the single most significant attempt in print to supply the English 'economy of makeshifts' with a solid, empirical basis and to advance the concept of makeshifts from a vague but convenient label to a more precise yet inclusive definition. Individual chapters written by some of the leading, young historians of welfare examine how advantages gained from access to common land, mobilisation of kinship support, resorting to crime, and other marginal resources could prop up struggling households. They suggest how the balance of these strategies might change over time or be modified by gender, life-cycle and geography. A comprehensive introduction summarises the state of research on English poverty, and a thought-provoking conclusion makes valuable suggestions for the direction of future research. This book will be crucial for historians of social life and welfare, of interest to researchers working on eighteenth- /nineteenth- century England and will be useful to undergraduates seeking guidance on the historiography of poverty.

Keywords

history --- poor --- poverty --- england

Fishing for Fairness

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Book Series: Asia-Pacific Environment Monograph ISBN: 9781921862663 Year: Pages: 227 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_459237 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Aquaculture and Fisheries
Added to DOAB on : 2012-06-14 11:46:25
License: ANU Press

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Fishing for Fairness develops an explicitly cultural perspective on environmental politics in the Philippines by analysing the responses of fishers to marine resource regulations. In the resource frontier of the Calamianes Islands, fishing, conservation and tourism provide the context where competing visions of how to engage with marine resources are played out. The book draws on data from ethnographic fieldwork with fishers, government and NGO officials, fish traders and tourism operators to show how the strategic responses of fishers to management initiatives are couched within particular cultural idioms. Tapping into broader notions of morality in the Philippines, fishers express a discourse that emphasises their poverty and the obligations of the wealthy to treat them with fairness. By deploying this discourse, fishers are able to reframe what are—on the surface—questions of environmental management into issues about poverty within particular social relationships. By using a cultural political ecology framework to analyse fishers’ responses to regulation, the book emphasises the distinctive ways in which marginalised people in the Philippines resist and reframe resource management initiatives. Fishing for Fairness will appeal to both academics and policy makers interested in marine resource management, political ecology, anthropology and development studies particularly throughout the Asia-Pacific.

Growth and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: WIDER Studies in Development Economics ISBN: 9780198744795 Year: Pages: 528 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198744795.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: UNU WIDER
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-21 11:01:16
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While the economic growth renaissance in sub-Saharan Africa is widely recognized, much less is known about progress in living conditions. This book comprehensively evaluates trends in living conditions in 16 major sub-Saharan African countries, corresponding to nearly 75% of the total population. A striking diversity of experience emerges. While monetary indicators improved in many countries, others are yet to succeed in channeling the benefits of economic growth into the pockets of the poor. Some countries experienced little economic growth, and saw little material progress for the poor. At the same time, the large majority of countries have made impressive progress in key non-monetary indicators of wellbeing. Overall, the African growth renaissance earns two cheers, but not three. While gains in macroeconomic and political stability are real, they are also fragile. Growth on a per capita basis is much better than in the 1980s and 1990s, yet not rapid compared with other developing regions. Importantly from a pan-African perspective, key economies-particularly Kenya, Nigeria, and South Africa-are not among the better performers. Looking forward, realistic expectations are required. The development process is, almost always, a long hard slog. Nevertheless, real and durable factors appear to be at play on the sub-continent with positive implications for growth and poverty reduction in future.

Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in Colombia

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Book Series: Goettinger Studien zur Entwicklungsoekonomik / Goettingen Studies in Development Economics ISBN: 9783631603864 Year: Pages: 218 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:00
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This book analyses the distributional effects of economic growth on different dimensions of poverty in Colombia. It provides a microeconomic perspective on how economic growth affected poverty and inequality at the household level, as well as a macroeconomic perspective on the effects of growth on regional living standards. The study incorporates recent discussions on multidimensional analysis of well-being and goes beyond traditional income based measures, thereby contributing to the ongoing research on how to measure pro-poor growth and on the importance of incorporating different dimensions of well-being in convergence analysis.

Das Wiener Stadtzeichnerbuch 1678-1685

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ISBN: 9783205795216 Year: Pages: 418 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_471170 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 112
Added to DOAB on : 2014-03-31 06:45:30
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Poverty and beggars have always been a part of the city of Vienna. Between 1443 and 1693 only beggars with beggars’ badges („Stadtzeichen“) were authorised to beg. The contextualisation, edition and analysis of a beggars’ directory (“Stadtzeichnerbuch”) dating from the seventeenth century (1678–1685) reveals the living circumstances of more than 900 poor people which can hardly be found in other sources.

Growth, Poverty and Inequality Dynamics

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Book Series: Goettinger Studien zur Entwicklungsoekonomik / Goettingen Studies in Development Economics ISBN: 9783631572559 Year: Pages: 156 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics --- Political Science --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:27
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Since the Second World War the world has seen an economic growth spurt unprecedented in history. Economic growth is a necessary but not sufficient condition for improving human development, or in other words, economic growth is an important pre-requisite for the ultimate goal of human well-being. The four empirical essays of this book add to the general debate concerning dynamics of growth, poverty and inequality over the past 40 years from four different dimensions. The first chapter analyses the dynamics of the cross-country per capita income distribution and the existence of convergence clubs. The second chapter focuses on the dynamic development of the global income distribution and resulting implications for global income convergence, poverty reduction, pro-poor growth and the evolution of global inequality within and between countries. The third chapter investigates the deterministic relationship between ethnic fractionalisation and growth in a macro cross-country regression framework. Finally, the fourth chapter adds to the understanding of micro determinants of growth and poverty in the context of Indonesia.

