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Mechanisms of Innate Neuroprotection

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199297 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-929-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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As clinical trials of pharmacological neuroprotective strategies in stroke have been disappointing, attention has turned to the brain's own endogenous strategies for neuroprotection. Two endogenous mechanisms have been recently characterized, ischemic preconditioning and ischemic postconditioning. In the present topic newly characterized mechanisms involved in preconditioning- and postconditioning- neuroprotection will be discussed. The understanding of the mechanisms involved in the neuroprotective pathways induced by preconditioning and postconditioning will be clinically relevant for identifying new druggable target for neurodegenerative disorder therapy. Furthermore, the importance of these neuroprotective strategies resides in that it might be easily translatable into clinical practice. Therefore, the data presented here will highlight the capacity of ischemic preconditioning and postconditioning to be of benefit to humans.

High-Intensity Exercise in Hypoxia - Beneficial Aspects and Potential Drawbacks

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454068 Year: Pages: 169 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-406-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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In the past, ‘traditional’ moderate-intensity continuous training (60-75% peak heart rate) was the type of physical activity most frequently recommended for both athletes and clinical populations (cf. American College of Sports Medicine guidelines). However, growing evidence indicates that high-intensity interval training (80-100% peak heart rate) could actually be associated with larger cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic function benefits and, thereby, physical performance gains for athletes. Similarly, recent data in obese and hypertensive individuals indicate that various mechanisms – further improvement in endothelial function, reductions in sympathetic neural activity, or in arterial stiffness – might be involved in the larger cardiovascular protective effects associated with training at high exercise intensities. Concerning hypoxic training, similar trends have been observed from ‘traditional’ prolonged altitude sojourns (‘Live High Train High’ or ‘Live High Train Low’), which result in increased hemoglobin mass and blood carrying capacity. Recent innovative ‘Live Low Train High’ methods (‘Resistance Training in Hypoxia’ or ‘Repeated Sprint Training in Hypoxia’) have resulted in peripheral adaptations, such as hypertrophy or delay in muscle fatigue. Other interventions inducing peripheral hypoxia, such as vascular occlusion during endurance/resistance training or remote ischemic preconditioning (i.e. succession of ischemia/reperfusion episodes), have been proposed as methods for improving subsequent exercise performance or altitude tolerance (e.g. reduced severity of acute-mountain sickness symptoms). Postulated mechanisms behind these metabolic, neuro-humoral, hemodynamics, and systemic adaptations include stimulation of nitric oxide synthase, increase in anti-oxidant enzymes, and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, although the amount of evidence is not yet significant enough. Improved O2 delivery/utilization conferred by hypoxic training interventions might also be effective in preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases, as well as contributing to improve exercise tolerance and health status of patients. For example, in obese subjects, combining exercise with hypoxic exposure enhances the negative energy balance, which further reduces weight and improves cardio-metabolic health. In hypertensive patients, the larger lowering of blood pressure through the endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathway and the associated compensatory vasodilation is taken to reflect the superiority of exercising in hypoxia compared to normoxia. A hypoxic stimulus, in addition to exercise at high vs. moderate intensity, has the potential to further ameliorate various aspects of the vascular function, as observed in healthy populations. This may have clinical implications for the reduction of cardiovascular risks. Key open questions are therefore of interest for patients suffering from chronic vascular or cellular hypoxia (e.g. work-rest or ischemia/reperfusion intermittent pattern; exercise intensity; hypoxic severity and exposure duration; type of hypoxia (normobaric vs. hypobaric); health risks; magnitude and maintenance of the benefits). Outside any potential beneficial effects of exercising in O2-deprived environments, there may also be long-term adverse consequences of chronic intermittent severe hypoxia. Sleep apnea syndrome, for instance, leads to oxidative stress and the production of reactive oxygen species, and ultimately systemic inflammation. Postulated pathophysiological changes associated with intermittent hypoxic exposure include alteration in baroreflex activity, increase in pulmonary arterial pressure and hematocrit, changes in heart structure and function, and an alteration in endothelial-dependent vasodilation in cerebral and muscular arteries. There is a need to explore the combination of exercising in hypoxia and association of hypertension, developmental defects, neuro-pathological and neuro-cognitive deficits, enhanced susceptibility to oxidative injury, and possibly increased myocardial and cerebral infarction in individuals sensitive to hypoxic stress. The aim of this Research Topic is to shed more light on the transcriptional, vascular, hemodynamics, neuro-humoral, and systemic consequences of training at high intensities under various hypoxic conditions.

Redox and Nitrosative Signaling in Cardiovascular System: From Physiological Response to Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457267 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-726-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The role of ROS/RNS signaling in cardiovascular functions and diseases is increasingly emerging in the last decades. The involvement of ROS/RNS in the control of a large number of cardiovascular functions like the regulation of the vascular tone, the control of blood pressure or myocyte excitation-contraction coupling and force development has been broadly investigated and in part clarified. On the other hand, many efforts have been focused in clarifying the redox mechanisms involved in cardiovascular diseases like ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetes-associated cardiovascular dysfunctions, atherosclerosis or hypertension, just to mention the major ones. However, in most cases the two levels of investigation remain separate and not interlaced, failing in the attempt to provide a unified vision of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of cardiovascular diseases. The major aim of the Research Topic has been to collect original papers and review articles dealing with the issue from basic to translation research point of views. The topic includes contributions that highlight different interesting aspects of cardiovascular biology with an integrated approach useful for the development of new ideas and advancements in the field of redox signaling in the control of normal cardiovascular functions and their disruption in diseases.

Modeling Excitable Tissue

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Book Series: Simula SpringerBriefs on Computing; Reports on Computational Physiology ISBN: 9783030611576 Year: Pages: 100 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-61157-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-11-19 00:19:52
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This open access volume presents a novel computational framework for understanding how collections of excitable cells work. The key approach in the text is to model excitable tissue by representing the individual cells constituting the tissue. This is in stark contrast to the common approach where homogenization is used to develop models where the cells are not explicitly present. The approach allows for very detailed analysis of small collections of excitable cells, but computational challenges limit the applicability in the presence of large collections of cells.

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