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Miniaturized Transistors

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ISBN: 9783039210107 / 9783039210114 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-011-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Abstract

What is the future of CMOS? Sustaining increased transistor densities along the path of Moore's Law has become increasingly challenging with limited power budgets, interconnect bandwidths, and fabrication capabilities. In the last decade alone, transistors have undergone significant design makeovers; from planar transistors of ten years ago, technological advancements have accelerated to today's FinFETs, which hardly resemble their bulky ancestors. FinFETs could potentially take us to the 5-nm node, but what comes after it? From gate-all-around devices to single electron transistors and two-dimensional semiconductors, a torrent of research is being carried out in order to design the next transistor generation, engineer the optimal materials, improve the fabrication technology, and properly model future devices. We invite insight from investigators and scientists in the field to showcase their work in this Special Issue with research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on trends in micro- and nanotechnology from fundamental research to applications.

Keywords

flux calculation --- etching simulation --- process simulation --- topography simulation --- CMOS --- field-effect transistor --- ferroelectrics --- MOS devices --- negative-capacitance --- piezoelectrics --- power consumption --- thin-film transistors (TFTs) --- compact model --- surface potential --- technology computer-aided design (TCAD) --- metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) --- topography simulation --- metal gate stack --- level set --- high-k --- fin field effect transistor (FinFET) --- line edge roughness --- metal gate granularity --- nanowire --- non-equilibrium Green’s function --- random discrete dopants --- SiGe --- variability --- band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) --- electrostatic discharge (ESD) --- tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET) --- Silicon-Germanium source/drain (SiGe S/D) --- technology computer aided design (TCAD) --- bulk NMOS devices --- radiation hardened by design (RHBD) --- total ionizing dose (TID) --- Sentaurus TCAD --- layout --- two-dimensional material --- field effect transistor --- indium selenide --- phonon scattering --- mobility --- high-? dielectric --- low-frequency noise --- silicon-on-insulator --- MOSFET --- inversion channel --- buried channel --- subthreshold bias range --- low voltage --- low energy --- theoretical model --- process simulation --- device simulation --- compact models --- process variations --- systematic variations --- statistical variations --- FinFETs --- nanowires --- nanosheets --- semi-floating gate --- synaptic transistor --- neuromorphic system --- spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) --- highly miniaturized transistor structure --- low power consumption --- drain engineered --- tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) --- polarization --- ambipolar --- subthreshold --- ON-state --- doping incorporation --- plasma-aided molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) --- segregation --- silicon nanowire --- n/a

MEMS/NEMS Sensors: Fabrication and Application

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039216345 / 9783039216352 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-635-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Due to the ever-expanding applications of micro/nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS/MEMS) as sensors and actuators, interest in their development has rapidly expanded over the past decade. Encompassing various excitation and readout schemes, the MEMS/NEMS devices transduce physical parameter changes, such as temperature, mass or stress, caused by changes in desired measurands, to electrical signals that can be further processed. Some common examples of NEMS/MEMS sensors include pressure sensors, accelerometers, magnetic field sensors, microphones, radiation sensors, and particulate matter sensors. Despite a long history of development, fabrication of novel MEMS/NEMS devices still poses unique challenges due to their requirement for a suspended geometry; and many new fabrication techniques have been proposed to overcome these challenges. However, further development of these techniques is still necessary, as newer materials such as compound semiconductors, and 2-dimensional materials are finding their way in various MEMS/NEMS applications, with more complex structures and potentially smaller dimensions.

Keywords

thermoelectric power sensor --- wideband --- GaAs MMIC --- MEMS --- floating slug --- back cavity --- microwave measurement --- MEMS --- high temperature pressure sensors --- AlGaN/GaN circular HFETs --- GaN diaphragm --- adaptive control --- backstepping approach --- tracking performance --- microgyroscope --- resonant frequency --- resistance parameter --- micro fluidic --- oil detection --- MEMS --- microactuator --- magnetic --- micro-NIR spectrometer --- scanning grating mirror --- deflection position detector --- dual-mass MEMS gyroscope --- frequency tuning --- frequency split --- quadrature modulation signal --- frequency mismatch --- suspended micro hotplate --- single-layer SiO2 --- temperature uniformity --- power consumption --- infrared image --- MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system) --- inertial switch --- acceleration switch --- threshold accuracy --- squeeze-film damping --- photonic crystal cavity --- photonic crystal nanobeam cavity --- optical sensor --- refractive index sensor --- nanoparticle sensor --- optomechanical sensor --- temperature sensor --- Accelerometer readout --- low noise --- low zero-g offset --- microfluidic --- femtosecond laser --- rapid fabrication --- glass welding --- bonding strength --- accelerometer design --- spring design --- analytical model --- gas sensor --- micropellistor --- microdroplet --- pulse inertia force --- methane --- tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) --- wet etching --- silicon --- 3D simulation --- level-set method --- single crystal silicon --- anisotropy --- vibrating ring gyroscope --- frequency split --- accelerometer --- tunnel magnetoresistive effect --- electrostatic force feedback --- n/a

