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La saveur des sociétés

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ISBN: 9782868472366 9782753538283 Year: Language: French
Publisher: Presses universitaires de Rennes
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-22 17:18:59
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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Qu'y a-t-il en nous de plus personnel, de plus intime, que nous goûts alimentaires ? Qu'y a-t-il en nous de plus viscéral qu'un dégoût ? À travers ses perceptions alimentaires, à travers ses jugements, chacun de nous ressent ou exprime ce qu'il pense avoir en lui de plus profond, de plus unique. Et pourtant, pour le sociologue, point de doute : les goûts et les dégoûts alimentaires sont bien des faits sociaux. On pourrait même écrire, en plagiant Durkheim, que chaque société est prédisposée ...

Regional Monetary Policy

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Book Series: Routledge Studies in the Modern World Economy ISBN: 9780203022191 9780415327633 9780415651417 9781134336951 9781134336944 9781134336906 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203022191 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:14
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With the final phase of the European Monetary Union underway, concern has been raised over the regional implications of the European Central Bank (ECB) Monetary Policy. Departing from the standard approach utilized by the ECB, this book provides a comprehensive theoretical framework to explore the ways through which money and monetary policy may affect regions. Carlos Rodriguez Fuentes, the rising star of Spanish economics, has produced a work of impressive clarity which analyzes the effects of regional monetary policy - with particular reference to European Monetary Union. Here, he examines the role that the banking system and the liquidity preference of economic agents play in the transmission of central banks monetary policy decisions to regions within a country or countries within a currency union. Rodriguez Fuentes utilizes a unique framework built upon the basic principle of the Post-Keynsian monetary theory which enables the identification of a new way for money and monetary policy to have a regional impact; the behavioural effect. This book, with it’s combination of literary and empirical approach will prove essential reading for all students of economics and politics, as well as readers who interested in the development of the European Union.

Keywords

liquidity --- preference --- shocks --- money --- supply --- national --- endogenous --- central --- bank --- interest

Olfactory memory networks: from emotional learning to social behaviors

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194865 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-486-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Odors are powerful stimuli that can evoke emotional states, and support learning and memory. Decades of research have indicated that the neural basis for this strong "odor-emotional memory" connection is due to the uniqueness of the anatomy of the olfactory pathways. Indeed, unlike the other sensory systems, the sense of smell does not pass through the thalamus to be routed to the cortex. Rather, odor information is relayed directly to the limbic system, a brain region typically associated with memory and emotional processes. This provides olfaction with a unique and potent power to influence mood, acquisition of new information, and use of information in many different contexts including social interactions. Indeed, olfaction is crucially involved in behaviors essential for survival of the individual and species, including identification of predators, recognition of individuals for procreation or social hierarchy, location of food, as well as attachment between mating pairs and infant-caretaker dyads. Importantly, odors are sampled through sniffing behavior. This active sensing plays an important role in exploratory behaviors observed in the different contexts mentioned above. Odors are also critical for learning and memory about events and places and constitute efficient retrieval cues for the recall of emotional episodic memories. This broad role for odors appears highly preserved across species. In addition, the consistent early developmental emergence of olfactory function across diverse species also provides a unique window of opportunity for analysis of myriad behavioral systems from rodents to nonhuman primates and humans. This, when combined with the relatively conserved organization of the olfactory system in mammals, provides a powerful framework to explore how complex behaviors can be modulated by odors to produce adaptive responses, and to investigate the underlying neural networks. The present research topic brings together cutting edge research on diverse species and developmental stages, highlighting convergence and divergence between humans and animals to facilitate translational research.

Manual Asymmetries, Handedness and Motor Performance

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198634 Year: Pages: 147 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-863-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The performance of most tasks with one hand, typically the right, is a uniquely human characteristic. Not only do people prefer to use one hand rather than the other, but also they usually perform tasks faster and more accurately with this hand. The study of manual asymmetries and what such performance differences between the two hands reveal about brain organization and motor function has been a topic of considerable research over the last several decades. The aim of this Research Topic is to review and further explore the origins of manual asymmetries and their relationship to handedness, unimanual and bimanual motor performance, and brain function. The articles included here involve original research conducted in humans or non-human models species, as well as theoretical perspectives, review articles, and meta-analyses.

