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Building the gateway to consciousness - about the development of the thalamus

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194704 Year: Pages: 107 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-470-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Since years, patterning and function of some brain parts such as the cortex in the forebrain and the optical tectum or cerebellum in the midbrain/hindbrain region are under strong investigation. Interestingly the diencephalon located in the caudal forebrain has been ignored for decades. Consequently, the existing knowledge from the development of this region to function in the mature brain is very fragmented. The central part of the diencephalon is the thalamus. This central relay station plays a crucial role in distributing incoming sensory information to appropriate regions of the cortex. The thalamus develops in the posterior part of the embryonic forebrain, where early cell fate decisions are controlled by local signaling centers. In this Research Topic we discuss recent achievements elucidating thalamic neurogenesis - from neural progenitor cells to highly specialized neurons with cortical target cells in great distance. In parallel, we highlight developmental aspects leading from the early thalamic anlage to the late the organization of the complex relay station of the brain.

Stem cells and progenitor cells in ischemic stroke - fashion or future?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197248 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-724-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Stroke remains one of the most devastating diseases in industrialized countries. Recanalization of the occluded arterial vessel using thrombolysis is the only causal therapy available. However, thrombolysis is limited due to severe side effects and a limited time window. As such, only a minority of patients receives this kind of therapy, showing a need for new and innovative treatment strategies. Although neuroprotective drugs have been shown to be beneficial in a variety of experimental stroke models, they ultimately failed in clinical trials. Consequently, recent scientific focus has been put on modulation of post-ischemic neuroregeneration, either via stimulation of endogenous neurogenesis or via application of exogenous stem cells or progenitor cells. Neurogenesis persists within the adult brain of both rodents and primates. As such, neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are found within distinct niches like the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. Cerebral ischemia stimulates these astrocyte-like progenitor cells, upon which NPCs proliferate and migrate towards the site of lesion. There, NPCs partly differentiate into mature neurons, without significantly being integrated into the residing neural network. Rather, the majority of new-born cells dies within the first weeks post-stroke, leaving post-ischemic neurogenesis a phenomenon of unknown biological significance. Since NPCs do not replace lost brain tissue, beneficial effects observed in some studies after either stimulated or protected neurogenesis are generally contributed to indirect effects of these new-born cells. The precise identification of appropriated cellular mediators, however, is still elusive. How do these mediators work? Are they soluble factors or maybe even vesicular structures emanating from NPCs? What are the cues that guide NPCs towards the ischemic lesion site? How can post-ischemic neurogenesis be stimulated? How can the poor survival of NPCs be increased? In order to support post-ischemic neurogenesis, a variety of research groups have focused on application of exogenous stem/progenitor cells from various tissue sources. Among these, cultivated NPCs from the SVZ and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from the bone marrow are frequently administered after induction of stroke. Although neuroprotection after delivery of stem/progenitor cells has been shown in various experimental stroke models, transplanted cells are usually not integrated in the neural network. Again, the vast amount of grafted cells dies or does not reach its target despite profound neuroprotection, also suggesting indirect paracrine effects as the cause of neuroprotection. Yet, the factors being responsible for these observations are under debate and still have to be addressed. Is there any “optimal” cell type for transplantation? How can the resistance of grafted cells against a non-favorable extracellular milieu be increased? What are the molecules that are vital for interaction between grafted cells and endogenous NPCs? The present research topic seeks to answer - at least in part - some of the aforementioned questions. Although the research topic predominantly focuses on experimental studies (and reviews alike), a current outlook towards clinical relevance is given as well.

Muscle-Tendon-Innervation Unit: Degeneration and Aging - Pathophysiological and Regeneration Mechanisms

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451036 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-103-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Aging is characterized by progressive deterioration of walking ability. This function loss has multiple causes including central and peripheral nerve dysfunction, loss of muscle mass and strength, as well as joints and bone alterations. Muscle-tendon unit and its innervation has a pivotal role in motor function performance that can be disrupted by overuse degeneration and aging. Research has shown that overuse degeneration and aging also share some pathophysiological mechanisms including mitochondrial dysfunction, increased apoptosis, abnormal modulation of autophagy, decline in satellite cells, increased generation of reactive oxygen species, and modification of signalling and stress response pathways. This Research Topic is intended to bring together basic researchers and clinicians working in the area of neuroscience, aging, sarcopenia and orthopaedics in human and in animal models. The aim of this cross-fertilization is to accelerate our understanding of the mechanisms involved in aging and degeneration of the muscle-tendon unit and its innervation and to explore the therapeutic potential of pharmacological and physical therapy interventions.