Intelligent Control in Energy Systems

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ISBN: 9783039214150 / 9783039214167 Year: Pages: 508 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-416-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The editors of this Special Issue titled “Intelligent Control in Energy Systems” have attempted to create a book containing original technical articles addressing various elements of intelligent control in energy systems. In response to our call for papers, we received 60 submissions. Of those submissions, 27 were published and 33 were rejected. In this book, we offer the 27 accepted technical articles as well as one editorial. Authors from 15 countries (China, Netherlands, Spain, Tunisia, United Sates of America, Korea, Brazil, Egypt, Denmark, Indonesia, Oman, Canada, Algeria, Mexico, and the Czech Republic) elaborate on several aspects of intelligent control in energy systems. The book covers a broad range of topics including fuzzy PID in automotive fuel cell and MPPT tracking, neural networks for fuel cell control and dynamic optimization of energy management, adaptive control on power systems, hierarchical Petri Nets in microgrid management, model predictive control for electric vehicle battery and frequency regulation in HVAC systems, deep learning for power consumption forecasting, decision trees for wind systems, risk analysis for demand side management, finite state automata for HVAC control, robust ?-synthesis for microgrids, and neuro-fuzzy systems in energy storage.

Keywords

lithium-ion battery pack --- soft internal short circuit --- model-based fault detection --- battery safety --- internal short circuit resistance --- load frequency control --- model uncertainty --- ?-synthesis --- differential evolution --- decision tree --- preventive control --- Fault Ride Through Capability --- doubly-fed induction generator --- ancillary service --- frequency regulation --- demand response --- commercial/residential buildings --- HVAC systems --- model predictive control --- rule-based control --- position control --- static friction --- exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve system --- automotive application --- hybrid electric vehicle --- compound structured permanent-magnet motor --- energy management strategy --- instantaneous optimization minimum power loss --- back propagation (BP) neural network --- power transformer winding --- vibration characteristics --- multiphysical field analysis --- short-circuit experiment --- winding-fault characteristics --- occupancy model --- occupancy-based control --- model predictive control --- energy efficiency --- building climate control --- solar monitoring system --- photovoltaic array --- energy management --- demand side management --- operation limit violations --- probabilistic power flow --- network sensitivity --- neural networks --- railway --- high-speed railway --- neutral section --- medium voltage --- thyristor --- AC static switch --- adaptive backstepping --- nonlinear power systems --- sliding mode control --- error compensation --- ?-class function --- energy internet --- multi-energy complementary --- integrated energy systems --- distribution network planning --- electric power consumption --- multi-step forecasting --- long short term memory --- convolutional neural network --- system identification --- parameter estimation --- system modelling --- model reduction --- polynomial expansion --- orthogonal least square --- industrial process --- electric vehicle --- battery packs --- active balance --- model predictive control --- hierarchical Petri nets --- urban microgrids --- phase-load balancing --- fuzzy logic controller --- MPPT: maximum power point tracking --- photovoltaic system --- step-up boost converter --- proton exchange membrane fuel cell --- four phases interleaved boost converter --- neural network controller --- AC-DC converters --- bridgeless SEPIC PFC converter --- repetitive controller --- current distortion --- current controller design --- stochastic power system operating point drift --- wind integrated power system --- power oscillations --- adaptive damping control --- continuous voltage control --- multiple-point control --- interaction minimization --- pilot point --- adjacent areas --- ANFIS --- artificial neural network --- fuzzy --- small scale compressed air energy storage (SS-CAES) --- voltage controlling --- electric meter --- error estimation --- line loss --- RLS --- double forgetting factors --- hybrid power plant --- control architecture --- coordination of reserves --- frequency support --- frequency control dead band --- fast frequency response --- frequency containment reserve --- line switching --- voltage violations --- three-stage --- fractional order fuzzy PID controller --- neural network algorithm --- PEM fuel cell --- MPPT operation --- sensitivity analysis --- intelligent control --- artificial intelligence --- energy management system --- smart micro-grid --- energy systems --- intelligent buildings --- forecasting --- multi-agent control --- optimization

