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Magnetoresistive and Thermoresistive Scanning Probe Microscopy with Applications in Micro- and Nanotechnology

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Book Series: Schriften des Instituts für Mikrostrukturtechnik am Karlsruher Institut für Technologie / Hrsg.: Institut für Mikrostrukturtechnik ISSN: 18695183 ISBN: 9783731502531 Year: Volume: 25 Pages: XI, 164 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000042497 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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This work presents approaches to extend limits of scanning probe microscopy techniques towards more versatile instruments using integrated sensor concepts. For structural surface analysis, magnetoresistive sensing is introduced and thermoresistive sensing is applied to study nanoscale phonon transport in chain-like molecules. Investigating with these techniques the properties of shape memory polymers, a fabrication method to design application-inspired micro- and nanostructures is introduced.

Behavioral and physiological bases of attentional biases: Paradigms, participants, and stimuli

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196401 Year: Pages: 96 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-640-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:50:54
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Attentional biases (ABs) play a prominent role in the development and maintenance of clinically relevant symptoms of, for example, anxiety and depression. In particular, increased attentional orienting and preoccupation with biologically relevant and mood-congruent stimuli has been observed, suggesting that the visual-attentional system is overly sensitive towards threat cues and avoidant of cues of reward in these disorders. First, several experimental paradigms have been used to assess ABs, e.g., the dot probe task, the emotional stroop task, and the spatial cueing task amongst others. Yet, these paradigms are based on different theoretical backgrounds and target different stages of the attentional process. Thus, different paradigms provided converging as well as diverging evidence with regard to ABs. However, it is often not entirely clear to what extent this reflects real differences and commonalities, or is caused by differences in methodology. For example, behavioral reaction time data can only provide a snapshot of selective attention. Measuring event-related potentials, eye movements, or functional brain imaging data enables exploring the exact temporal and spatial dynamics of attentional processes. Moreover, neuroimaging data reveal specific cortical networks involved in directing attention toward a stimulus or disengaging from it. Second, ABs have been mainly discussed as symptoms of psychopathology, while results in healthy participants are still scarce; previous studies mostly compared extreme groups. However, a comprehensive theoretical and empirical account of ABs in psychopathology also requires a thorough account of ABs in the general healthy population. Moreover, the effect of gender, as an important contributing factor in processing of emotional stimuli, has also not been considered systematically in previous research. Third, a variety of stimuli has been used in the assessment of ABs. So far, mostly facial or word stimuli have been applied. However, in everyday life not only facial emotion recognition but also a fast evaluation of complex social situations is important to be effective in social interactions. Recent research started using more complex stimuli to raise ecological validity. However, the use of ecologically valid stimuli poses some methodological challenges and needs to be applied more systematically. The aim of this research topic is to integrate different paradigms and stimuli, addressing individuals from the whole range of the population continuum, and to apply different methodological approaches. It is intended to bring together expertise in stimulus selection, timing and implementing issues, advancing and broadening the overall understanding of ABs.

Fluorescence Probes for Sensing

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ISBN: 9783038429272 9783038429289 Year: Pages: VIII, 306 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-08 13:04:30
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The rapid progress in sensor science in recent years has resulted in the development of fluorescence probes with enhanced analytical capabilities. Because of the vast evolution of this research field, therefore, we have decided to combine all the research articles published in "Fluorescence Probes and Sensors" for a Special Issue (SI) book of Sensors which was focusing on the important role sensors play in “Fluorescent Probes and Sensors”. Fluorescence novel Probes make an ideal candidate for promising applications in biological analytes and environmental monitoring. Fluorescent probes along with metal complexes have been developed as a new class of fluorophores with excellent properties. This book illustrating the suitability of newly developed sensors for fluorescent analysis applications, as well as describing novel applications of established sensors in solving real life analytical problems.

