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27 Samhandling, Preparedness and Supply Chains (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch27 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:07
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"Supply-chain preparedness means to design inter-organisational structures, to organise supply-chain resources, and to plan and train to ensure efficient response if this is called for. Acknowledging that supply chains are made up of two or more organisations, and that interaction describes relations between two or more actors, the purpose of this research is to explore whether the introduction of the concept of interaction (samhandling) to supply-chain thinking adds to our understanding of efficiency and the effectiveness of logistics preparedness. We position our work along three dimensions: a profit – non-profit classification, a descriptive – normative dichotomy, and a micro – macro continuum. Information was retrieved both through semi-structured interviews and by studying secondary sources. Interaction and preparedness is assessed through an empirical case: the operation Atalanta. By applying interactional indicators, enablers and barriers to relationship success can be studied at both micro, meso, and macro levels. Without understanding the mechanisms leading to interactional competence, success (or the lack thereof) in supply-chain preparedness is difficult to address properly. Thus, managers need to assess the interactional constructs at all levels when planning and training for preparedness."

17 Samhandling and Trust in Military Leadership Structures (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 20 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch17 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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"The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the importance of trust in military samhandling. Trust serves as one of the main prerequisites for effective collaboration (Kouzes & Posner, 2003). The Norwegian Armed Forces’ (NAF) core business is the planning and execution of military operations (Forsvarsstaben, 2014). One of the main tasks of the NAF is to plan for the unexpected and, ultimately, for war. The chapter further discuss trust in military leadership, and leadership and situational awareness. Leadership as a social interaction process that builds trust is discussed, and samhandling is seen in a military context. A basic “trust-based model” of samhandling is introduced and viewed in terms of internal and external framework factors. The chapter concludes that trust is still quite an open concept, and that trust is essential for the effective accomplishment of military missions. The basic trust model is an attempt to underline understanding of the importance of trust in a military planning and leadership context."

15 Competence for the Unforeseen (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 34 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch15 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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"This study examines self-assessment of preparedness for unforeseen events and how it varies between groups and individuals according to roles and functions within an organization. The study has two objectives. The first is to analyse the relationship between general self-efficacy, perceived competence in demanding situations and social support, and based on this, to assess the efficiency of interaction (samhandling) in organizations and preparedness for the unforeseen. The second aim is to examine how these factors vary according to professional experience. A survey questionnaire was completed during winter 2016/2017. All 624 respondents were male or female employees of the Norwegian Armed Forces, based in different units, with different levels of competence, and included commissioned and non-commissioned officers, officer cadets and conscripts. The response rate was 77 percent, and a total of 810 personnel were approached. This study incorporates central concepts of individual and social resources that could permit the prediction and understanding of resilient behaviors in complex and demanding situations. Interaction was found to be the most important predictor of preparedness for the unforeseen. This study also shows that interaction combined with general self-efficacy and social support can account for a considerable proportion of the variance in preparedness for the unforeseen. The results indicate that it is possible to prepare for unforeseen events by implementing measures that improve social factors in particular."

3 Is It Possible to Prevent Unforeseen Events? (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 20 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch3 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
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"An unforeseen event may be defined as something that happens suddenly and unexpectedly. Such events are seldom the result of an organisation’s operational planning, but they can be side-effects of such planning. An unforeseen event may have either positive or negative consequences. This chapter aims to discuss if it is possible to prevent unforeseen events. The major focus is on analysis and prevention of unforeseen events with negative consequences, such as accidents, catastrophes and acts of terror. Such events often take place in complex systems, and failures of appropriate organisational interaction and communication among participants with complementary competence in such systems may contribute to unforeseen events. Risk-analysis methods and tools based on energy-barrier models, causal sequence and process models, as well as information-processing models are presented and their applicability to the prevention of unforeseen events is discussed. This also includes the Bow-tie approach, as well as other approaches which take into consideration organisational factors and social interaction (samhandling). The conclusion is that unforeseen events can be prevented. However, in the aftermath of the implementation of safety and security measures, it is not possible to know which events they prevented, or to obtain knowledge about their efficiency. An additional strategy for prevention of unforeseen events with negative consequences is proposed."