Symmetry in Vision

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ISBN: 9783038424963 9783038424970 Year: Pages: X, 198 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-02 11:54:07
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Symmetry has a central role in the study of vision. The concept of symmetry has an ancient origin in considerations of visual appearance; in modern times, abstracted and formalized into Group Theory, it has found spectacular applications, far beyond the visible; but its importance for vision persists in many ways including:• As a non-accidental feature of an image that cues affordances, 3D structure or the semantic categories of object present.• As a redundant aspect of an image which many be exploited for simplicity and compactness of encoding.• As a salient feature that draws attention, and evokes distinctive brain responses.• As a constraint on priors on the distribution of structures to be found in the natural world.• As an aesthetic principle.• As a design principle for vision systems.• The original idea for a Special Issue came from a symposium at the European Conference in Visual Perception, in 2015, on the topic of brain responses to visual symmetry, but we have now extended the scope. This Special Issue is devoted to provide a shared place for cutting edge studies on how and why symmetry is processed and exploited by biological and artificial visual systems.

Decision-Making Experiments under Philosophical Analysis: Human Choice as a Challenge for Neuroscience

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196685 Year: Pages: 123 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-668-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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This introduction just aims to be a fast foreword to the special topic now turned into an e-book. The Editorial "Decision-Making Experiments under a Philosophical Analysis: Human Choice as a Challenge for Neuroscience" alongside with my opinion article "Neurophilosophical considerations on decision making: Pushing-up the frontiers without disregarding their foundations" play the real role of considering in more details the articles and the whole purpose of this e-book. What I must highlight in this foreword is that our intention with such a project was to deepen into the very foundations of our current paradigms in decision neuroscience and to philosophically moot its foundations and repercussions. Normal Science (a term coined by Philosopher Thomas Kuhn) works under a research consensus among a scientific community: A shared paradigm, consolidated methods, widespread convictions. Pragmatically, winning formulas must be kept, although, not at any cost. What differentiates a gifted and revolutionary scientist from a more bureaucratic colleague is the capacity and willingness of constantly reevaluating, depurating and refining his/her own paradigm. That is best strategy to avoid that a paradigm itself would gradually come under challenge. In my view, some achievements, in this sense, were brought about in our project. The e-book will be inspiring and informative for both neuroscientists that are concerned with the very foundations of their works and for philosophers that are not blind to empirical evidence. Kant once said: “Thoughts without content are empty, intuitions without concepts are blind”. Paraphrasing Kant we could say: Philosophy without science is empty, science without philosophy is blind.

Left Versus Right Asymmetries of Brain and Behaviour

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ISBN: 9783039216925 9783039216932 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-693-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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This book is a collection of papers written by leaders in the field of lateralized brain function and behaviour in non-human animals. The papers cover the asymmetry of brain mechanisms and behaviour in a wide range of both vertebrate and invertebrate species. Each paper focuses on one of the following topics: the link between population-level lateralization and social behaviour; the processes in the avian brain that permit one brain hemisphere to take control of behaviour; lateralized attention to predators and the common pattern of lateralization in vertebrate species; visual and auditory lateralization; influences that alter the development of lateralization—specifically, the effect of temperature on the development of lateralization in sharks; and the importance of understanding lateralization when considering both the training and welfare of dogs. Collectively, these studies address questions of why different species have asymmetry of brain and behaviour, how it develops, and how this is dealt with by these different species. The papers report on the lateralization of different types of behaviour, each going beyond merely reporting the presence of asymmetry and shedding light on its function and on the mechanisms involved in its expression.

Civil Engineering and Symmetry

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039210022 9783039210039 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-003-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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A topic of utmost importance in civil engineering is finding optimal solutions throughout the life cycle of buildings and infrastructural objects, including their design, manufacturing, use, and maintenance. Operational research, management science, and optimization methods provide a consistent and applicable groundwork for engineering decision-making. These topics have received the interest of researchers and, after a rigorous peer-review process, eight papers have been published in this Special Issue. The articles in this Printed Edition demonstrate how solutions in civil engineering, which bring economic, social, and environmental benefits, are obtained through a variety of methodologies and tools. Usually, decision-makers need to take into account not just a single criterion, but several different criteria and, therefore, multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approaches have been suggested for application in five of the published papers; the rest of the papers apply other research methods. Most approaches suggested decision models under uncertainty, proposing hybrid MCDM methods in combination with fuzzy or rough set theory, as well as D-numbers. The application areas of the proposed MCDM techniques mainly cover production/manufacturing engineering, logistics and transportation, and construction engineering and management. We hope that a summary of the Special Issue as provided here will encourage a detailed analysis of the papers included in the Printed Edition.