Design and Applications of Coordinate Measuring Machines

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ISBN: 9783038422761 9783038422778 Year: Pages: XII, 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-277-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2016-11-11 18:50:12
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Coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) have been conventionally used in industry for 3-dimensional and form-error measurements of macro parts for many years. Ever since the first CMM, developed by Ferranti Co. in the late 1950s, they have been regarded as versatile measuring equipment, yet many CMMs on the market still have inherent systematic errors due to the violation of the Abbe Principle in its design. Current CMMs are only suitable for part tolerance above 10 μm. With the rapid advent of ultraprecision technology, multi-axis machining, and micro/nanotechnology over the past twenty years, new types of ultraprecision and micro/nao-CMMs are urgently needed in all aspects of society.This Special Issue accepted papers revealing novel designs and applications of CMMs, including structures, probes, miniaturization, measuring paths, accuracy enhancement, error compensation, etc. Detailed design principles in sciences, and technological applications in high-tech industries, were required for submission.Topics covered, but were not limited to, the following areas:1.New types of CMMs, such as Abbe-free, multi-axis, cylindrical, parallel, etc.2.New types of probes, such as touch-trigger, scanning, hybrid, non-contact, microscopic, etc.3.New types of Micro/nano-CMMs.4.New types of measuring path strategy, such as collision avoidance, free-form surface, aspheric surface, etc.5.New types of error compensation strategy.

Advanced Synchrotron Radiation Techniques for Nanostructured Materials

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ISBN: 9783039216802 9783039216819 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-681-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Nanostructured materials exploit physical phenomena and mechanisms that cannot be derived by simply scaling down the associated bulk structures and phenomena; furthermore, new quantum effects come into play in nanosystems. The exploitation of these emerging nanoscale interactions prompts the innovative design of nanomaterials. Understanding the behavior of materials on all length scales—from the nanostructure up to the macroscopic response—is a critical challenge for materials science. Modern analytical technologies based on synchrotron radiation (SR) allow for the non-destructive investigation of the chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of materials in any environment. SR facilities have developed revolutionary new ideas and experimental setups for characterizing nanomaterials, involving spectroscopy, diffraction, scatterings, microscopy, tomography, and all kinds of highly sophisticated combinations of such investigation techniques. This book is a collection of contributions addressing several aspects of synchrotron radiation as applied to the investigation of chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of nanostructured materials. The results reported here provide not only an interesting and multidisciplinary overview of the chemicophysical investigations of nanostructured materials carried out by state-of-the-art SR-induced techniques, but also an exciting glance into the future perspectives of nanomaterial characterization methods.

Neural Microelectrodes: Design and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039213191 9783039213207 Year: Pages: 378 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-320-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Neural electrodes enable the recording and stimulation of bioelectrical activity in the nervous system. This technology provides neuroscientists with the means to probe the functionality of neural circuitry in both health and disease. In addition, neural electrodes can deliver therapeutic stimulation for the relief of debilitating symptoms associated with neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and may serve as the basis for the restoration of sensory perception through peripheral nerve and brain regions after disease or injury. Lastly, microscale neural electrodes recording signals associated with volitional movement in paralyzed individuals can be decoded for controlling external devices and prosthetic limbs or driving the stimulation of paralyzed muscles for functional movements. In spite of the promise of neural electrodes for a range of applications, chronic performance remains a goal for long-term basic science studies, as well as clinical applications. New perspectives and opportunities from fields including tissue biomechanics, materials science, and biological mechanisms of inflammation and neurodegeneration are critical to advances in neural electrode technology. This Special Issue will address the state-of-the-art knowledge and emerging opportunities for the development and demonstration of advanced neural electrodes.