1 Samhandling Under Risk (SUR) (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 20 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch1 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
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"The main objective of this chapter is to clarify some key and overall theoretical and conceptual frameworks underlying the research project “Samhandling Under Risk” (SUR), as discussed in the various chapters of this anthology. The overall research question is: What are the basic structures of the concept of samhandling under risk and how can samhandling be created when the conditions are unpredictable? This chapter explains in particular the terms “samhandling” (SAM), “the Unforeseen” (UN), “Risk” and “SUR structures”. Furthermore, these concepts are explored more deeply in relation to each other, which also frames the main approach of the anthology. As a basis, a specific understanding of “The Nature of the Unforeseen”, an expanded and customized Bow-tie Model, as well as a clarification of the boundaries enclosing the research field are compared to traditional risk analysis and training in what is already known and in dealing with probable threats. Although the individual studies reported in this anthology also have their own specific angles regarding these concepts and models, they have nevertheless been based on these. The core focus is also on learning in the light of organizational learning and SUR. The boundaries, challenges and the anthology’s focus on learning are also expressed in the more general and overall question: How can we as a society prepare ourselves for the unforeseen, the events and threats at the outer reaches of what we have trained for? A more indepth explanation about the background of this research project is also given in the preface of the anthology."

19 Samhandling During Crisis Work (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch19 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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"Samhandling is considered as a key solution when asymmetry occurs. An expectation of seamless samhandling can be a special challenge to High Reliability Organizations which have mechanistic traditions in common, i.e. an assumption of linearity and routine-based work. In this chapter, a model to operationalize samhandling is presented. This conceptual study is based on observational data from an inter-organizational exercise. A full-scale exercise of a train accident on the Öresund Bridge between Sweden and Denmark was observed. The overall goal of the exercise was to effectively solve the situation. However, different routines contributed to confusion and misunderstandings in the meeting on how to act. The exercise was dominated by a focus on linearity within the internal organizations, which hindered samhandling. In order to conceptualize samhandling, a three-level model is presented. It consists of “sequential samhandling”, i.e. a simplified, assembly-line type work process, “parallel samhandling”, i.e. carrying out tasks simultaneously, and “synchronous samhandling”, i.e. tasks performed at the same time in a spontaneous and natural way. A three-level samhandling model such as the one presented can be a useful tool for managing disasters."

14 Samhandling Under Risk (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 17 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch14 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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"This chapter aims to examine how samhandling and concurrent learning work together. “Concurrent learning” is a form of simultaneous learning, where many learning processes related to samhandling take place at the same time. Samhandling and concurrent learning are also functional processes, in the sense that learning also occurs through daily interaction activities or actions. At the same time, concurrent learning and samhandling are interdependent and they are, therefore, in a sense part of the same process (hence concurrent learning). The chapter identifies five factors identified as important to samhandling and concurrent learning. These are: (1) Awareness of basic assumptions regarding people; relations and teamwork are essential; (2) Space, (3) Giving of themselves, (4) Making processes transparent and addressing problems as early as possible, and (5) Reflection as a key to samhandling and concurrent learning. Samhandling and concurrent learning represent a mindset, a way of working and a form of learning, which together help to meet and/ or develop the skills needed to tackle the challenges of flexible organizations."

Enhancing Security, Sustainability and Resilience in Energy, Food and Water

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ISBN: 9783039282302 9783039282319 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-231-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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This book looks at the ways that energy, food, and water help to create connections between sustainability and security. The concept of security is in our current societies increasingly connected with sustainability, which seeks to ensure that we as humans are able to live and prosper on this planet now and in the future. The concepts of energy security, food security, and water security—used separately or together—manifest the burgeoning linkages between security and sustainability. This book brings together ten scientific articles that look at different aspects of security, sustainability, and resilience with an emphasis on energy, food, and/or water in the context of Finland and Europe. Together, the articles portray a rich picture on the diverse linkages between both energy, food, and water, and between security and sustainability. In sum, the articles and related preface conclude that ensuring sustainable security—or secure sustainability—requires systemic, structured processes that link the policies and actors in these two important but still distant fields.