The Vascular Niche in Tissue Repair: A Therapeutic Target for Regeneration

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454105 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-410-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology --- Biology --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Tissues and organs have, although sometimes limited, the capacity for endogenous repair, which is aimed to re-establish integrity and homeostasis. Tissue repair involves pro- and anti-inflammatory processes, new tissue formation and remodelling. Depending on the local microenvironment, tissue repair results either in scar tissue formation or in regeneration. The latter aims to recapitulate the original tissue structure and architecture with the proper functionality. Although some organisms (such as planarians) have a high regenerative capacity throughout the body, in humans this property is more restricted to a few organs and tissues. Regeneration in the adult is possible in particular through the existence of tissue-resident pools of stem/progenitor cells. In response to tissue damage, these cells are activated, they proliferate and migrate, and differentiate into mature cells. Angiogenesis and neovascularization play a crucial role in tissue repair. Besides providing with oxygen and nutrients, angiogenesis generates a vascular niche (VN) consisting of different blood-derived elements and endothelial cells surrounded by basement membrane as well as perivascular cells. The newly generated VN communicates with the local stem/progenitor cells and contributes to tissue repair. For example, platelets, macrophages, neutrophils, perivascular cells and other VN components actively participate in the repair of skin, bone, muscle, tendon, brain, spinal cord, etc. Despite these observations, the exact role of the VN in tissue repair and the underlying mechanisms are still unclear and are awaiting further evidence that, indeed, will be required for the development of regenerative therapies for the treatment of traumatic injuries as well as degenerative diseases.

Research of Pathogenesis and Novel Therapeutics in Arthritis

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ISBN: 9783038970651 / 9783038970668 Year: Pages: 366 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-066-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Arthritis has a high prevalence globally and includes over 100 different types, the most common of which are rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and inflammatory arthritis. The exact etiology of arthritis remains unclear and no cure exists. Anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used in the treatment of arthritis but are associated with significant side effects. Novel modes of therapy and additional prognostic biomarkers are urgently needed for arthritis patients. This book summarizes and discusses the global picture of the current understanding of arthritis.

Keywords

biosimilars --- Th9 lymphocytes --- rheumatoid arthritis --- infliximab --- rheumatoid arthritis --- bone erosion --- osteoblasts --- next-generation sequencing --- bioinformatics --- microRNA --- messenger RNA --- osteoarthritis --- cell signaling --- IL1? --- WNT --- antagonists --- computational modeling --- nitric oxide --- clodronate --- gene expression --- osteoarthritis --- progenitor cells --- SOX9 --- spondyloarthropathies --- inflammation --- mesenchymal stem cells --- visfatin --- IL-6 --- TNF-? --- osteoarthritis --- miR-199a-5p --- Epstein-Barr virus --- glycoprotein 42 --- rheumatoid arthritis --- shared epitope --- triptolide --- rheumatoid arthritis --- basic research --- clinical translation --- osteoarthritis (OA) --- articular cartilage --- molecular pathology --- therapeutics --- rheumatoid arthritis --- antibodies --- collagen --- glycosylation --- disease pathways --- therapy --- experimental arthritis --- TNF? --- etanercept --- infliximab --- adalimumab --- certolizumab pegol --- golimumab --- rheumatoid arthritis --- therapeutic antibody --- structure --- fraxinellone --- collagen-induced arthritis --- rheumatoid arthritis --- inflammatory arthritis --- osteoclastogenesis --- sclareol --- rheumatoid arthritis --- synovial cell --- collagen --- mice --- cytokines --- Th17 --- MAPK --- arthritis --- osteoarthritis --- rheumatoid arthritis --- small-molecule inhibitor --- chondrocytes --- tumor necrosis factor-alpha --- inflammation --- rheumatoid arthritis --- osteoarthritis --- angiogenesis --- cytokines --- chemokines --- early osteoarthritis --- articular cartilage --- proliferation --- fibroblast growth factor 2 --- mitogen activated protein kinase --- transforming growth factor ? --- SMA- and MAD-related protein --- interleukin --- nuclear factor kappa B --- miRNA --- adjuvant arthritis --- arthritis --- biomarkers --- celastrol --- inflammation --- microRNA --- miRNA --- rat --- rheumatoid arthritis --- Traditional Chinese medicine --- tripterine --- triterpenoid --- spinal fusion --- biological --- osteoblast --- osteoclast --- bisphosphonate --- parathyroid hormone --- bone morphogenetic protein --- receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B --- stem cell --- drug delivery system --- anticitrullinated peptide antibodies --- antirheumatic drug --- autoimmune --- disease-modifying --- immunology --- pathology --- rheumatoid factor --- rheumatoid arthritis --- osteoarthritis --- adipokines --- obesity --- rheumatoid arthritis --- osteoarthritis --- anti-arthritis --- biomarkers

