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Verantwortungsbewusste Konfliktlösungen bei embryopathischem Befund

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ISBN: 9783940344472 Year: Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Law --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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Although the discussion of the ethical, legal and medical problems of (late) abortion, prenatal diagnosis and embryopathic findings continues since the reform of the Pregnant Women and Family Welfare Amendment Act of 1995 and the related elimination of embryopathic indication for almost fifteen years, convincing solutions are still missing. This volume contains the contributions of the 3rd Workshop on Medical Law conducted on February 26 2008. They remind of the urgent need for reform and offer suggestions for the legal policy debate. In the focus of the contributions stand the (criminal) legal and medico-ethical "evaluation" of human life before birth and the question of how the involved professionals can handle their responsibility with the issue of a embryopathic findings, to ensure that the pregnant patient receives help and support during her emotionally stressful decision-making process, but also consider the right to life of the unborn child (especially in cases of extra-uterine viable).

Klinische Prüfungen mit Arzneimitteln in der Schwangerschaft

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ISBN: 9783863952334 Year: Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-21 11:02:28
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The clinical trial on medicinal products stands in the area of conflict between important scientific progress in favour of future patients on the one hand and the necessary protection of human subjects on the other hand. This conflict grows more acute when vulnerable persons – like pregnant women – are included in medical research. Whereas there are specific regulations for minors or incapacitated persons in the German Medicinal Products Act, legal regulations for the inclusion of pregnant women are missing. Based on this uncertain legal situation solutions are developed, which will show a way out of the dilemma. Insofar as the applicable law does not provide a handle for this problem, a need for reform is shown.

The biology of the first 1000 days

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Oxidative stress and disease ISBN: 9781498756792 Year: Pages: 518 Language: English
Publisher: CRC Press
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:45:55
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The first 1,000 days, from conception to 2 years of age, is a critical window of growth and development. Exposures to dietary, environmental, hormonal, and other stressors&#xD;during this period have been associated with an increased risk of adverse health&#xD;outcomes. Researchers using cell culture, animal models, and humans have identified&#xD;this time as a period of rapid physiological change and plasticity with significant&#xD;potential for lasting effects. As such, interventions during the first 1,000 days will&#xD;have the greatest impact on outcomes, particularly in low- and middle-income countries&#xD;where the need is greatest.&#xD;To date, there is no single resource that compiles our knowledge of the biology&#xD;of the first 1,000 days. Our knowledge and understanding of the biology behind&#xD;the first 1,000 days is still limited. This greater understanding is helping us inform&#xD;effective nutrition policy and programming. The strength of this book lies in its&#xD;cross- disciplinary nature that encompasses the full range of human biology, providing&#xD;a more holistic perspective during this critical time frame. Moreover, we have&#xD;broadened the scope and included important periods before and after the 1,000 days.&#xD;We have designed this book as a comprehensive resource for those involved in&#xD;global health and nutrition policy, strategy, programming, or research. This book&#xD;will also be a resource for students learning about nutrition and health across the&#xD;1,000 days. The book includes an exceptional group of contributors who are experts&#xD;in their given fields. As biology underlies the core of each discussion, it allows&#xD;the readers to answer the what and why, and, we hope, the how for new discovery&#xD;research and more effective interventions.&#xD;Each chapter in this volume provides insight into a specific life stage, disease&#xD;state, nutrient, and stressor in the first 1,000 days. As such, each chapter can be read&#xD;independently, providing a comprehensive overview of that subject. However, there&#xD;is continuity between chapters allowing this collection of chapters to be read cover&#xD;to cover. The first chapters set the stage, providing a succinct resource to understand&#xD;the well-established biological mechanisms that underlie growth regulation and&#xD;nutrient recommendations throughout the first 1,000 days. The next chapters move&#xD;on to the evidence behind nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions&#xD;to combat adverse outcomes and disease states in the first 1,000 days. This book&#xD;also features emerging research areas, such as the gut microbiome, environmental&#xD;enteric dysfunction, and the role of epigenetics in health and development. The final&#xD;chapter pushes the boundaries of discovery research, exploring novel areas such as&#xD;proteomics and metabolomics, and how insults such as environmental enteric dysfunction&#xD;affect metabolism in the first 1,000 days.&#xD;We approached this book with the ambition to shed more light on the biology during&#xD;1,000 days, but there was also a need to put the biology into a broader context of&#xD;nutrition and health. There are still many gaps in our understanding of the biology&#xD;of the first 1,000 days. It is only by bridging this knowledge gap through research&#xD;that we can inform effective interventions to improve outcomes during the first 1,000&#xD;days.