Brewing and Craft Beer

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ISBN: 9783039214891 9783039214907 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-490-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Beer is a beverage with more than 8000 years of history, and the process of brewing has not changed much over the centuries. However, important technical advances have allowed us to produce beer in a more sophisticated and efficient way. The proliferation of specialty hop varieties has been behind the popularity of craft beers seen in the past few years around the world. Craft brewers interpret historic beer with unique styles. Craft beers are undergoing an unprecedented period of growth, and more than 150 beer styles are currently recognized. This Special Issue, Brewing and Craft Beer, comprises nine different works by researchers from five continents (North America, South America, Europe, Africa, and Oceania). This Special Issue reflects thus a broad perspective on the most important questions that concern the researchers in different parts of the world.

Dietary Behavior and Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039216000 9783039216017 Year: Pages: 358 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-601-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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In recent years, diet- and lifestyle-related disorders have become a major health threat in Europe and worldwide. The contributions in this monograph include 2 review articles and 19 original contributions from several countries that provide new information on the existing research elucidating important aspects of children’s and adolescents’ nutrition and lifestyle behavior. The data included in this Special Issue are from large epidemiological studies, including several multicenter and multinational studies, as well as datasets from surveillance initiatives. The topics of interest of this Special Issue include the co-occurrence of multiple health behaviors in children, the role of parenting and early feeding practices, dairy consumption in childhood, validity of dietary intake data, dietary supplement use in children, as well as socioeconomic disparities and eating culture. The diverse articles in this Special Issue highlight the complexity and extent to which nutrition and physical activity behaviors may influence different health aspects of children and adolescents. As seen by the various findings and recommendations, not only is more work in this area required but the translation of this work to practice and policy is imperative if we are to address the challenges impacting the nutrition, physical activity, and health of young populations.

Keywords

diet --- inflammation --- children’s-dietary inflammatory index --- body composition --- primary school --- dietary pattern --- principal component analysis --- reduced rank regression --- prevention --- validation study --- dietary assessment methods --- food diary --- cross-classification --- children --- whole diet --- preschool --- DAGIS Study --- diet quality --- PANDiet index --- early childhood --- nutritional adequacy --- nutrient intake quality --- growing up milk --- eating behaviour --- psychological eating style --- negative emotions --- Emotion-Induced Eating Scale --- health behaviour --- BMI --- home food environment --- Healthy Eating Index --- dietary quality --- validation --- psychometric --- consumption behavior --- knowledge --- Melanesian --- Pacific --- physical activity --- sugar-sweetened beverage --- noncommunicable diseases --- weight status --- self-weight perception --- cluster analysis --- energy balance-related behaviors --- physical activity --- sedentary behavior --- screen time --- dietary intake --- overweight --- obesity --- children --- family meals --- food parenting practices --- preschoolers --- nutrition risk --- direct observation --- adolescents --- children --- determinants --- dietary supplements --- food choice --- intervention --- nutrition --- preschool --- child --- parent --- dairy --- calcium --- migration status --- dietary habits --- food frequency questionnaire --- socioeconomic disparities --- adolescents --- pediatric --- overweight --- epidemiological transition --- collaboration --- childhood obesity --- CEBQ --- eating behavior and Ile251Leu --- breakfast --- obesity --- cardiovascular --- health --- BMI --- waist circumference --- cholesterol --- blood pressure --- MyHeARTs --- breastfeeding --- formula milk --- taste preference --- healthy diet adherence --- children --- IDEFICS study --- I.Family --- screen time --- physical activity --- preschool children --- food and beverage consumption --- Physical activity --- exercise --- food intake --- diet --- children --- adolescents --- KiGGS --- children --- mothers --- vegetable intake --- consumption behaviors --- choice --- preferences --- vitamin --- mineral --- dietary supplements --- adolescents --- EsKiMo --- dietary screener --- obesity prevention --- sweet preference --- children --- diet quality --- dietary behavior --- physical activity --- young populations --- surveillance --- epidemiology --- public health

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