Keywords

neural interface --- silicon carbide --- robust microelectrode --- microelectrode array --- liquid crystal elastomer --- neuronal recordings --- neural interfacing --- micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies --- microelectromechanical systems --- neuroscientific research --- magnetic coupling --- freely-behaving --- microelectrodes --- in vivo electrophysiology --- neural interfaces --- enteric nervous system --- conscious recording --- electrode implantation --- intracranial electrodes --- foreign body reaction --- electrode degradation --- glial encapsulation --- electrode array --- microelectrodes --- neural recording --- silicon probe --- three-dimensional --- electroless plating --- intracortical implant --- microelectrodes --- stiffness --- immunohistochemistry --- immune response --- neural interface response --- neural interface --- micromachine --- neuroscience --- biocompatibility --- training --- education --- diversity --- bias --- BRAIN Initiative --- multi-disciplinary --- micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) --- n/a --- silicon neural probes --- LED chip --- thermoresistance --- temperature monitoring --- optogenetics --- microfluidic device --- chronic implantation --- gene modification --- neural recording --- neural amplifier --- microelectrode array --- intracortical --- sensor interface --- windowed integration sampling --- mixed-signal feedback --- multiplexing --- amorphous silicon carbide --- neural stimulation and recording --- insertion force --- microelectrodes --- neural interfaces --- intracortical --- microelectrodes --- shape-memory-polymer --- electrophysiology --- electrode --- artifact --- electrophysiology --- electrochemistry --- fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) --- neurotechnology --- neural interface --- neuromodulation --- neuroprosthetics --- brain-machine interfaces --- intracortical implant --- microelectrodes --- softening --- immunohistochemistry --- immune response --- neural interface --- shape memory polymer --- deep brain stimulation --- fast scan cyclic voltammetry --- dopamine --- glassy carbon electrode --- magnetic resonance imaging --- system-on-chip --- neuromodulation --- bidirectional --- closed-loop --- sciatic nerve --- vagus nerve --- precision medicine --- neural probe --- intracortical --- microelectrodes --- bio-inspired --- polymer nanocomposite --- cellulose nanocrystals --- photolithography --- Parylene C --- impedance --- Utah electrode arrays --- electrode–tissue interface --- peripheral nerves --- wireless --- implantable --- microstimulators --- neuromodulation --- peripheral nerve stimulation --- neural prostheses --- microelectrode --- neural interfaces --- dextran --- neural probe --- microfabrication --- foreign body reaction --- immunohistochemistry --- polymer --- chronic --- electrocorticography --- ECoG --- micro-electrocorticography --- µECoG --- neural electrode array --- neural interfaces --- electrophysiology --- brain–computer interface --- in vivo imaging --- tissue response --- graphene --- n/a

Electromagnetic Technologies for Medical Diagnostics. Fundamental Issues, Clinical Applications and Perspectives

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ISBN: 9783038976769 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-677-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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The content of this Special Issue will highlight papers exploring non-commutative Fourier harmonic analysis, spectral properties of aperiodic order, the hypoelliptic heat equation, and the relativistic heat equation in the context of Information Theory and Geometric Science of Information.

Molecular Modeling in Drug Design

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ISBN: 9783038976141 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-615-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Molecular Modeling in Drug Design that was published in Molecules

Keywords

hyperlipidemia --- squalene synthase (SQS) --- molecular modeling --- drug discovery --- Traditional Chinese Medicine --- molecular dynamics simulation --- biophenols --- natural compounds --- amyloid fibrils --- Alzheimer’s disease --- ligand–protofiber interactions --- adhesion --- FimH --- rational drug design --- molecular dynamics --- molecular docking --- ligand binding --- EphA2-ephrin A1 --- PPI inhibition --- interaction energy --- in silico screening --- adenosine --- boron cluster --- adenosine receptors --- AR ligands --- aggregation --- promiscuous mechanism --- human ecto-5?-nucleotidase --- virtual screening --- enzymatic assays --- turbidimetry --- dynamic light scattering --- docking --- solvent effect --- binding affinity --- scoring function --- molecular dynamics --- target-focused pharmacophore modeling --- density-based clustering --- structure-based drug design --- AutoGrid --- grid maps --- probe energies --- method development --- steered molecular dynamics --- all-atom molecular dynamics simulation --- resultant dipole moment --- mechanical stability --- protein-peptide interactions --- molecular dynamics --- proteins --- molecular recognition --- protein protein interactions --- artificial intelligence --- deep learning --- neural networks --- property prediction --- quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) --- quantitative structure-property prediction (QSPR) --- de novo design --- adenosine receptor --- metadynamics --- extracellular loops --- allosterism --- molecular dynamics --- cosolvent molecular dynamics --- drug design --- fragment screening --- docking

Biotechnological Applications of Phage and Phage-Derived Proteins

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ISBN: 9783039214419 9783039214426 Year: Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-442-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Phages have shown a high biotechnological potential with numerous applications. The advent of high-resolution microscopy techniques aligned with omic and molecular tools have revealed innovative phage features and enabled new processes that can be further exploited for biotechnological applications in a wide variety of fields. The high-quality original articles and reviews presented in this Special Issue demonstrate the incredible potential of phages and their derived proteins in a wide range of biotechnological applications for human benefit. Considering the emergence of amazing new available bioengineering tools and the high abundance of phages and the multitude of phage proteins yet to be discovered and studied, we believe that the upcoming years will present us with many more fascinating and new previously unimagined phage-based biotechnological applications.