New therapeutic targets for human placental angiogenesis diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194612 Year: Pages: 113 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-461-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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A large number of publications have described impaired angiogenesis and vasculogenesis present in the feto-placental circulation after pregnancy diseases such as pre-eclamptic pregnancies, gestational diabetes, and intrauterine growth restriction, among others. Results suggest impaired secretion and activity of pro-angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin 8 (IL-8), adenosine and nitric oxide, associates with compromised secretion and activity of anti-angiogenic factors such as soluble receptor of VEGF (sFlt-1), thrombospondin 2, endostatin among others. More recent evidences include the participation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), which circulating number is reduced infeto-placental circulation in pregnancies such as pre-eclampsia. Despite this knowledge, therapies for placental angiogenesis recovery during pathological pregnancies are far to be tested. However, from the cardiovascular field, it has been described the administration of EPC, alone or used as gene-transfer therapy; or it has been described the potential role of statins (HMGCoA inhibitors), or angiotensin-converter enzyme (ACE) inhibitors for enhancing angiogenesis. Finally, feto-placental tissue is an exceptional source of progenitor and stem cells, which could be used for treated other human diseases such as stroke, myocardial infarction, hypertension, or even cancer. In this research topic, authors highlight physiopatological and clinical importance of the impaired placental angiogenesis, and suggest potential targets for developing innovative therapies.

Teenage Reproductive Health: Pregnancy, Contraception, Unsafe Abortion, Fertility

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ISBN: 9783038970613 9783038970620 Year: Pages: X, 190 Language: Englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Gynecology and Obstetrics --- Sociology --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-15 10:23:33
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Maternal mortality is still globally high and reducing it is a top priority. Teenage pregnancies have more complications and are also unwanted in many cases. This contributes to the high maternal mortality with both obstetric complications and burden of unsafe abortion. Additionally, many teenagers live in areas with heavy pollution that affects the mother and the unborn child. Global public health is a very important issue that aims to prevent disease, prolong life, and promote physical, mental and social well-being. Teenagers are the future, and maternal death is a disaster that should be prevented. Hence, research should aim to improve teenage reproductive health and influence policy makers. There are a variety of topics in this issue, with some conclusions and ways forward as described in different papers in this book.