Empirical Analysis of Poverty Dynamics

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Book Series: Goettinger Studien zur Entwicklungsoekonomik / Goettingen Studies in Development Economics ISBN: 9783631573730 Year: Pages: 174 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:27
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The empirical analysis of poverty over time is still severely constrained by the available survey data in developing countries. In the past, this has led to a neglect of certain aspects of poverty dynamics or even biased assessments of poverty dynamics. This book explicitly takes into account the present data limitations, proposing alternative methods for the empirical analysis of poverty dynamics. The work addresses both the problems related to limited data in the analysis of macro-level (or national) as well as micro-level (or household) poverty dynamics. The proposed methods are applied to survey data from various sub-Saharan African countries. As these countries do not only have the most limited economic survey data but also show the highest poverty rates in the world an accurate understanding of the underlying poverty dynamics seems to be most important for these countries.

Empirical Analysis of Determinants, Distribution and Dynamics of Poverty

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Book Series: Goettinger Studien zur Entwicklungsoekonomik / Goettingen Studies in Development Economics ISBN: 9783631573983 Year: Pages: 204 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:27
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Poverty and inequality persist in many dimensions in the developing world. In order to understand the determinants of poverty and its distribution between and within countries, it is necessary to know its dimensions and the channels through which poverty and inequality affect human well-being. This book analyzes the spatial disparities of the outcomes and determinants of poverty, the interdependencies of dimensions of poverty, the distribution of progress in human development over the population and the dynamics of poverty risk over time. The study takes into account the global spread of poverty. Based on cross-country comparisons of countries from Africa, Latin America, and South Asia, this study does not only consider on average outcomes and determinants of different indicators of human well-being, but also examines their distribution between and within countries.

Findbuch der Bestände Abt. 18 und Abt. 19: Generalsuperintendent für Schleswig und Generalsuperintendent für Holstein

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Book Series: Veröffentlichungen des Landesarchivs Schleswig-Holstein ISBN: 9783943423143 Year: DOI: 10.15460/HUP.LASH.106.148 Language: German
Publisher: Hamburg University Press
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:15

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The Generalsuperintendent" supervised the church, school and poor people. He had a seat and a voice in the "Oberkonsistorium" (Upper Consistory) as well as in the "Landoberkonsistorium " (Country Upper Consistory) which was responsible for the noble as well as the monastic areas. Since 1636 the name "Generalsuperintendent" was in use. The royal and the Gottorf general superintendents were each responsible for the shares of their sovereigns in both dukedoms, Schleswig and Holstein. The unification of the royal and Gottorf districts in Schleswig in 1720 led to the fact that the supervision of the royal "Generalsuperintendent" extended once and for all over the entire duchy of Schleswig. From 1784 onwards, the duchy of Holstein was united under the royal "Generalsuperintendent". In 1834, the office was divided into one area of responsibility for Schleswig and one for Holstein. With the introduction of the Schleswig-Holstein church constitution in 1922, the office "Generalsuperintendent" was abolished and replaced by the regional bishop. This find book is based on a re-listing of the holdings of the archives of the General Superintendentury in 2011: denotation and duration of all archive records have been reviewed. Extensive and difficult to understand file denotations have been replaced by shorter and more modern ones. Older terms have been retained as long as they represent common search terms. Extensive files divided and new numbers created. In addition, the archive records were given new numbering. A concordance at the end of the find book shows under which new signatures the old numbers can be found. A register of places, subjects and persons forms the conclusion of this find book. As a rule, classification terms are not included."

Disclosure Within HIV-Affected Families

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455263 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-526-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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While HIV/AIDS is a global public heath challenge, its impact is arguably greatest in the Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where new infections account for approximately 66% of the total number of HIV-positive persons globally. In SSA, medical, social, and economic resources are limited, thus necessitating innovative approaches to disease prevention. One of the mechanisms of prevention that is most promising occurs through HIV disclosure to family members (e.g., adult sexual partners) generally, and to children in particular. Our emphasis in this eBook is on HIV disclosure to children because it has multiple benefits, including improved adherence to antiretroviral medication treatment and understanding at an early age of the impact of sexual activity on the spread of HIV. While there is a noticeable gap in research on HIV disclosure to younger children, some of the general reasons for non-disclosure include concerns about fear of adult partners leaving relationships, and that children are too young to comprehend the severity of the situation and may tell others outside the family. Thus, it is critical to better understand how the HIV disclosure process happens (or does not happen) within HIV-affected families, as well as the best practices on how to disclose. In this eBook, we present a combination of empirical research studies and critical literature reviews that investigate the reasons for and for not disclosing HIV status within HIV-affected families and provide evidence-based practices that could be adopted by healthcare professionals to help HIV-positive parents facilitate disclosure activities within these families. This information can also be used by researchers, practitioners, and stakeholders who are in a position to influence policies on effective HIV disclosure practices, guidelines, and programs.

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