New Advances on Zika Virus Research

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ISBN: 9783038977643 Year: Pages: 552 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-765-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne member of the Flaviviridae family that historically has been associated with mild febrile illness. However, the recent outbreaks in Brazil in 2015 and its rapid spread throughout South and Central America and the Caribbean, together with its association with severe neurological disorders—including fetal microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults—have changed the historic perspective of ZIKV. Currently, ZIKV is considered an important public health concern that has the potential to affect millions of people worldwide. The significance of ZIKV in human health and the lack of approved vaccines and/or antiviral drugs to combat ZIKV infection have triggered a global effort to develop effective countermeasures to prevent and/or treat ZIKV infection. In this Special Issue of Viruses, we have assembled a collection of 32 research and review articles that cover the more recent advances on ZIKV molecular biology, replication and transmission, virus–host interactions, pathogenesis, epidemiology, vaccine development, antivirals, and viral diagnosis.

Keywords

Ziks virus --- silvestrol --- antiviral --- eIF4A --- hepatocytes --- flavivirus --- arbovirus --- Zika --- sexual transmission --- testis --- prostate --- Zika virus --- ZIKV --- rhesus macaques --- Non-human primates --- NHP --- infection --- natural history --- Asian-lineage --- African-lineage --- zika virus --- ZIKV–host interactions --- viral pathogenesis --- cell surface receptors --- antiviral responses --- viral counteraction --- cytopathic effects --- microcephaly --- ZIKV-associated neurologic disorders --- Zika virus --- serology --- flavivirus --- microsphere immunoassay --- validated --- optimised --- dengue virus --- ZIKV --- reporter virus --- cryptic promoter silencing --- full-length molecular clone --- subgenomic replicon --- plasmid toxicity --- Zika virus --- dengue viruses --- flavivirus --- ELISA --- indirect immunofluorescence --- plaque reduction neutralization test --- polymerase chain reaction --- cross-reactions --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- infectious cDNA --- replication --- gene expression --- neuropathogenesis --- viral genetic variation --- host genetic variation --- flavivirus --- Zika virus --- therapy --- host-directed antivirals --- Aedes aegypti --- RNA-seq --- insecticide resistance --- Zika virus --- detoxification and immune system responses --- Zika virus --- mosquito-borne flavivirus --- emerging arbovirus --- outbreak control --- molecular diagnostics --- laboratory preparedness --- assay standardization --- external quality assessment --- EQA --- QCMD --- flavivirus --- eye --- zika virus --- blood-retinal barrier --- ocular --- innate response --- Zika virus --- pregnancy --- fetal infection --- congenital Zika syndrome --- Asian lineage --- Zika virus --- Full-length cDNA infectious clones --- Bacterial artificial chromosome --- NS2A protein --- Zika virus --- neural progenitor cells --- neurons --- Zika virus --- antivirals --- therapeutics --- research models and tools --- flavivirus --- Zika virus (ZIKV) --- reverse genetics --- infectious clone --- full-length molecular clone --- bacterial artificial chromosome --- replicon --- infectious RNA --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- arbovirus --- sexual transmission --- host genetic variation --- immune response --- Zika virus --- flaviviruses --- vaccines --- virus like particles --- clinical trials --- ZIKV --- NS1 protein --- Zika virus --- diagnosis --- monoclonal antibodies --- ELISA --- zika virus --- placenta cells --- microglia cells --- siRNA --- TLR7/8 --- Zika --- viral evolution --- genetic variability --- Bayesian analyses --- Zika virus --- reverse genetics --- infectious cDNA --- Tet-inducible --- MR766 --- FSS13025 --- flavivirus --- ZIKV --- NS5 --- type I IFN antagonist --- point-of-care diagnostics --- isothermal nucleic acid amplification --- nucleic acid computation --- nucleic acid strand exchange --- zika virus --- mosquito --- mosquito surveillance --- multiplex nucleic acid detection --- boolean logic-processing nucleic acid probes --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- astrocytomas --- dsRNA --- viral fitness --- antiviral --- heme-oxygenase 1 --- Zika virus --- viral replication --- Zika virus --- antiviral compounds --- neural cells --- viral replication --- flavivirus --- Zika virus --- viral persistence --- testicular cells --- testes --- Zika virus --- prM-E proteins --- viral pathogenicity --- virus attachment --- viral replication --- viral permissiveness --- viral survival --- apoptosis --- cytopathic effects --- mutagenesis --- chimeric viruses --- human brain glial cells --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- microRNAs --- neurons --- neuroinflammation --- anti-viral immunity --- Zika virus --- dengue virus --- secondary infections --- cross-reactions --- IgA --- IgG avidity tests