Developments in Bovine Immunology - An Integrated View

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196326 Year: Pages: 112 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-632-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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The world’s population is predicted to hit 9 Billion by 2050, and with it food demand is predicted to increase substantially. The World Bank estimates that cereal and meat production needs to increase by 50% and 85% respectively between 2000 and 2030 to meet demand, putting serious pressure on the global agricultural industry. Critical to meeting this demand for food are mechanisms to reduce the incidence of animal disease. With in excess of 1.3 billion cattle globally, the total cost of infectious diseases is difficult to estimate. However in North America alone, the cost is predicted to be $18 billion annually. Non-infectious diseases also account for another major impediment to the production capacity and welfare of animals as well as the economic sustainability of farming. However animal diseases have implications that spread far beyond the farm gate. Infectious agents can also contaminate the food chain, and potentially affect human health. Controlling diseases, through better preventative and treatment methods requires a detailed understanding of the immune response in livestock species. Multiple studies have identified associations between variation in immune genes and disease susceptibility, which potentially opens up new avenues to select animals with superior disease resistance. Detailed understanding of immunity in cattle is leading to the design of more effective vaccines. Furthermore, appreciation of the significant differences between rodent and human immune responses has also led to bovine models being developed for some human diseases. The publication of the bovine genome and the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies have facilitated a massive expansion in our knowledge of the immune response in cattle. As a result there has been an explosion of exciting research findings including in metagenomics and epigenetics. Recently, there has been a welcome move to integrate our emerging understanding of the immune response with detailed studies of other important physiological processes including nutrition and reproduction. The interactions between the reproductive system, nutrition and the immune system are of particular interest, since each places significant demands on the animal at various stages through the production cycle. The interplay between these morphologically diffuse systems involves widely distributed chemical signals in response to environmental input, and each system must interact for the normal functioning of the other. A comprehensive “systems” approach is improving our understanding of normal physiological interactions between these systems and furthermore, how dysregulation can lead to disease. The successful translation of bovine immunological research into improved treatments for animal disease requires tight interaction between diverse scientific and clinical disciplines including immunology, microbiology, endocrinology, physiology, nutrition, reproduction and clinical veterinary medicine. With so much recent progress in the field, we believe that it is valuable and well-timed to review the broad variety of the relevant studies that attempt to increase our understanding through comprehensive collaboration between these disciplines. We are looking forward to a wide and vivid discussion of developments in bovine immunology and related issues, and we expect that our readers profoundly benefit from new exciting insights and fruitful collaborations.

Adolescent Pregnancy: Past, Present and Future Trends and Issues

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ISBN: 9783038422945 9783038422952 Year: Pages: X, 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-295-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2016-12-27 09:48:30
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This collection provides a forum for leading scholars to examine theoretical insights and empirical findings associated with the recent decline in adolescent pregnancy and childbearing internationally, with special attention given to the United States. This recent shift in the incidence of adolescent fertility is notable in its consistency and magnitude; at the same time, however, continuing historic disparities require focused attention on the contemporary meaning of early childbearing in the U.S. as well as across the globe.The widely interdisciplinary contributions focus on demographic trends in adolescent fertility; successful intervention approaches and major “lessons learned” regarding primary pregnancy prevention; identification of key theoretical issues associated with these trends, with particular focus on the existence and meaning of disparities and their implications for youth development and wellbeing.

HLA-G-mediated Immune Tolerance: Past and New Outlooks

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451197 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-119-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The non-classical HLA class I molecule HLA-G is different from classical HLA class I molecules because of the low polymorphism in the coding region, the fact that HLA-G primary transcript is alternatively spliced in seven isoforms, and the inhibitory action on immune cells. Although HLA-G is low polymorphic, variants in both promoter and 3’ un-translated region (UTR) of HLA-G locus regulate its expression. In healthy conditions, a basal level of HLA-G gene transcription is observed in most cells and tissues; however, translation into HLA-G protein is restricted to trophoblasts in the placenta, where it participates in promoting tolerance at the fetal-maternal interface. HLA-G is also expressed by thymic epitelial, cornea, mesenchymal stem cells, nail matrix, pancreatic beta cells, erythroid, and endothelial precursors. HLA-G can be neo-expressed in adult tissues in pathological conditions, and its expression has been documented autoimmune disorders, viral infections, and cancer. In the latter setting de novo HLA-G expression is associated with the capability of tumor cells to evade the immune control. In the last decade it has become evident that HLA-G expression on T cells and antigenpresenting cells confers to these cells tolerogenic properties. This Research Topic focused on i) summarizing updated clinical and immunological evidences that HLA-G expression is associate with beneficial or detrimental tolerance, ii) gathering new insights into the mechanisms governing the expression of HLA-G in healthy and pathological conditions, such as pre-eclampsia, and iii) examining the mechanisms underlying HLA-G mediated tolerance.