Machining—Recent Advances, Applications and Challenges

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039213771 / 9783039213788 Year: Pages: 554 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-378-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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The Special Issue Machining—Recent Advances, Applications and Challenges is intended as a humble collection of some of the hottest topics in machining. The manufacturing industry is a varying and challenging environment where new advances emerge from one day to another. In recent years, new manufacturing procedures have retained increasing attention from the industrial and scientific community. However, machining still remains the key operation to achieve high productivity and precision for high-added value parts. Continuous research is performed, and new ideas are constantly considered. This Special Issue summarizes selected high-quality papers which were submitted, peer-reviewed, and recommended by experts. It covers some (but not only) of the following topics: High performance operations for difficult-to-cut alloys, wrought and cast materials, light alloys, ceramics, etc.; Cutting tools, grades, substrates and coatings. Wear damage; Advanced cooling in machining: Minimum quantity of lubricant, dry or cryogenics; Modelling, focused on the reduction of risks, the process outcome, and to maintain surface integrity; Vibration problems in machines: Active and passive/predictive methods, sources, diagnosis and avoidance; Influence of machining in new concepts of machine–tool, and machine static and dynamic behaviors; Machinability of new composites, brittle and emerging materials; Assisted machining processes by high-pressure, laser, US, and others; Introduction of new analytics and decision making into machining programming. We wish to thank the reviewers and staff from Materials for their comments, advice, suggestions and invaluable support during the development of this Special Issue.

Keywords

dry-cutting --- concrete --- segmented diamond blade --- topography --- diameter variation --- weight loss --- in situ estimation --- SACE-drilled hole depth --- spark-assisted chemical engraving --- glass machining --- computer vision --- electrochemical discharge machining --- butt weld joint --- fatigue --- crack growth rate --- weld reinforcement --- cooling rate --- artificial neutral network --- cutting parameters --- magnesium alloys --- optimization --- prime machining costs --- surface roughness --- electropulsing --- machinability --- chip compression ratio --- current density --- specific cutting energy --- cutting edge microgeometry --- residual stress --- finite element model --- cutting edge preparation --- Inconel 718 --- stiffness properties --- parameter identification --- connections --- machine tool --- response surface methodology --- design of experiments --- modal testing --- plastic zone --- fracture mechanism --- steel sheet --- cutting process --- Huber–Mises stress --- finite element method --- microscopic analysis --- PVD Ti0.41Al0.59N/Ti0.55Al0.45N coating --- cutting temperature --- Inconel 718 --- cutting tool wear --- secondary adhesion wear --- turning --- machining --- aluminium --- flank super abrasive machining (SAM) --- flank milling --- Inconel® 718 --- roughness --- residual stress --- machine vision --- on-machine monitoring --- tool insert condition --- computer numerical control --- turning machine tools --- multi-beam laser --- heat transfer analysis --- fast simulation --- GPU --- analytic solution --- minimum quantity lubrication --- surface grinding --- multi-objective optimization --- grey relational analysis --- surface topography --- sustainable machining --- Gamma-TiAl --- superalloys --- slight materials --- drilling --- titanium aluminides --- additive manufacturing --- single point incremental sheet forming --- residual stresses --- X-ray diffraction --- ultra-precision machining --- slow tool servo --- surface topography --- simulation --- microlens array --- sinusoidal grid --- Milling stability --- variable pitch --- chatter --- self-excitation --- milling --- ceramics --- ductile machining --- PCD --- corner radius --- material removal rate --- adhesive --- machining --- modelling --- dry --- CFRP/UNS A92024 --- induction assisted milling --- tool wear --- taguchi method --- cutting tool --- machining temperatures at two deformation zones --- force–temperature correlation through analytical modeling --- high computational efficiency --- real-time prediction --- hybrid stacks drilling --- minimum quantity lubrication --- hole quality --- tool wear --- WEDM --- EN 31 steel --- surface roughness --- fractal dimension --- ANN --- GA --- cryogenic machining --- cutting tool --- cutting geometry --- titanium --- power consumption --- material-removal rate --- specific energy consumption --- grain density --- modeling --- shape memory alloy --- superelastic nitinol --- WEDM --- heat transfer search algorithm --- DSC test --- shape memory effect --- dish angle --- trochoidal step --- response surface methodology --- surface roughness --- desirability approach --- tool wear --- trochoidal milling --- titanium alloy --- chip morphology --- thin-wall machining --- chatter --- vibration --- deflection --- damping --- prediction --- workholding --- fixture --- dynamic --- stability --- titanium alloys --- machining --- turning --- machinability --- tool wear --- laser-assisted machining --- Taguchi method --- optimal machining conditions --- machining characteristic --- milling --- the cutting force components --- vibrations --- magnesium alloys --- artificial neural networks

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MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (4)


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CC by-nc-nd (4)


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eng (4)


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2019 (4)