New Advances on Zika Virus Research

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ISBN: 9783038977643 Year: Pages: 552 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-765-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne member of the Flaviviridae family that historically has been associated with mild febrile illness. However, the recent outbreaks in Brazil in 2015 and its rapid spread throughout South and Central America and the Caribbean, together with its association with severe neurological disorders—including fetal microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults—have changed the historic perspective of ZIKV. Currently, ZIKV is considered an important public health concern that has the potential to affect millions of people worldwide. The significance of ZIKV in human health and the lack of approved vaccines and/or antiviral drugs to combat ZIKV infection have triggered a global effort to develop effective countermeasures to prevent and/or treat ZIKV infection. In this Special Issue of Viruses, we have assembled a collection of 32 research and review articles that cover the more recent advances on ZIKV molecular biology, replication and transmission, virus–host interactions, pathogenesis, epidemiology, vaccine development, antivirals, and viral diagnosis.

Keywords

Ziks virus --- silvestrol --- antiviral --- eIF4A --- hepatocytes --- flavivirus --- arbovirus --- Zika --- sexual transmission --- testis --- prostate --- Zika virus --- ZIKV --- rhesus macaques --- Non-human primates --- NHP --- infection --- natural history --- Asian-lineage --- African-lineage --- zika virus --- ZIKV–host interactions --- viral pathogenesis --- cell surface receptors --- antiviral responses --- viral counteraction --- cytopathic effects --- microcephaly --- ZIKV-associated neurologic disorders --- Zika virus --- serology --- flavivirus --- microsphere immunoassay --- validated --- optimised --- dengue virus --- ZIKV --- reporter virus --- cryptic promoter silencing --- full-length molecular clone --- subgenomic replicon --- plasmid toxicity --- Zika virus --- dengue viruses --- flavivirus --- ELISA --- indirect immunofluorescence --- plaque reduction neutralization test --- polymerase chain reaction --- cross-reactions --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- infectious cDNA --- replication --- gene expression --- neuropathogenesis --- viral genetic variation --- host genetic variation --- flavivirus --- Zika virus --- therapy --- host-directed antivirals --- Aedes aegypti --- RNA-seq --- insecticide resistance --- Zika virus --- detoxification and immune system responses --- Zika virus --- mosquito-borne flavivirus --- emerging arbovirus --- outbreak control --- molecular diagnostics --- laboratory preparedness --- assay standardization --- external quality assessment --- EQA --- QCMD --- flavivirus --- eye --- zika virus --- blood-retinal barrier --- ocular --- innate response --- Zika virus --- pregnancy --- fetal infection --- congenital Zika syndrome --- Asian lineage --- Zika virus --- Full-length cDNA infectious clones --- Bacterial artificial chromosome --- NS2A protein --- Zika virus --- neural progenitor cells --- neurons --- Zika virus --- antivirals --- therapeutics --- research models and tools --- flavivirus --- Zika virus (ZIKV) --- reverse genetics --- infectious clone --- full-length molecular clone --- bacterial artificial chromosome --- replicon --- infectious RNA --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- arbovirus --- sexual transmission --- host genetic variation --- immune response --- Zika virus --- flaviviruses --- vaccines --- virus like particles --- clinical trials --- ZIKV --- NS1 protein --- Zika virus --- diagnosis --- monoclonal antibodies --- ELISA --- zika virus --- placenta cells --- microglia cells --- siRNA --- TLR7/8 --- Zika --- viral evolution --- genetic variability --- Bayesian analyses --- Zika virus --- reverse genetics --- infectious cDNA --- Tet-inducible --- MR766 --- FSS13025 --- flavivirus --- ZIKV --- NS5 --- type I IFN antagonist --- point-of-care diagnostics --- isothermal nucleic acid amplification --- nucleic acid computation --- nucleic acid strand exchange --- zika virus --- mosquito --- mosquito surveillance --- multiplex nucleic acid detection --- boolean logic-processing nucleic acid probes --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- astrocytomas --- dsRNA --- viral fitness --- antiviral --- heme-oxygenase 1 --- Zika virus --- viral replication --- Zika virus --- antiviral compounds --- neural cells --- viral replication --- flavivirus --- Zika virus --- viral persistence --- testicular cells --- testes --- Zika virus --- prM-E proteins --- viral pathogenicity --- virus attachment --- viral replication --- viral permissiveness --- viral survival --- apoptosis --- cytopathic effects --- mutagenesis --- chimeric viruses --- human brain glial cells --- Zika virus --- flavivirus --- microRNAs --- neurons --- neuroinflammation --- anti-viral immunity --- Zika virus --- dengue virus --- secondary infections --- cross-reactions --- IgA --- IgG avidity tests

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