Refugee, Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039216444 9783039216451 Year: Pages: 526 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-645-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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International migration, particularly to Europe, has increased in the last few decades, making research on aspects of this phenomenon, including numbers, challenges, and successes, particularly vital. This Special Issue highlights this necessary and relevant area of research. It presents 37 articles including studies on diverse topics relating to the health of refugees and migrants. Most articles (28) present studies focusing on European host countries. The focus on Europe is justified if we take into consideration the increased number of refugees and migrants who have come to Europe in recent years. However, there are also articles which present studies from countries in other continents. The topics discussed in the Issue include healthcare utilization, infectious diseases, mother and child health, mental health, and chronic diseases. Finding from the included articles indicate that further development of guidelines and policies at both local and international levels is needed. Priorities must be set by encouraging and funding in-depth research that aims to evaluate the impact of existing policies and interventions. Such research will help us formulate recommendations for the development of strategies and approaches that improve and strengthen the integration of migrants and refugees into the host countries.

Keywords

breastfeeding --- complementary feeding --- Chinese --- immigrant mothers --- infant --- obesity --- post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) --- pain --- pain perception --- understanding of illness --- culture --- family-oriented societies --- refugee and migrant women --- sexual and reproductive health --- training --- knowledge --- confidence --- health care professionals --- emergency care --- triage --- healthcare system strengthening --- migrant health --- North Korean refugees --- depression --- early trauma --- negative automatic thoughts --- path analysis --- ambulance --- economic recession --- emergency medical service --- Greece --- primary healthcare system --- refugee --- triage --- public health --- asylum seeker --- Electronic Health Insurance Card --- refugee --- Germany --- refugee health --- asylum seekers --- migrants --- infectious diseases --- vaccination --- Italy --- refugee and migrant (R&M) health --- refugee crisis --- healthcare --- European Union (EU) --- migrant health --- preparedness --- communicable diseases --- tuberculosis --- LTBI --- refugee --- asylum --- infection --- IGRA --- infectious diseases --- migrant --- asylum seekers --- psychiatric emergency services --- involuntary treatment --- psychiatric hospitalization --- migrants --- sexual health --- help-seeking behavior --- systematic review --- aggression --- emergency department --- workplace violence --- migrants --- failed asylum seekers --- psychiatric emergency services --- psychiatric hospitalisation --- acute stress --- multidimensional intercultural training acculturation model (MITA) --- intercultural competence --- traumatic events --- mental health --- Middle Eastern refugee adolescents --- migration --- health --- infection --- linkage --- care --- sexual and reproductive health --- adolescent --- refugee --- migrant --- young women --- knowledge --- access --- experiences --- systematic review --- Africa --- obesity --- immigration --- education --- inequalities --- health survey --- refugee --- adolescent --- risk factor --- protective factor --- HIV --- AIDS --- stigma --- refugees --- migrants --- economic crisis --- Greece --- migration --- National Health System --- refugee --- Southeast Europe --- immigrant --- healthcare --- HBV --- CHB --- screening --- vaccination --- refugees --- migrants --- pregnancy --- migration --- refugees --- health care provision --- reception center --- sexual violence --- migrants --- refugees --- asylum seekers --- applicants for international protection --- Europe --- prevalence --- hepatitis C --- screening --- migrants --- viral hepatitis elimination --- European Union --- North African --- immigration --- health care --- emergency department --- disparities --- VPD --- immunisation strategies --- health systems --- refugees --- migrants --- cost effectiveness --- healthcare --- migration --- refugee --- asylum seeker --- medical service --- migrant --- medical care --- doctor --- Europe --- Germany --- fruit --- vegetable --- immigrant --- Portuguese --- health --- refugees women --- HIV --- mental health --- stigma --- discrimination --- access to care --- disease prevention --- public health --- stigma --- refugees --- migrants --- MMR vaccination --- measles --- vaccine hesitancy --- autism --- Rinkeby --- Tensta --- immigrants --- Polish --- religiosity --- lifestyle behavior --- smoking --- alcohol consumption --- physical activity --- overweight --- obesity --- migrant populations --- schistosomiasis/schistosoma --- strongyloidiasis/strongyloides --- screening/diagnosis --- treatment --- public health --- GRADE --- refugee --- health --- migration --- chronic disease --- infectious disease --- n/a

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