Genetics and epigenetics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195732 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-573-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biology --- Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Women drinking during pregnancy can result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), which may feature variable neurodevelopmental deficits, facial dysmorphology, growth retardation, and learning disabilities. Research suggests the human brain is precisely formed through an intrinsic, genetic-cellular expression that is carefully orchestrated by an epigenetic program. This program can be influenced by environmental inputs such as alcohol. Current research suggests the genetic and epigenetic elements of FASD are heavily intertwined and highly dependent on one another. As such, now is the time for investigators to combine genetic, genomic and epigenetic components of alcohol research into a centralized, accessible platform for discussion. Genetic analyses inform gene sets which may be vulnerable to alcohol exposure during early neurulation. Prenatal alcohol exposure indeed alters expression of gene subsets, including genes involved in neural specification, hematopoiesis, methylation, chromatin remodeling, histone variants, eye and heart development. Recently, quantitative genomic mapping has revealed loci (QTLs) that mediate alcohol-induced phenotypes identified between two alcohol-drinking mouse strains. One question to consider is (besides the role of dose and stage of alcohol exposure) why only 5% of drinking women deliver newborns diagnosed with FAS (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome)? Studies are ongoing to answer this question by characterizing genome-wide expression, allele-specific expression (ASE), gene polymorphisms (SNPs) and maternal genetic factors that influence alcohol vulnerability. Alcohol exposure during pregnancy, which can lead to FASD, has been used as a model to resolve the epigenetic pathway between environment and phenotype. Epigenetic mechanisms modify genetic outputs through alteration of 3D chromatin structure and accessibility of transcriptional machinery. Several laboratories have reported altered epigenetics, including DNA methylation and histone modification, in multiple models of FASD. During development DNA methylation is dynamic yet orchestrated in a precise spatiotemporal manner during neurulation and coincidental with neural differentiation. Alcohol can directly influence epigenetics through alterations of the methionine pathway and subsequent DNA or histone methylation/acetylation. Alcohol also alters noncoding RNA including miRNA and transposable elements (TEs). Evidence suggests that miRNA expression may mediate ethanol teratology, and TEs may be affected by alcohol through the alteration of DNA methylation at its regulatory region. In this manner, the epigenetic and genetic components of FASD are revealing themselves to be mechanistically intertwined. Can alcohol-induced epigenomic alterations be passed across generations? Early epidemiological studies have revealed infants with FASD-like features in the absence of maternal alcohol, where the fathers were alcoholics. Novel mechanisms for alcohol-induced phenotypes include altered sperm DNA methylation, hypomethylated paternal allele and heritable epimutations. These studies predict the heritability of alcohol-induced epigenetic abnormalities and gene functionality across generations. We opened a forum to researchers and investigators the field of FASD to discuss their insights, hypotheses, fresh data, past research, and future research themes embedded in this rising field of the genetics and epigenetics of FASD. This eBook is a product of the collective sharing and debate among researchers who have contributed or reviewed each subject.

Micronutrients Intake and Status during Pregnancy and Lactation

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038978404 9783038978411 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-841-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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Optimal nutrition is important during pregnancy and lactation for the health of both the mother and infant. Chronic deficiencies of both macronutrients and micronutrients are well established in developing countries. Although in developed countries overconsumption of macronutrients is a major issue, micronutrient deficiencies which occur concomitantly are no less of a concern. Furthermore in developed countries there is also the risk of excessive micronutrient intake from dietary supplements. Micronutrients have a role in fetal and neonatal health and also health in later life. Micronutrient deficiency or toxicity during pregnancy or early life can permanently affect developing tissues, resulting in adverse growth and development of the infant which is associated with chronic diseases in adulthood. An aberrant micronutrient intake during pregnancy or lactation can also have detrimental effect on the mother both in the neonatal period and in later life.

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