Keywords

gene expression regulation --- molecular probe --- macromolecular interactions --- phage-host interaction --- bacteriophage --- endolysin --- Clostridium perfringens --- alpha-sheet --- cancerous tumors --- capsid dynamics --- drug delivery vehicles --- native gel electrophoresis --- neurodegenerative disease --- pathogenic viruses --- phage display --- landscape phage --- major coat protein --- nanomedicine --- diagnostics --- biosensors --- M13 bacteriophage --- biofilm --- porous structure --- filters --- self-assembly --- T7phage library --- sarcoidosis --- tuberculosis --- microarray --- immunoscreening --- R-type pyocin --- bacteriocin --- contractile injection systems --- Pseudomonas aeruginosa --- X-ray crystallography --- receptor-binding protein --- Shigella flexneri --- bacteriophage --- tailspike proteins --- O-antigen --- serotyping --- microtiter plate assay --- fluorescence sensor --- bacteriophages --- encapsulation --- niosomes --- transfersomes --- liposomes --- Staphylococcus aureus --- phage --- Enterococcus faecalis --- Streptococcus agalactiae --- culture enrichment --- bacteriophage --- diagnostics --- Listeria monocytogenes --- endolysin --- magnetic separation --- reporter phage --- endolysin --- Pal --- Cpl-1 --- safety --- toxicity --- immune response --- Streptococcus pneumoniae --- self-assembly --- nanotubular structures --- tail sheath protein --- bacteriophage vB_EcoM_FV3 --- Appelmans --- bacteriophage evolution --- bacteriophage recombination --- phage therapy --- Pseudomonas aeruginosa --- antibiotic resistance --- bacteriophages --- Myoviridae --- bacteriophage-derived lytic enzyme --- enzybiotics --- endolysin --- in vitro activity --- ESKAPE --- n/a

MEMS Accelerometers

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038974147 9783038974154 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-415-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) devices are widely used for inertia, pressure, and ultrasound sensing applications. Research on integrated MEMS technology has undergone extensive development driven by the requirements of a compact footprint, low cost, and increased functionality. Accelerometers are among the most widely used sensors implemented in MEMS technology. MEMS accelerometers are showing a growing presence in almost all industries ranging from automotive to medical. A traditional MEMS accelerometer employs a proof mass suspended to springs, which displaces in response to an external acceleration. A single proof mass can be used for one- or multi-axis sensing. A variety of transduction mechanisms have been used to detect the displacement. They include capacitive, piezoelectric, thermal, tunneling, and optical mechanisms. Capacitive accelerometers are widely used due to their DC measurement interface, thermal stability, reliability, and low cost. However, they are sensitive to electromagnetic field interferences and have poor performance for high-end applications (e.g., precise attitude control for the satellite). Over the past three decades, steady progress has been made in the area of optical accelerometers for high-performance and high-sensitivity applications but several challenges are still to be tackled by researchers and engineers to fully realize opto-mechanical accelerometers, such as chip-scale integration, scaling, low bandwidth, etc.

Keywords

low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) --- capacitive accelerometer --- wireless --- process optimization --- performance characterization --- MEMS accelerometer --- mismatch of parasitic capacitance --- electrostatic stiffness --- high acceleration sensor --- piezoresistive effect --- MEMS --- micro machining --- turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate --- probe --- microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) piezoresistive sensor chip --- Taguchi method --- marine environmental monitoring --- accelerometer --- frequency --- acceleration --- heat convection --- motion analysis --- auto-encoder --- dance classification --- deep learning --- self-coaching --- wavelet packet --- classification of horse gaits --- MEMS sensors --- gait analysis --- rehabilitation assessment --- body sensor network --- MEMS accelerometer --- electromechanical delta-sigma --- built-in self-test --- in situ self-testing --- digital resonator --- accelerometer --- activity monitoring --- regularity of activity --- sleep time duration detection --- indoor positioning --- WiFi-RSSI radio map --- MEMS-IMU accelerometer --- zero-velocity update --- step detection --- stride length estimation --- field emission --- hybrid integrated --- vacuum microelectronic --- cathode tips array --- interface ASIC --- micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) --- delaying mechanism --- safety and arming system --- accelerometer --- multi-axis sensing --- capacitive transduction --- inertial sensors --- three-axis accelerometer --- micromachining --- miniaturization --- stereo visual-inertial odometry --- fault tolerant --- hostile environment --- MEMS-IMU --- mode splitting --- Kerr noise --- angular-rate sensing --- whispering-gallery-mode --- optical microresonator --- three-axis acceleration sensor --- MEMS technology --- sensitivity --- L-shaped beam --- n/a

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